Speech Differences And Stutter Series-Disabled Legend Washington Irving

Washington Irving was born on 3 April, 1783 and died on 28 November, 1859. Washington Irving was an American author, essayist, biographer and historian of the early 19th century. Washington Irving was best known for his short stories “The Legend of Sleepy Hollow” and “Rip Van Winkle”, both of which appear in his book The Sketch Book of Geoffrey Crayon, Gent. Washington Irving’s historical works include biographies of George Washington, Oliver Goldsmith and Muhammad, and several histories of 15th-century Spain dealing with subjects such as Christopher Columbus, the Moors, and the Alhambra. Washington Irving also served as the U.S. minister to Spain from 1842 to 1846.

Washington Irving made his literary debut in 1802 with a series of observational letters to the Morning Chronicle, written under the pseudonym Jonathan Oldstyle. After moving to England for the family business in 1815, he achieved international fame with the publication of The Sketch Book of Geoffrey Crayon, Gent. in 1819. Washington Irving continued to publish regularly—and almost always successfully—throughout his life, and completed a 5-volume biography of George Washington just 8months before his death, at age 76, in Tarrytown, New York.

Washington Irving, along with James Fenimore Cooper, was the 1st American writer to earn acclaim in Europe, and Washington Irving encouraged American authors such as Nathaniel Hawthorne, Herman Melville, Henry Wadsworth Longfellow, and Edgar Allan Poe. Washington Irving was also admired by some European writers, including Sir Walter Scott, Lord Byron, Thomas Campbell, Francis Jeffrey, and Charles Dickens. As America’s 1st genuine internationally best-selling author, Washington Irving advocated for writing as a legitimate profession, and argued for stronger laws to protect American writers from copyright infringement.

Washington Irving’s parents were William Irving, Sr., originally of Shapinsay, Orkney, and Sarah (née Sanders), Scottish-English immigrants. They married in 1761 while William was serving as a petty officer in the British Navy. They had 11 children, 8 of which survived to adulthood. Their 1st 2 sons, each named William, died in infancy, as did their 4th child, John. Their surviving children were: William, Jr. (1766), Ann (1770), Peter (1772), Catherine (1774), Ebenezer (1776), John Treat (1778), Sarah (1780), and Washington.

The Irving family was settled in Manhattan, New York City as part of the city’s small vibrant merchant class when Washington Irving was born on April 3, 1783, the same week city residents learned of the British ceasefire that ended the American Revolution. Consequently, Washington Irving’s mother named him after the hero of the revolution, George Washington. At age 6, with the help of a nanny, Washington Irving met his namesake, who was then living in New York after his inauguration as president in 1789. The president blessed young Washington Irving, an encounter Washington Irving later commemorated in a small watercolor painting, which still hangs in his home today. Several of Washington Irving’s older brothers became active New York merchants, and they encouraged their younger brother’s literary aspirations, often supporting him financially as he pursued his writing career.

A disinterested student, Washington Irving preferred adventure stories and drama and, by age 14, was regularly sneaking out of class in the evenings to attend the theater. The 1798 outbreak of yellow fever in Manhattan prompted his family to send him to healthier climes upriver, and Washington Irving was dispatched to stay with his friend James Kirke Paulding in Tarrytown, New York. It was in Tarrytown that Washington Irving became familiar with the nearby town of Sleepy Hollow, with its quaint Dutch customs and local ghost stories. Washington Irving made several other trips up the Hudson as a teenager, including an extended visit to Johnstown, New York, where he passed through the Catskill mountain region, the setting for “Rip Van Winkle”. ” of all the scenery of the Hudson”, Wshington Irving wrote later, “the Kaatskill Mountains had the most witching effect on my boyish imagination”.

The 19 year old Wshington Irving began writing letters to The Morning Chronicle in 1802, submitting commentaries on New York’s social and theater scene under the name of Jonathan Oldstyle. The name, which purposely evoked the writer’s Federalist leanings, was the 1st of many pseudonyms Washington Irving would employ throughout his career. The letters brought Wshington Irving some early fame and moderate notoriety. Aaron Burr, a co-publisher of the Chronicle, was impressed enough to send clippings of the Oldstyle pieces to his daughter, Theodosia, while writer Charles Brockden Brown made a trip to New York to recruit Oldstyle for a literary magazine he was editing in Philadelphia.

Concerned for his health, Washington Irving’s brothers financed an extended tour of Europe from 1804 to 1806. Washington Irving bypassed most of the sites and locations considered essential for the development of an upwardly-mobile young man, to the dismay of his brother William. William wrote that, though he was pleased his brother’s health was improving, he did not like the choice to “gallop through Italy… leaving Florence on your left and Venice on your right”. Instead, Washington Irving honed the social and conversational skills that would later make him one of the world’s most in-demand guests. “I endeavor to take things as they come with cheerfulness”, Washington Irving wrote, “and when I cannot get a dinner to suit my taste, I endeavor to get a taste to suit my dinner”. While visiting Rome in 1805, Washington Irving struck up a friendship with the American painter Washington Allston, and nearly allowed himself to be persuaded into following Washington Allston into a career as a painter. “My lot in life, however”, Washington Irving said later, “was differently cast”.

A younger Washington Irving returned from Europe to study law with his legal mentor, Judge Josiah Ogden Hoffman, in New York City. By his own admission, he was not a good student, and barely passed the bar in 1806. Washington Irving began actively socialising with a group of literate young men he dubbed “The Lads of Kilkenny”. Collaborating with his brother William and fellow Lad James Kirke Paulding, Washington Irving created the literary magazine Salmagundi in January 1807. Writing under various pseudonyms, such as William Wizard and Launcelot Langstaff, Washington Irving lampooned New York culture and politics in a manner similar to today’s Mad magazine. Salmagundi was a moderate success, spreading Washington Irving’s name and reputation beyond New York. In its 17th issue, dated 11 November, 1807, Washington Irving affixed the nickname “Gotham”—an Anglo-Saxon word meaning “Goat’s Town”—to New York City.

In late 1809, while mourning the death of his 17 year old fiancée Matilda Hoffman, Washington Irving completed work on his 1st major book, A History of New-York from the Beginning of the World to the End of the Dutch Dynasty, by Diedrich Knickerbocker(1809), a satire on self-important local history and contemporary politics. Prior to its publication, Washington Irving started a hoax akin to today’s viral marketing campaigns; he placed a series of missing person adverts in New York newspapers seeking information on Diedrich Knickerbocker, a crusty Dutch historian who had allegedly gone missing from his hotel in New York City. As part of the ruse, Washington Irving placed a notice—allegedly from the hotel’s proprietor—informing readers that if Mr. Knickerbocker failed to return to the hotel to pay his bill, he would publish a manuscript Knickerbocker had left behind.

Unsuspecting readers followed the story of Knickerbocker and his manuscript with interest, and some New York city officials were concerned enough about the missing historian that they considered offering a reward for his safe return. Riding the wave of public interest he had created with his hoax, Washington Irving—adopting the pseudonym of his Dutch historian—published A History of New York on 6 December, 1809, to immediate critical and popular success. “It took with the public”, Washington Irving remarked, “and gave me celebrity, as an original work was something remarkable and uncommon in America”. Today, the surname of Diedrich Knickerbocker, the fictional narrator of this and other Washington Irving works, has become a nickname for Manhattan residents in general.

After the success of A History of New York, Washington Irving searched for a job and eventually became an editor of Analectic magazine, where he wrote biographies of naval heroes like James Lawrence and Oliver Perry. Washington Irving was also among the 1st magazine editors to reprint Francis Scott Key’s poem “Defense of Fort McHenry”, which would later be immortalized as “The Star-Spangled Banner”, the national anthem of the United States.

Like many merchants and New Yorkers, Washington Irving originally opposed the War of 1812, but the British attack on Washington, D.C. in 1814 convinced him to enlist. Washington Irving served on the staff of Daniel Tompkins, governor of New York and commander of the New York State Militia. Apart from a reconnaissance mission in the Great Lakes region, he saw no real action. The war was disastrous for many American merchants, including Washington Irving’s family, and in mid-1815 he left for England to attempt to salvage the family trading company. Washington Irving remained in Europe for the next 17 years.

Washington Irving spent the next 2 years trying to bail out the family firm financially but was eventually forced to declare bankruptcy. With no job prospects, Washington Irving continued writing throughout 1817 and 1818. In the summer of 1817, he visited the home of novelist Walter Scott, marking the beginning of a lifelong personal and professional friendship for both men. Washington Irving continued writing prolifically—the short story “Rip Van Winkle” was written overnight while staying with his sister Sarah and her husband, Henry van Wart in Birmingham, England, a place that also inspired some of his other works. In October 1818, Washington Irving’s brother William secured for Washington Irving a post as chief clerk to the United States Navy, and urged him to return home. Washington Irving, however, turned the offer down, opting to stay in England to pursue a writing career.

In the spring of 1819, Washington Irving sent to his brother Ebenezer in New York a set of essays that he asked be published as The Sketch Book of Geoffrey Crayon, Gent. The 1st installment, containing “Rip Van Winkle”, was an enormous success, and the rest of the work, published in 7 installments in the United States and England throughout 1819 and 1820 (“The Legend of Sleepy Hollow” would appear in the 6th issue), would be equally as successful.

Like many successful authors of this era, Washington Irving struggled against literary bootleggers. While in England, his sketches were published in book form by British publishers without his permission, an entirely legal practice as there were no clear international copyright laws. Seeking an English publisher to protect his copyright, Washington Irving appealed to Walter Scott for help. Walter Scott referred Washington Irving to his own publisher, London powerhouse John Murray, who agreed to take on The Sketch Book. From then on, Washington Irving would publish concurrently in the United States and England to protect his copyright, with John Murray being his English publisher of choice.

Washington Irving’s reputation soared, and for the next 2 years, he led an active social life in Paris and England, where he was often feted as an anomaly of literature: an upstart American who dared to write English well.

With bothb Washington Irving and publisher John Murray eager to follow up on the success of The Sketch Book, Washington Irving spent much of 1821 travelling in Europe in search of new material, reading widely in Dutch and German folk tales. Hampered by writer’s block—and depressed by the death of his brother William—Irving worked slowly, finally delivering a completed manuscript to John Murray in March 1822. The book, Bracebridge Hall, or The Humorists, A Medley (the location was based loosely on Aston Hall, occupied by members of the Bracebridge family, near his sister’s home in Birmingham) was published in June 1822.

The format of Bracebridge was similar to that of The Sketch Book, with Washington Irving, as Crayon, narrating a series of more than 50 loosely connected short stories and essays. While some reviewers thought Bracebridge to be a lesser imitation of The Sketch Book, the book was well-received by readers and critics. “We have received so much pleasure from this book,” wrote critic Francis Jeffrey in the Edinburgh Review, “that we think ourselves bound in gratitude . . . to make a public acknowledgement of it.” Washington Irving was relieved at its reception, which did much to cement his reputation with European readers.

Still struggling with writer’s block, Washington Irving traveled to Germany, settling in Dresden in the winter of 1822. Here he dazzled the royal family and attached himself to Mrs. Amelia Foster, an American living in Dresden with her 5 children. Washington Irving was particularly attracted to Mrs. Foster’s 18-year-old daughter Emily, and vied in frustration for her hand. Emily finally refused his offer of marriage in the spring of 1823.

Washington Irving returned to Paris and began collaborating with playwright John Howard Payne on translations of French plays for the English stage, with little success. Washington Irving also learned through Payne that the novelist Mary Wollstonecraft Shelley was romantically interested in him, though Washington Irving never pursued the relationship.

In August 1824, Washington Irving published the collection of essays Tales of a Traveller—including the short story “The Devil and Tom Walker”—under his Geoffrey Crayon persona. “I think there are in it some of the best things I have ever written,” Washington Irving told his sister. But while the book sold respectably, Traveller largely bombed with critics, who panned both Traveller and its author. “The public have been led to expect better things,” wrote the United States Literary Gazette, while the New-York Mirror pronounced Washington Irving “overrated.” Hurt and depressed by the book’s reception, Washington Irving retreated to Paris where he spent the next year worrying about finances and scribbling down ideas for projects that never materialised.

While in Paris, Washington Irving received a letter from Alexander Hill Everett on 30January, 1826. Alexander Hill Everett, recently the American Minister to Spain, urged Washington Irving to join him in Madrid, noting that a number of manuscripts dealing with the Spanish conquest of the Americas had recently been made public. Washington Irving left for Madrid and enthusiastically began scouring the Spanish archives for colourful material.

The palace Alhambra, where Washington Irving briefly resided in 1829, inspired one of his most colourful books. With full access to the American consul’s massive library of Spanish history, Washington Irving began working on several books at once. The 1st offspring of this hard work, The Life and Voyages of Christopher Columbus, was published in January 1828. The book was popular in the United States and in Europe and would have 175 editions published before the end of the century. It was also the 1st project of Washington Irving’s to be published with his own name, instead of a pseudonym, on the title page. The Chronicles of the Conquest of Granada was published a year later, followed by Voyages and Discoveries of the Companions of Columbus in 1831.

Washington Irving’s writings on Columbus are a mixture of history and fiction, a genre now called romantic history. Washington Irving based them on extensive research in the Spanish archives, but also added imaginative elements aimed at sharpening the story. The 1st of these works is the source of the durable myth that medieval Europeans believed the Earth was flat.

In 1829, Washington Irving moved into Granada’s ancient palace Alhambra, “determined to linger here”, he said, “until I get some writings under way connected with the place”. Before he could get any significant writing underway, however, he was notified of his appointment as Secretary to the American Legation in London. Worried he would disappoint friends and family if he refused the position, Washington Irving left Spain for England in July 1829.

Arriving in London, Washington Irving joined the staff of American Minister Louis McLane. Louis McLane immediately assigned the daily secretary work to another man and tapped Washington Irving to fill the role of aide-de-camp. The 2 worked over the next year to negotiate a trade agreement between the United States and the British West Indies, finally reaching a deal in August 1830. That same year, Washington Irving was awarded a medal by the Royal Society of Literature, followed by an honourary doctorate of civil law from Oxford in 1831.

Following Louis McLane’s recall to the United States in 1831 to serve as Secretary of Treasury, Washington Irving stayed on as the legation’s chargé d’affaires until the arrival of Martin Van Buren, President Jackson’s nominee for British Minister. With Van Buren in place, Washington Irving resigned his post to concentrate on writing, eventually completing Tales of the Alhambra, which would be published concurrently in the United States and England in 1832.

Washington Irving was still in London when Van Buren received word that the United States Senate had refused to confirm him as the new Minister. Consoling Van Buren, Washington Irving predicted that the Senate’s partisan move would backfire. “I should not be surprised”, Washington Irving said, “if this vote of the Senate goes far toward elevating him to the presidential chair”.

Washington Irving arrived in New York, after 17 years abroad on 21 May, 1832. That September, he accompanied the U.S. Commissioner on Indian Affairs, Henry Ellsworth, along with companions Charles La Trobe and Count Albert-Alexandre de Pourtales, on a surveying mission deep in Indian Territory. At the completion of his western tour, Washington Irving traveled through Washington, D.C. and Baltimore, where he became acquainted with the politician and novelist John Pendleton Kennedy.

Frustrated by bad investments, Washington Irving turned to writing to generate additional income, beginning with A Tour on the Prairies, a work which related his recent travels on the frontier. The book was another popular success and also the 1st book written and published by Washington Irving in the United States since A History of New York in 1809. In 1834, he was approached by fur magnate John Jacob Astor, who convinced Washington Irving to write a history of his fur trading colony in the American Northwest, now known as Astoria, Oregon. Washington Irving made quick work of Astor’s project, shipping the fawning biographical account titled Astoria in February 1836.

During an extended stay at Astor’s, Washington Irving met the explorer Benjamin Bonneville, who intrigued Washington Irving with his maps and stories of the territories beyond the Rocky Mountains. When the 2 met in Washington, D.C. several months later, Bonneville opted to sell his maps and rough notes to Washington Irving for $1,000. Washington Irving used these materials as the basis for his 1837 book The Adventures of Captain Bonneville.

These 3 works made up Washington Irving’s “western” series of books and were written partly as a response to criticism that his time in England and Spain had made him more European than American. In the minds of some critics, especially James Fenimore Cooper and Philip Freneau, Washington Irving had turned his back on his American heritage in favour of English aristocracy. Washington Irving’s western books, particularly A Tour on the Prairies, were well-received in the United States, though British critics accused Washington Irving of “book-making”.

In 1835, Washington Irving purchased a “neglected cottage” and its surrounding riverfront property in Tarrytown, New York. The house, which Washington Irving named Sunnyside in 1841, would require constant repair and renovation over the next 20 years. With costs of Sunnyside escalating, Washington Irving reluctantly agreed in 1839 to become a regular contributor to Knickerbocker magazine, writing new essays and short stories under the Knickerbocker and Crayon pseudonyms.

Washington Irving was regularly approached by aspiring young authors for advice or endorsement, including Edgar Allan Poe, who sought Washington Irving’s comments “on William Wilson” and “The Fall of the House of Usher”. Washington Irving also championed America’s maturing literature, advocating for stronger copyright laws to protect writers from the kind of piracy that had initially plagued The Sketch Book. Writing in the January 1840 issue of Knickerbocker, he openly endorsed copyright legislation pending in the U.S. Congress. “We have a young literature”, Washington Irving wrote, “springing up and daily unfolding itself with wonderful energy and luxuriance, which… deserves all its fostering care”. The legislation did not pass.

Washington Irving at this time also began a friendly correspondence with the English writer Charles Dickens, and hosted the author and his wife at Sunnyside during Dickens’s American tour in 1842.

In 1842, after an endorsement from Secretary of State Daniel Webster, President John Tyler appointed Washington Irving as Minister to Spain. Washington Irving was surprised and honoured, writing, “It will be a severe trial to absent myself for a time from my dear little Sunnyside, but I shall return to it better enabled to carry it on comfortably”.

While Washington Irving hoped his position as Minister would allow him plenty of time to write, Spain was in a state of perpetual political upheaval during most of his tenure, with a number of warring factions vying for control of the 12-year-old Queen Isabella II. Washington Irving maintained good relations with the various generals and politicians, as control of Spain rotated through Espartero, Bravo, then Narvaez. However, the politics and warfare were exhausting, and Washington Irving—homesick and suffering from a crippling skin condition—grew quickly disheartened:

“I am wearied and at times heartsick of the wretched politics of this country. . . . The last 10 or 12 years of my life, passed among sordid speculators in the United States, and political adventurers in Spain, has shewn me so much of the dark side of human nature, that I begin to have painful doubts of my fellow man; and look back with regret to the confiding period of my literary career, when, poor as a rat, but rich in dreams, I beheld the world through the medium of my imagination and was apt to believe men as good as I wished them to be.”

With the political situation in Spain relatively settled, Washington Irving continued to closely monitor the development of the new government and the fate of Isabella. Washington Irving’s official duties as Spanish Minister also involved negotiating American trade interests with Cuba and following the Spanish parliament’s debates over slave trade. Washington Irving was also pressed into service by the American Minister to the Court of St. James’s in London, Louis McLane, to assist in negotiating the Anglo-American disagreement over the Oregon border that newly-elected president James K. Polk had vowed to resolve.

Returning from Spain in 1846, Washington Irving took up permanent residence at Sunnyside and began work on an “Author’s Revised Edition” of his works for publisher George Palmer Putnam. For its publication, Washington Irving had made a deal that guaranteed him 12% of the retail price of all copies sold. Such an agreement was unprecedented at that time. On the death of John Jacob Astor in 1848, Washington Irving was hired as an executor of Astor’s estate and appointed, by Astor’s will, as 1st chairman of the Astor library, a forerunner to the New York Public Library.

As he revised his older works for Putnam, Washington Irving continued to write regularly, publishing biographies of the writer and poet Oliver Goldsmith in 1849 and the prophet Muhammad in 1850. In 1855, he produced Wolfert’s Roost, a collection of stories and essays he had originally written for Knickerbocker and other publications, and began publishing at intervals a biography of his namesake, George Washington, a work which he expected to be his masterpiece. 5 volumes of the biography were published between 1855 and 1859. Washington Irving traveled regularly to Mount Vernon and Washington, D.C. for his research, and struck up friendships with Presidents Millard Fillmore and Franklin Pierce.

Washington Irving continued to socialise and keep up with his correspondence well into his 70s, and his fame and popularity continued to soar. “I don’t believe that any man, in any country, has ever had a more affectionate admiration for him than that given to you in America”, wrote Senator William C. Preston in a letter to Washington Irving. “I believe that we have had but one man who is so much in the popular heart”.

On the evening of 28 November, 1859, only 8 months after completing the final volume of his Washington biography, Washington Irving died of a heart attack in his bedroom at Sunnyside at the age of 76. Legend has it that his last words were: “Well, I must arrange my pillows for another night. When will this end?” Washington Irving was buried under a simple headstone at Sleepy Hollow cemetery on 1 December, 1859.

Washington Irving and his grave were commemorated by Henry Wadsworth Longfellow in his 1876 poem, “In The Churchyard at Tarrytown”, which concludes with:

How sweet a life was his; how sweet a death!
Living, to wing with mirth the weary hours,
Or with romantic tales the heart to cheer;
Dying, to leave a memory like the breath
Of summers full of sunshine and of showers,
A grief and gladness in the atmosphere.

Washington Irving is largely credited as the 1st American Man of Letters, and the 1st to earn his living solely by his pen. Eulogizing Washington Irving before the Massachusetts Historical Society in December 1859, his friend, the poet Henry Wadsworth Longfellow, acknowledged Washington Irving’s role in promoting American literature: “We feel a just pride in his renown as an author, not forgetting that, to his other claims upon our gratitude, he adds also that of having been the 1st to win for our country an honourable name and position in the History of Letters”.

Washington Irving perfected the American short story, and was the 1st American writer to place his stories firmly in the United States, even as he poached from German or Dutch folklore. Washington Irving is also generally credited as one of the first to write both in the vernacular, and without an obligation to the moral or didactic in his short stories, writing stories simply to entertain rather to enlighten.

Some critics, however—including Edgar Allan Poe—felt that while Washington Irving should be given credit for being an innovator, the writing itself was often unsophisticated. “Irving is much over-rated”, Poe wrote in 1838, ” and a nice distinction might be drawn between his just and his surreptitious and adventitious reputation—between what is due to the pioneer solely, and what to the writer”.

Other critics were inclined to be more forgiving of Washington Irving’s style. Henry Makepeace Thakeray was the 1st to refer to Washington Irving as the “ambassador whom the New World of Letters sent to the Old”, a banner picked up by writers and critics throughout the 19th and 20th centuries. “He is the first of the American humorists, as he is almost the first of the American writers”, wrote critic H.R. Hawless in 1881, “yet belonging to the New World, there is a quaint Old World flavour about him”.

Early critics often had difficulty separating Washington Irving the man from Irving the writer—”The life of Washington Irving was one of the brightest ever led by an author”, wrote Richard Henry Stoddard, an early Washington Irving biographer—but as years passed and Washington Irving’s celebrity personality faded into the background, critics often began to review his writings as all style, no substance. “The man had no message”, said critic Barrett Wendell. Yet, critics conceded that despite Washington Irving’s lack of sophisticated themes—Irving biographer Stanley T. Williams could be scathing in his assessment of Washington Irving’s work—most agreed he wrote elegantly.

Washington Irving popularised the nickname “Gotham” for New York City, later used in Batman comics and movies, and is credited with inventing the expression “the almighty dollar”.

The surname of his Dutch historian, Diedrich Knickerbocker, is generally associated with New York and New Yorkers, and can still be seen across the jerseys of New York’s professional basketball team, albeit in its more familiar, abbreviated form, reading simply Knicks.

One of Washington Irving’s most lasting contributions to American culture is in the way Americans perceive and celebrate Christmas. In his 1812 revisions to A History of New York, Washington Irving inserted a dream sequence featuring St. Nicholas soaring over treetops in a flying wagon—a creation others would later dress up as Santa Claus. Later, in his 5 Christmas stories in The Sketch Book, Washington Irving portrayed an idealised celebration of old-fashioned Christmas customs at a quaint English manor, which directly contributed to the revival and reinterpretation of the Christmas holiday in the United States. Charles Dickens later credited Washington Irving as a strong influence on his own Christmas writings, including the classic A Christmas Carol. The Community Area of Irving Park in Chicago was named in Washington Irving’s honour.

The Irving Trust Corporation (now the Bank of New York Mellon Corporation) was named after him. Since there was not yet a federal currency in 1851, each bank issued its own paper and those institutions with the most appealing names found their certificates more widely accepted. Washington Irving’s portrait appeared on the bank’s notes and contributed to their wide appeal.

Washington Irving’s home, Sunnyside, is still standing, just south of the Tappan Zee Bridge in Tarrytown, New York. The original house and the surrounding property were once owned by 18th-century colonialist Wolfert Acker, about whom Washington Irving wrote his sketch Wolfert’s Roost (the name of the house). The house is now owned and operated as a historic site by Historic Hudson Valley and is open to the public for tours. A memorial to him stands near the entrance to Sunnyside in the village of Irvington, which renamed itself in his memory, and visitors to Christ Episcopal Church in nearby Tarrytown, where he served as a vestryman in the last years of his life, can see his pew. Washington Irving’s name is also frequently mentioned in Joseph Heller’s novel Catch-22 in which his name is signed on papers.

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Speech Differences And Stutter Series-Disabled Legend Adrian Peterson

Adrian Lewis Peterson was born on 21 March, 1985 in Palestine, Texas. Nicknamed “A.D.” (for “All Day”) or “Purple Jesus”, is a professional American football running back for the Minnesota Vikings of the National Football League (NFL). Adrian Peterson played college football as a running back for 3 years at the University of Oklahoma. At Oklahoma, Adrian Peterson set the NCAA freshman rushing record with 1,925 yards (as a true freshman). Adrian Peterson was a 1st team All-American, and he also set a freshman record by finishing as the runner-up in the Heisman Trophy balloting. Adrian Peterson finished as the school’s 3rd all-time leading rusher.

Adrian Peterson was selected by the Minnesota Vikings with the 7th overall pick in the 1st round of the 2007 NFL Draft. Coming into the league, he was known as a tall, upright runner possessing a rare combination of speed, strength, agility, size, and vision, along with a highly aggressive running style. Adrian Peterson’s rare talent as both a great breakaway and power runner has often raised comparisons to past legends, including Eric Dickerson, O.J. Simpson, Walter Payton, Gale Sayers, and Jim Brown. As a rookie in the NFL, he broke numerous franchise and league records for rushing yardage, the foremost being the NFL single-game rushing record when he ran for 296 yards on 30 carries on 4 November, 2007, against the San Diego Chargers. Following his stellar 1st pro season, Adrian Peterson was a near-unanimous choice as the NFL Offensive Rookie of the Year. In the 2008 NFL Pro Bowl, Adrian Peterson rushed for 129 yards and 2 touchdowns, achieving the 2nd highest rushing total in Pro Bowl history. Adrian Peterson was awarded the MVP award for his performance in the Pro Bowl, which led to a 42-30 victory over the AFC.

Adrian Peterson has 1 daughter, Adeja. Adrian Peterson currently resides in Eden Prairie, Minnesota, a suburb of Minneapolis, Minnesota, with his brothers, Eldon, and Derrick Peterson.

Adrian Peterson was interested in football as a child as he began playing at the age of 7 and participated in the popular Pop Warner Football programme. Adrian Peterson continued his interest in athletics into high school where he competed in track and field, basketball, and football at Palestine High School. Adrian Peterson was most notable in football where he played during his junior and senior years. Adrian Peterson finished his 2002 campaign as a junior with 2,051 yards on 246 carries, an average of 8.3 yards per carry, and 22 touchdowns. As a senior in 2003, he rushed for 2,960 yards on 252 attempts, an average of 11.7 yards per carry, and 32 touchdowns. Concluding his high school football career at the annual U.S. Army All-American Bowl, he led the West squad with 95 yards on 9 carries and scoring 2 touchdowns and announced at the game he would attend college at Oklahoma. Among his other choices of schools were the University of Southern California, University of Texas at Austin, Texas A&M University, University of California, Los Angeles, University of Arkansas, and University of Miami. Following the season, he was awarded the Hall Trophy as the Ball Park National High School Player of the Year. In addition, he was named the top high school player by College Football News and Rivals.com.

During his freshman season, Adrian Peterson broke many NCAA freshman rushing records, rushing for 1925 yards and leading the nation in carries with 339. Adrian Peterson was a finalist for the Heisman Trophy, finishing 2nd to USC quarterback Matt Leinart, which was the highest finish ever for a freshman. Adrian Peterson was also a finalist for the Doak Walker Award. Among other honours include being the 1st Oklahoma freshman recognised as a 1st-Team Associated Press All-American. Adrian Peterson contributed to an undefeated season for the Oklahoma Sooners and participated in the 2005 BCS National Championship Game with a berth to the FedEx Orange Bowl.

Adrian Peterson’s playing time in 2005 was limited by a high ankle sprain. Adrian Peterson injured his ankle in the 1st Big 12 Conference game of the season against Kansas State University. Despite missing time in 4 games, he rushed for 1,208 yards and 14 touchdowns on 220 carries, finishing 2nd in Big 12 rushing yardage. Adrian Peterson’s 2005 season was also notable for a career-long 84 yard touchdown run against Oklahoma State University. Upon the conclusion of the season, he was named a member of the All-Big 12 Conference team.

Nelson Peterson was released from prison during the 2006 college football season and was able to watch his son as a spectator for the 1st time on 14 October, 2006 when Oklahoma played Iowa State University. Oklahoma defeated Iowa State in that game, but Adrian Peterson broke his collar bone falling into the end zone to end a 53 yard touchdown run. During a press conference on 18 October, Adrian Peterson said he was told by doctors to expect to be out for 4 to 6 weeks. At the time of the injury, Adrian Peterson needed only 150 yards to gain to pass Billy Sims as the University of Oklahoma’s all-time leading rusher. Adrian Peterson was unable to return for the rest of the Sooners regular season, but returned for the Sooners’ last game against Boise State in the 2007 Fiesta Bowl, where he rushed for 77 yards and a touchdown. Adrian Peterson refused to discuss his plans beyond the end of this season with the press. Adrian Peterson concluded his college football career with 1,112 rushing yards his final season, even after missing multiple games due to injury for a total of 4,045 rushing yards (only 3 season). Adrian Peterson was 73 yards short of passing Billy Sims as Oklahoma’s all-time leading rusher.

Awards And Honours

Hall Trophy (2003)
First-team AP All-Freshman (2004)
First-team AP All-American (2004)
Doak Walker Award finalist (2004)
Heisman Trophy finalist (2004)

On 15 January, 2007, Adrian Peterson declared that he would forego his senior year of college and enter the 2007 NFL Draft. Concerns about his injuries suffered during college were noted by the media and potential NFL teams. Adrian Peterson started 22 out of 31 games in his college career and missed games due to a dislocated shoulder his 1st year, a high ankle sprain his sophomore year, and a broken collarbone his final year at Oklahoma. Adrian Peterson’s durability was a consideration by at least 2 teams in their draft analysis, which impacted selection position. Prior to the 2007NFL Draft, Adrian Peterson was compared by professional football scouts to Eric Dickerson. ESPN NFL Draft analyst Mel Kiper, Jr. said of Peterson, “You can make the argument,[Peterson]is the best player in this draft, if not, certainly 1 of the top 3.”

On 28 April, 2007, Adrian Peterson was selected by the Minnesota Vikings with the 7th overall pick in the 1st round of the 2007 NFL Draft. Adrian Peterson was the 1st running back selected in that year’s draft. At a press conference during the draft, Adrian Peterson announced, “My collarbone, I would say it’s 90% healed. A lot of teams know that, and I don’t see it stopping me from being prepared for the season.”

After being drafted by the Vikings, there was speculation that Adrian Peterson would require surgery to fully heal the collarbone injury he suffered during college, but it was soon learned that was not the case.

Adrian Peterson believes he is a player that a franchise can build around. In an interview with IGN following the NFL Draft, he said, “I’m a player who is coming in with the determination to turn a team around. I want to help my team get to the playoffs, win…and run wild. I want to bring people to the stands. I want people to come to the game to see what I can do next. Things like that can change the whole attitude of an organisation. I want to win.” Adrian Peterson later told the Star Tribune in an interview, “I want to be the best player to ever play this game.”

Nearly 3 months after being drafted, he was signed by the Vikings on 29 July, 2007. Adrian Peterson’s contract is worth US$40.5,000,000 over 5 years, with $17,000,000 guaranteed.

Adrian Peterson’s outstanding rookie season began with high expectations from Adrian Peterson himself; he announced ambitious goals including being named Offensive Rookie of the Year, rushing for 1,800 yards during the course of the year, and breaking the league’s rookie rushing record just as he broke the freshman rushing record during his 1st season at Oklahoma. The NFL’s rushing record for a rookie is currently held by Eric Dickerson at 1,808 yards. Just 11 weeks into his rookie season with the Vikings, Adrian Peterson was well on his way to Eric Dickerson’s record and considered one of the elite running backs in the NFL.

On 10 August, Adrian Peterson made his Minnesota Vikings debut in a preseason game against the St. Louis Rams. Adrian Peterson ran for 33 yards on 11 carries with 1 catch for 2 yards. On 9 September, 2007, Adrian Peterson ran for 103 yards on 19carries in his 1st NFL regular season game against the Atlanta Falcons. In addition to his rushing yardage, he scored his 1st professional football touchdown on a 60 yard pass reception. Over his 1st 3 regular season games, his 431 yards (271 rushing & 160 receiving) from scrimmage are a team record. For his performance during the 3 games, Adrian Peterson received the NFL Offensive Rookie of the Month award for both September and October 2007.

Adrian Peterson’s breakout game as a professional came on 14 October, 2007 against the Chicago Bears, highlighted by a 3 touchdown performance and a then franchise record of 224 yards rushing on 20 carries. Adrian Peterson established additional team records for a rookie during this game, which included the most 100-yard games rushing and the longest touchdown run from scrimmage. Adrian Peterson also set an NFL rookie record with 361 all-purpose yards in a single game. Adrian Peterson’s 607 rushing yards through the 1st 5 games of the season is 2nd in NFL history to Eric Dickerson. Following Adrian Peterson’s record performance, Deion Sanders, now an NFL Network analyst said the following about Adrian Peterson: “He has the vision of a Marshall Faulk, the power of an Earl Campbell, and the speed of an Eric Dickerson. Let’s pray he has the endurance of an Emmitt Smith.” Adrian Peterson has also been compared to Walter Payton and Tony Dorsett by Star Tribune sports journalist Jim Souhan.

3 weeks later on 4 November, 2007, Adrian Peterson broke his own franchise record as well as the NFL single game rushing yard record previously held by Jamal Lewis since 2003 when he rushed for 296 yards on 30 carries and 3 touchdowns against the San Diego Chargers. That game was his 2nd game of over 200 yards rushing, a feat no other rookie has ever accomplished in a season. In addition to the NFL rushing record in a single game, it took him past 1,000 yards rushing for the year after just 8 games. Adrian Peterson’s 1,036 rushing yards represents the best 8-game performance by a rookie in NFL history.

On 11 November, 2007, just a week after his record-breaking performance against the Chargers, Adrian Peterson injured the lateral collateral ligament in his right knee in a game against the Green Bay Packers. The injury occurred in the 3rd quarter of a 34-0 defeat at Lambeau Field on a low, yet clean tackle by Packers cornerback Al Harris. Almost a month after the injury, Adrian Peterson returned to action on 2 December, 2007 against the Detroit Lions scoring 2 touchdowns and rushing for 116 yards. On 17 December Adrian Peterson played in his 1st Monday Night Football game where he had 78 yards rushing, 17 yards receiving and 2 TDs. The next day Adrian Peterson was named as the starting running back for the 2008 NFC Pro Bowl team. On 2 January, he was named The Associated Press NFL Offensive Rookie of the Year.

On 10 February, 2008, Adrian Peterson won the 2008 NFL Pro Bowl MVP award with 16 carries for 129 yards rushing along with 2 touchdowns. The 129 yards rushing was the 2nd most in Pro Bowl history. Adrian Peterson was the 1st rookie since Marshall Faulk in 1995 to win the Pro Bowl MVP award.

Adrian Peterson finished in 2nd place in rushing yards (1341)in the 2007 season behind LaDainian Tomlinson, who finished with (1474) rushing yards.

Adrian Peterson and the Vikings entered the 2008 season with high expectations and as he did during his rookie season, Adrian Peterson set high goals for himself including a 2000-yard campaign and the NFL MVP award. Questions remained as to Adrian Peterson’s durability and the ability of the Vikings offense to take the focus of opposing defenses off of Adrian Peterson. In the 1st game of the season against the Packers, Adrian Peterson ran for 103 yards on 19 carries and a TD, including 1 reception for 11 yards. In week 2 against the Colts, Adrian Peterson had 29 carries for 160 yards and 4 receptions for 20 yards. Against Carolina in week 3 Adrian Peterson ran for 77 yards on 17 carries. In week 4 Adrianh Peterson ran the ball 18 times for 80 yards and 2 TDs against the Titans. Adrian Peterson also had 4 catches 21 yards. Against New Orleans he ran for a dismal 32 yards on 21 yards and 9 yards on a catch. Week 6 against Detroit Adrian ran for 111 yards on 25 carries and 1catch for -5 yards, but he had 2 vital fumbles that almost lost them the game. Adrian Peterson currently ranks 3rd in the NFL in rushing and 6th in yards from scrimmage.

Records

Most 200-yard rushing games for a rookie (2)
Most yards rushing in the first eight games (1,036)
Most yards rushing in a single game (296)

Awards

2008 NFL Pro Bowl MVP
2007 NFL AP Offensive Rookie of the Year
2007 Diet Pepsi NFL Rookie of the Year
Two 2007 Player of the Month awards
2008 Best Breakthrough Athlete ESPY Award

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Speech Differences And Stutter Series-Disabled Legend Alan Turing

Alan Mathison Turing, OBE, FRS (pronounced /ˈt(j)ʊ(ə)rɪŋ/)was born on 23 June 1912 and died On 8 June 1954, his cleaner found him dead; the previous day, he had died of cyanide poisoning, apparently from a cyanide-laced apple he left half-eaten beside his bed. The apple itself was never tested for contamination with cyanide, but a post-mortem established that the cause of death was cyanide poisoning. Most believe that his death was intentional, and the death was ruled a suicide. Alan Turing’s mother, however, strenuously argued that the ingestion was accidental due to his careless storage of laboratory chemicals. Biographer Andrew Hodges suggests that Alan Turing may have killed himself in this ambiguous way quite deliberately, to give his mother some plausible deniability. Others suggest that Alan Turing was re-enacting a scene from ‘Snow White’, his favourite fairy tale. Because Alan Turing’s homosexuality would have been perceived as a security risk, the possibility of assassination has also been suggested. Alan Turing’s remains were cremated at Woking crematorium on 12 June 1954.

Alan Turing was an English mathematician, logician and cryptographer.

Alan Turing is often considered to be the father of modern computer science. Alan Turing provided an influential formalisation of the concept of the algorithm and computation with the Turing machine. With the Turing test, meanwhile, he made a significant and characteristically provocative contribution to the debate regarding artificial intelligence: whether it will ever be possible to say that a machine is conscious and can think. Alan Turing later worked at the National Physical Laboratory, creating 1 of the 1st designs for a stored-program computer, the ACE, although it was never actually built in its full form. In 1948, he moved to the University of Manchester to work on the Manchester Mark I, then emerging as one of the world’s earliest true computers.

During the Second World War Turing worked at Bletchley Park, the UK’s codebreaking centre, and was for a time head of Hut 8, the section responsible for German naval cryptanalysis. Alan Turing devised a number of techniques for breaking German ciphers, including the method of the bombe, an electromechanical machine that could find settings for the Enigma machine.

Alan Turing was homosexual, living in an era when homosexuality was still both illegal and officially considered a mental illness. Subsequent to his being outed, he was criminally prosecuted, which essentially ended his career. Alan Turing died not long after, under what some believe were ambiguous circumstances.

Alan Turing was conceived in Chhatrapur, Orissa, India. Alan Turing’s father, Julius Mathison Turing, was a member of the Indian Civil Service. Julius and wife Sara 1881 – 1976, daughter of Edward Waller Stoney, chief engineer of the Madras Railways wanted Alan Turing to be brought up in England, so they returned to Maida Vale, London, where Alan Turing was born 23 June 1912, as recorded by a blue plaque on the outside of the building, now the Colonnade Hotel. Alan Turing had an elder brother, John. Alan Turing’s father’s civil service commission was still active, and during Alan Turing’s childhood years his parents travelled between Guildford, England and India, leaving their 2 sons to stay with friends in Hastings in England. Very early in life, Alan Turing showed signs of the genius he was to display more prominently later.

Alan Turing’s parents enrolled him at St Michael’s, a day school, at the age of 6. The headmistress recognised his genius early on, as did many of his subsequent educators. In 1926, at the age of 14, he went on to Sherborne School, a famous and expensive public school in Dorset. Alan Turing’s 1st day of term coincided with the General Strike in England, but so determined was he to attend his 1st day that he rode his bicycle unaccompanied more than 60 miles (97 km) from Southampton to school, stopping overnight at an inn.

Alan Turing’s natural inclination toward mathematics and science did not earn him respect with some of the teachers at Sherborne, whose definition of education placed more emphasis on the classics. Alan Turing’s headmaster wrote to his parents: “I hope he will not fall between 2 schools. If he is to stay at public school, he must aim at becoming educated. If he is to be solely a Scientific Specialist, he is wasting his time at a public school”.

Despite this, Alan Turing continued to show remarkable ability in the studies he loved, solving advanced problems in 1927 without having even studied elementary calculus. In 1928, aged 16, Alan Turing encountered Albert Einstein’s work; not only did he grasp it, but he extrapolated Albert Einstein’s questioning of Sir Isaac Newton’s laws of motion from a text in which this was never made explicit.

Alan Turing’s hopes and ambitions at school were raised by the close friendship he developed with a slightly older fellow student, Christopher Morcom, who was Alan Turing’s 1st love interest. Christopher Morcom died suddenly only a few weeks into their last term at Sherborne, from complications of bovine tuberculosis, contracted after drinking infected cow’s milk as a boy. Alan Turing’s religious faith was shattered and he became an atheist. Alan Turing adopted the conviction that all phenomena, including the workings of the human brain, must be materialistic.

Alan Turing’s unwillingness to work as hard on his classical studies as on science and mathematics meant he failed to win a scholarship to Trinity College, Cambridge, and went on to the college of his 2nd choice, King’s College, Cambridge. Alan Turing was an undergraduate there from 1931 to 1934, graduating with a distinguished degree, and in 1935 was elected a fellow at King’s on the strength of a dissertation on the central limit theorem.

In his momentous paper “On Computable Numbers, with an Application to the Entscheidungsproblem”(submitted on 28 May 1936), Alan Turing reformulated Kurt Gödel’s 1931 results on the limits of proof and computation, replacing Kurt Gödel’s universal arithmetic-based formal language with what are now called Turing machines, formal and simple devices. Alan Turing proved that some such machine would be capable of performing any conceivable mathematical problem if it were representable as an algorithm, even if no actual Turing machine would be likely to have practical applications, being much slower than practically realisable alternatives.

Turing machines are to this day the central object of study in theory of computation. Alan Turing went on to prove that there was no solution to the Entscheidungs problem by 1st showing that the halting problem for Turing machines is undecidable: it is not possible to decide, in general, algorithmically whether a given Turing machine will ever halt. While his proof was published subsequent to Alonzo Church’s equivalent proof in respect to his lambda calculus, Alan Turing’s work is considerably more accessible and intuitive. It was also novel in its notion of a ‘Universal (Turing) Machine’, the idea that such a machine could perform the tasks of any other machine. The paper also introduces the notion of definable numbers.

Most of 1937 and 1938 he spent at Princeton University, studying under Alonzo Church. In 1938 he obtained his Ph.D. from Princeton; his dissertation introduced the notion of relative computing where Turing machines are augmented with so-called oracles, allowing a study of problems that cannot be solved by a Turing machine.

Back in Cambridge in 1939, he attended lectures by Ludwig Wittgenstein about the foundations of mathematics. The 2 argued and disagreed, with Alan Turing defending formalism and Ludwig Wittgenstein arguing that mathematics does not discover any absolute truths but rather invents them.

During the Second World War, Alan Turing was a main participant in the efforts at Bletchley Park to break German ciphers. Building on cryptanalysis work carried out in Poland by Marian Rejewski, Jerzy Różycki and Henryk Zygalski from Cipher Bureau before the war, he contributed several insights into breaking both the Enigma machine and the Lorenz SZ 40/42 (a Teletype cipher attachment codenamed “Tunny” by the British), and was, for a time, head of Hut 8, the section responsible for reading German naval signals.

Since September 1938, Alan Turing had been working part-time for the Government Code and Cypher School (GCCS), the British code breaking organisation. Alan Turing worked on the problem of the German Enigma machine, and collaborated with Dilly Knox, a senior GCCS codebreaker. On 4 September 1939, the day after the UK declared war on Germany, Alan Turing reported to Bletchley Park, the wartime station of GCCS.

Within weeks of arriving at Bletchley Park, Alan Turing had designed an electromechanical machine which could help break Enigma faster than bomba from 1932, the bombe, named after and building upon the original Polish-designed bomba. The bombe, with an enhancement suggested by mathematician Gordon Welchman, became one of the primary tools, and the major automated one, used to attack Enigma-protected message traffic.

Professor Jack Good, cryptanalyst working at the time with Alan Turing at Bletchley Park, later said: “Turing’s most important contribution, I think, was of part of the design of the bombe, the cryptanalytic machine. He had the idea that you could use, in effect, a theorem in logic which sounds to the untrained ear rather absurd; namely that from a contradiction, you can deduce everything.”

The bomb searched for possibly correct settings used for an Enigma message (i.e., rotor order, rotor settings, etc.), and used a suitable “crib”: a fragment of probable plaintext. For each possible setting of the rotors (which had of the order of 1019 states, or 1022 for the U-boat Enigmas which eventually had 4 rotors, compared to the usual Enigma variant’s 3), the bomb performed a chain of logical deductions based on the crib, implemented electrically. The bomb detected when a contradiction had occurred, and ruled out that setting, moving onto the next. Most of the possible settings would cause contradictions and be discarded, leaving only a few to be investigated in detail. Alan Turing’s bomb was 1st installed on 18 March 1940. Over 200 bombs were in operation by the end of the war.

In December 1940, Alan Turing solved the naval Enigma indicator system, which was more mathematically complex than the indicator systems used by the other services. Alan Turing also invented a Bayesian statistical technique termed “Banburismus” to assist in breaking Naval Enigma. Banburismus could rule out certain orders of the Enigma rotors, reducing time needed to test settings on the bombs.

In the spring of 1941, Alan Turing proposed marriage to Hut 8 co-worker Joan Clarke, although the engagement was broken off by mutual agreement in the summer.

In July 1942, Alan Turing devised a technique termed Turingismus or Turingery for use against the Lorenz cipher used in the Germans’ new Geheimschreiber machine (“secret writer”) which was one of those codenamed “Fish”. Alan Turing also introduced the Fish team to Tommy Flowers who under the guidance of Max Newman, went on to build the Colossus computer, the world’s 1st programmable digital electronic computer, which replaced simpler prior machines (including the “Heath Robinson”) and whose superior speed allowed the brute-force decryption techniques to be applied usefully to the daily-changing cyphers. A frequent misconception is that Alan Turing was a key figure in the design of Colossus; this was not the case.

Alan Turing travelled to the United States in November 1942 and worked with U.S. Navy cryptanalysts on Naval Enigma and bombe construction in Washington, and assisted at Bell Labs with the development of secure speech devices. Alan Turing returned to Bletchley Park in March 1943. During his absence, Hugh Alexander had officially assumed the position of head of Hut 8, although Hugh Alexander had been de facto head for some time — Alan Turing having little interest in the day-to-day running of the section. Alan Turing became a general consultant for cryptanalysis at Bletchley Park.

In the latter part of the war, while teaching himself electronics at the same time, and assisted by engineer Donald Bayley, Alan Turing undertook the design of a portable machine codenamed Delilah to allow secure voice communications. It was intended for different applications, lacking capability for use with long-distance radio transmissions, and in any case, Delilah was completed too late to be used during the war. Though Alan Turing demonstrated it to officials by encrypting/decrypting a recording of a Winston Churchill speech, Delilah was not adopted for use.

In 1945, Alan Turing was awarded the OBE for his wartime services, but his work remained secret for many years. A biography published by the Royal Society shortly after his death recorded:

“3 remarkable papers written just before the war, on 3 diverse mathematical subjects, show the quality of the work that might have been produced if he had settled down to work on some big problem at that critical time. For his work at the Foreign Office he was awarded the OBE.”

From 1945 to 1947 he was at the National Physical Laboratory, where he worked on the design of the ACE (Automatic Computing Engine). Alan Turing presented a paper on 19 February 1946, which was the 1st detailed design of a stored-program computer. Although ACE was a feasible design, the secrecy surrounding the wartime work at Bletchley Park led to delays in starting the project and he became disillusioned. In late 1947 he returned to Cambridge for a sabbatical year. While he was at Cambridge, the Pilot ACE was built in his absence. It executed its 1st program on 10 May 1950.

In 1948 he was appointed Reader in the Mathematics Department at Manchester and in 1949 became deputy director of the computing laboratory at the University of Manchester, and worked on software for one of the earliest true computers — the Manchester Mark I. During this time he continued to do more abstract work, and in “Computing machinery and intelligence” (Mind, October 1950), Alan Turing addressed the problem of artificial intelligence, and proposed an experiment now known as the Turing test, an attempt to define a standard for a machine to be called “intelligent”. The idea was that a computer could be said to “think” if it could fool an interrogator into thinking that the conversation was with a human.

In 1948, Alan Turing, working with his former undergraduate colleague, D.G. Champernowne, began writing a chess program for a computer that did not yet exist. In 1952, lacking a computer powerful enough to execute the program, Alan Turing played a game in which he simulated the computer, taking about half an hour per move. The game was recorded; the program lost to Alan Turing’s colleague Alick Glennie, although it is said that it won a game against Champernowne’s wife.

Alan Turing worked from 1952 until his death in 1954 on mathematical biology, specifically morphogenesis. Alan Turing published one paper on the subject called “The Chemical Basis of Morphogenesis” in 1952, putting forth the Turing hypothesis of pattern formation. Alan Turing’s central interest in the field was understanding Fibonacci phyllotaxis, the existence of Fibonacci numbers in plant structures. Alan Turing used reaction-diffusion equations which are now central to the field of pattern formation. Later papers went unpublished until 1992 when Collected Works of A.M. Turing was published.

Homosexuality was illegal in the United Kingdom and regarded as a mental illness and subject to criminal sanctions. In 1952, Arnold Murray, a 19-year-old recent acquaintance of Alan Turing’s, helped an accomplice to break into Alan Turing’s house, and Alan Turing reported the crime to the police. As a result of the police investigation, Alan Turing acknowledged a sexual relationship with Arnold Murray, and a crime having been identified and settled, Alan Turing and Arnold Murray were charged with gross indecency under Section 11 of the Criminal Law Amendment Act of 1885. Alan Turing was unrepentant and was convicted of the same crime Oscar Wilde had been convicted of more than 50 years before.

Alan Turing was given a choice between imprisonment and probation, conditional on his undergoing hormonal treatment designed to reduce libido. Alan Turing accepted the estrogen hormone injections, which lasted for a year, to avoid jail. Side effects included gynecomastia (breast enlargement). Alan Turing’s conviction led to a removal of his security clearance and prevented him from continuing consultancy for GCHQ on cryptographic matters. At the time, there was acute public anxiety about spies and homosexual entrapment by Soviet agents, possibly due to the recent exposure of the Cambridge 5 as KGB double agents. ( Alan Turing was never accused of espionage.)

Since 1966, the Turing Award has been given annually by the Association for Computing Machinery to a person for technical contributions to the computing community. It is widely considered to be the computing world’s equivalent to the Nobel Prize.

Various tributes to Alan Turing have been made in Manchester, the city where he worked towards the end of his life. In 1994 a stretch of the A6010 road (the Manchester city intermediate ring road) was named Alan Turing Way. A bridge carrying this road was widened, and carries the name ‘Alan Turing Bridge’.

A statue of Alan Turing was unveiled in Manchester on 23 June 2001. It is in Sackville Park, between the University of Manchester building on Whitworth Street and the Canal Street ‘gay village’. A celebration of Alan Turing’s life and achievements arranged by the British Logic Colloquium and the British Society for the History of Mathematics was held on 5 June 2004 at the University of Manchester; the Alan Turing Institute was initiated in the university that summer. The building housing the School of Mathematics, the Photon Sciences Institute and the Jodrell Bank Centre for Astrophysics is named the Alan Turing Building and was opened in July 2007.

On 23 June 1998, on what would have been Alan Turing’s 86th birthday, Andrew Hodges, his biographer, unveiled an official English Heritage Blue Plaque on his childhood home in Warrington Crescent, London, now the Colonnade hotel. To mark the 50th anniversary of his death, a memorial plaque was unveiled on 7 June 2004 at his former residence, Hollymeade, in Wilmslow.

For his achievements in computing, various universities have honoured him. On 28 October 2004 a bronze statue of Alan Turing sculpted by John W Mills was unveiled at the University of Surrey in Guildford. The statue marks the 50th anniversary of Alan Turing’s death. It portrays him carrying his books across the campus. Turing Road in the University’s Research Park predates this.

The Polytechnic University of Puerto Rico and Los Andes University in Bogotá, Colombia, both have computer laboratories named after Alan Turing. The University of Texas at Austin has an honours computer science programme named the Turing Scholars. Istanbul Bilgi University organises an annual conference on the theory of computation called Turing Days. The computer room in King’s College, Cambridge is named the “Turing Room” after him. Carnegie Mellon University has a granite bench, situated in The Hornbostel Mall, with the name “A. M. Turing” carved across the top, “Read” down the left leg, and “Write” down the other. The Boston GLBT pride organisation named Alan Turing their 2006 Honourary Grand Marshal.

On 13 March 2000, St Vincent & The Grenadines issued a set of stamps to celebrate the greatest achievements of the 20th century, one of which carries a recognisable portrait of Alan Turing against a background of repeated 0s and 1s, and is captioned ‘1937: Alan Turing’s theory of digital computing’.

A 1.5-ton, life-size statue of Alan Turing was unveiled on 19 June 2007 at Bletchley Park. Built from approximately 500,000 pieces of Welsh slate, it was sculpted by Stephen Kettle, having been commissioned by the late American billionaire Sidney Frank.

The Turing Relay is a 6-stage relay race on riverside footpaths from Ely to Cambridge and back. These paths were used for running by Alan Turing while at Cambridge; his marathon best time was 2 hours, 46 minutes.

Experimental music duo Matmos, whose members are a homosexual couple, released a limited edition EP in 2006 entitled For Alan Turing.

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Speech Differences And Stutter Series-Disabled Legend Moses

Moses (Latin: Moyses, Hebrew: מֹשֶׁה, Standard Moshe Tiberian Mōšeh; Greek: Mωυσής in both the Septuagint and the New Testament; Arabic: موسىٰ, Mūsa; Ge’ez: ሙሴ, Musse) is a Biblical Hebrew religious leader, lawgiver, prophet, and military leader, to whom the authorship of the Torah is traditionally attributed. Moses is the most important prophet in Judaism, and also an important prophet of Christianity, Islam, the Bahá’í Faith, Mormonism, Rastafari, Raëlism, Chrislam and many other faiths.

According to the book of Exodus, Moses was born to a Hebrew mother, Jochebed, who hid him when a Pharaoh (Feraun, as mentioned in the Qu’ran), ordered all newborn Hebrew boys to be killed, and he ended up being adopted into the Egyptian royal family. After killing an Egyptian slave-master, Moses fled and became a shepherd, and was later commanded by God to deliver the Hebrews from slavery. After the Ten Plagues were unleashed on Egypt, he led the Hebrew slaves out of Egypt, through the Red Sea, where they wandered in the desert for 40 years, during which time, according to the Bible, Moses received the Ten Commandments. Despite living to 120, Moses died before reaching the Land of Israel. According to the Torah, Moses was denied entrance to that destination because he himself disobeyed God’s instructions about how to release water from a rock. According to the Qu’ran the reason for the wandering in the desert was the disobedience of his Israelite followers during the Exodus. In Islamic perspective, Moses (Hazrat Musa) and the obedient Israelites weren’t punished, but got rewards for their patience during the wandering years.

The Book of Exodus takes up the narrative many years after the close of the Book of Genesis, at the end of which the Israelites were dwelling in relative harmony with the native Egyptians in the Land of Goshen, the eastern part of the Nile Delta.

After Joseph died, a new pharaoh came to power who was hostile to the Israelites and enslaved them.

According to the Book of Exodus, Moses was a son of Amram, a member of the Levite tribe of Israel, having descended from Jacob, and his wife Jochebed. Jochebed (also Yocheved) was kin to Amram’s father Kohath. Moses had 1 older (by 7 years) sister, Miriam, and 1 older (by 3 years) brother, Aaron. According to Genesis, Amram’s father Kohath immigrated to Egypt with 70 of Jacob’s household, making Moses part of the 2nd generation of Israelites born during their time in Egypt.

In the Exodus account, the birth of Moses (dated by the Talmud to 7 Adar 2368, or 1393 BCE)occurred at a time when the current Egyptian Pharaoh had commanded that all male Hebrew children born be killed by drowning in the river Nile. The Torah and Flavius Josephus leave the identity of this Pharaoh unstated.

Jochebed, the wife of the Levite Amram, bore a son and kept him concealed for 3 months. When she could keep him hidden no longer, rather than deliver him to be killed, she set him adrift on the Nile River in a small craft of bulrushes coated in pitch.According to Quran, she is commanded by God to place him in an ark and cast him on the waters of the Nile, thus abandoning him completely to God’s protection and demonstrating her total trust in God. In the Biblical account, Moses’ sister Miriam observed the progress of the tiny boat until it reached a place where Pharaoh’s daughter Thermuthis (Bithiah)was bathing with her handmaidens. It is said that she spotted the baby in the basket and had her handmaiden fetch it for her. After several women had unsuccessfully attempted to nurse the child, Miriam came forward and asked Pharaoh’s daughter if she would like a Hebrew woman to nurse the baby. Thereafter, Jochebed was employed as the child’s nurse, and he grew and was brought to Pharaoh’s daughter and became her son, as she had no other children at the time of her adoption of Moses.

This birth legend is in many respects similar to the 7th century BCE Neo-Assyrian version of the birth of the king Sargon of Akkad in the 24th century BCE who, being born of modest means, was set in the Euphrates river in a basket of bulrushes and discovered by a member of the Akkadian royalty who reared him as their own. Professor Eric H. Cline refers to the story of the birth of Moses as a ‘foundation myth’, similar to those of Sargon, Cyrus the Great and Romulus and Remus.

Exodus and Flavius Josephus do not mention whether this daughter of Pharaoh was an only child or, if she was not an only child, whether she was an eldest child or an eldest daughter. Nor do they mention whether Thermuthis later had other natural or adopted children. If Ramesses II is the Pharaoh of the Oppression as is traditionally thought, identifying her would be extremely difficult as Rameses II is thought to have fathered over a hundred children. The daughter of Pharaoh named him Mosheh, similar to the Hebrew word mashah, “to draw out”.

In Greek translation, Mosheh was Hellenized as Mωυσής (Mousēs or Moses).

The Classical Rabbis in the Midrash identify Moses as 1 of 7 biblical characters who were called by various names. Moses’ other names were: Jekuthiel (by his mother), Heber (by his father), Jered (by Miriam), Avi Zanoah (by Aaron), Kehath, Avi Soco (his wet-nurse), Shemaiah ben Nethanel (by people of Israel). Moses is also attributed the names Toviah (as a first name), and Levi (as a family name), Heman, Mechoqeiq (lawgiver) and Ehl Gav Ish.

According to the Torah, the name “Moses” comes from the (Hebrew) verb meaning “to pull/draw out” [of water], so named by Pharaoh’s daughter (identified by the Midrash as Bithiah from I Chr; or (Thermuthis) ) after she had pulled the infant from the banks of the river. Further, Moses led the Israelites across the Red Sea, which would also shows deliverance out of water. Josephus also cites this etymology.
Some medieval Jewish scholars had suggested that Moses’ actual name was the Egyptian translation of “to draw out”, and that it was translated into Hebrew, either by the Bible, or by Moses himself later in his lifetime.

Some modern scholars had suggested that the daughter of the pharaoh might have derived his name from the Egyptian word moses, which means “son” or “formed of” or “has provided”; for example, “Thutmose” means “son of Thoth”, and Rameses means “Ra has provided (a son)”.

According to Islamic tradition, his name, Mūsā, is derived from two Egyptian words: Mū which means water and shā meaning tree (or reeds), in reference to the fact that the basket in which the infant Moses floated came to rest by trees close to Pharaoh’s residence.

A growing number of critical scholars believe that Moses actually had a full Egyptian name, consisting of the root word moses and the name of a god (similar to Rameses), but the name of the god was later dropped, either when he assimilated into Hebrew culture or by later scribes who were dismayed that their greatest prophet had such an Egyptian name.

Amongst the Aramaeans and Neo-Hittites of the northern Sam’al Yaudi state there is mention of an ancestral culture hero Moschos, linked to the Greek hero Mopsus (whose name means “calf”), who has certain similarities to parts of the Moses these similarities are only being in a similar location and having a similar name.

After Moses had reached adulthood, he went to see how his brethren who were enslaved to the Egyptians were faring. Seeing an Egyptian beating a Hebrew, he killed the Egyptian and buried the body in the sand, supposing that no one who knew about the incident would be disposed to talk about it. The next day, seeing 2 Hebrews quarreling, he endeavored to separate them, whereupon the Hebrew who was wronging the other taunted Moses for slaying the Egyptian. Moses soon discovered from a higher source that the affair was known, and that Pharaoh was likely to put him to death for it; he therefore made his escape over the Sinai Peninsula. Moses stopped at a well, where he protected 7 shepherdesses from a band of rude shepherds. The shepherdesses’ father Hobab (also known as Raguel and Jethro, and Shoaib according to Qur’an, a priest of Midian was immensely grateful for this assistance Moses had given his daughters, and adopted him as his son, gave his daughter Zipporah to him in marriage, and made him the superintendent of his herds. There he sojourned 40 years, following the occupation of a shepherd, during which time his son Gershom was born. One day, Moses led his flock to Mount Horeb (Exodus 3), usually identified with Mount Sinai — a mountain that was thought in the Middle Ages to be located on the Sinai Peninsula, but that many scholars now believe was further east, towards Moses’ home of Midian. At Mount Horeb, he saw a burning bush that would not be consumed. When he turned aside to look more closely at the marvel, God spoke to him from the bush, revealing his name to Moses.

God commissioned Moses to go to Egypt and deliver his fellow Hebrews from bondage. God had Moses practice transforming his rod into a serpent and inflicting and healing leprosy, and told him that he could also pour river water on dry land to change the water to blood. Quran’s account has emphasized Moses’ mission to invite the Pharaoh to accept God’s divine message as well as give salvation to the Israelites.

Moses then set off for Egypt, was nearly killed by God because his son was not circumcised (The meaning of this latter obscure passage is debatable, because of the ambiguous nature of the Hebrew and its abrupt presence in the narrative. Several interpretations are therefore possible.), was met on the way by his elder brother, Aaron, and gained a hearing with his oppressed kindred after they returned to Egypt, who believed Moses and Aaron after they saw the signs that were performed in the midst of the Israelite assembly. It is also revealed that during Moses’ absence, the Pharaoh of the Oppression (sometimes identified with Ramesses II) had died, and been replaced by a new Pharaoh, known as the Pharaoh of the Exodus. If Rameses II is the Pharaoh of the Oppression, then this new Pharaoh would be Merneptah. Because the story the book of Exodus describes is catastrophic for the Egyptians — involving horrible plagues, the loss of thousands of slaves, and many deaths (possibly including the death of Pharaoh himself, although that matter is unclear in Exodus) — it is conspicuous that no Egyptian records speaking of Israelites in Egypt have ever been found. However, Merneptah, is indeed, historically known to have been a mediocre ruler, and certainly one weaker than Rameses II. Moses and Aaron went to Pharaoh and told him that the Lord God of Israel wanted Pharaoh to permit the Israelites to celebrate a feast in the wilderness. Pharaoh replied that he did not know their God and would not permit them to go celebrate the feast. Pharaoh upbraided Moses and Aaron and made the Israelites find their own straw besides meeting the same daily quota of bricks. Moses and Aaron gained a 2nd hearing with Pharaoh and changed Moses’ rod into a serpent, but Pharaoh’s magicians did the same with their rods. Moses and Aaron had a 3rd opportunity when they went to meet the Pharaoh at the Nile riverbank, and Moses had Aaron turn the river to blood, but Pharaoh’s magicians could do the same. Moses obtained a 4th meeting, and had Aaron bring frogs from the Nile to overrun Egypt, but Pharaoh’s magicians were able to do the same thing. Apparently Pharaoh eventually got annoyed by the frogs and asked Moses to remove the frogs and promised to let the Israelites go observe their feast in the wilderness in return. The next day all the frogs died leaving a horrible stench and an enormous mess, which angered Pharaoh and decide against letting the Israelites leave to observe the feast. Eventually Pharaoh let the Hebrews depart after Moses’s God sent 10 plagues upon the Egyptians. The 3rd was lice, gnats, and flies. The 4th was attacking of wild beasts. The 5th was the invasion of diseases on the Egyptians’ cattle, oxen, goats, sheep, camels, and horses. 6th were boils on the skins of Egyptians. 7th, fiery hail and thunder struck Egypt. The 8th plague was locusts encompassing Egypt. The 9th plague was total darkness. The 10th plague culminated in the slaying of the Egyptian male 1st-borns, whereupon such terror seized the Egyptians that they ordered the Hebrews to leave in the Exodus. The events are commemorated as Passover, referring to how the plague “passed over” the houses of the Israelites while smiting the Egyptians.

Moses lead his people Eastward, beginning the long journey to Canaan. The procession moved slowly, and found it necessary to encamp 3 times before passing the Egyptian frontier — some believe at the Great Bitter Lake, while others propose sites as far south as the northern tip of the Red Sea. Meanwhile, Pharaoh had a change of heart, and was in pursuit of them with a large army. Shut in between this army and the sea, the Israelites despaired, but Exodus records that God divided the waters so that they passed safely across on dry ground. There is some contention about this passage, since an earlier incorrect translation of Yam Suph to Red Sea was later found to have meant Reed Sea. When the Egyptian army attempted to follow, God permitted the waters to return upon them and drown them.

According to the Quran the Pharaoh was leading the Egyptian army himself, and drowned along with his army, and in his last words before drowning he asks God for forgiveness – (قَالَ آمَنتُ أَنَّهُ لا إِلِـهَ إِلاَّ الَّذِي آمَنَتْ بِهِ بَنُو إِسْرَائِيلَ وَأَنَاْ مِنَ الْمُسْلِمِينَ) – , however God made him die with his body in perfect shape, so he would be an example for every tyrant who defies the prophets – surat Yunis:92 (يونس:92) -.

When the people arrived at Marah, the water was bitter, causing the people to murmur against Moses. Moses cast a tree into the water, and the water became sweet. Later in the journey the people began running low on supplies and again murmured against Moses and Aaron and said they would have preferred to die in Egypt, but God’s provision of manna from the sky in the morning and quail in the evening took care of the situation. When the people camped in Rephidim, there was no water, so the people complained again and said, “Wherefore is this that thou hast brought us up out of Egypt, to kill us and our children and our cattle with thirst?” Moses struck a rock with his staff, and water came 4th.

In response, Moses bid Joshua lead the men to fight while he stood on a hill with the rod of God in his hand. As long as Moses held the rod up, Israel dominated the fighting, but if Moses let down his hands, the tide of the battle turned in favour of the Amalekites. Because Moses was getting tired, Aaron and Hur had Moses sit on a rock. Aaron held up one arm, Hur held up the other arm, and the Israelites routed the Amalekites.

Jethro, Moses’ father-in-law, came to see Moses and brought Moses’ wife and 2 sons with him. After Moses had told Jethro how the Israelites had escaped Egypt, Jethro went to offer sacrifices to the Lord, and then ate bread with the elders. The next day Jethro observed how Moses sat from morning to night giving judgement for the people. Jethro suggested that Moses appoint judges for lesser matters, a suggestion Moses heeded.

When the Israelites came to Sinai, they pitched camp near the mountain. Moses commanded the people not to touch the mountain. Moses received the Ten Commandments orally (but not yet in tablet form) and other moral laws. Moses then went up with Aaron, Nadab, Abihu, and 70 of the elders to see the God of Israel. Before Moses went up the mountain to receive the tablets, he told the elders to direct any questions that arose to Aaron or Hur. While Moses was on Mount Sinai receiving instruction on the laws for the Israelite community, the Israelites went to Aaron and asked him to make gods for them. After Aaron had received golden earrings from the people, he made a golden calf and said, “These are your gods, O Israel, who brought you up out of Egypt.” A “solemnity of the Lord” was proclaimed for the following day, which began in the morning with sacrifices and was followed by revelry. After Moses had persuaded the Lord not to destroy the people of Israel, he went down from the mountain and was met by Joshua. Moses destroyed the calf and rebuked Aaron for the sin he had brought upon the people. Seeing that the people were uncontrollable, Moses went to the entry of the camp and said, “Who is on the Lord’s side? Let him come unto me.” All the sons of Levi rallied around Moses, who ordered them to go from gate to gate slaying the idolators.

Following this, according to the last chapters of Exodus, the Tabernacle was constructed, the priestly law ordained, the plan of encampment arranged both for the Levites and the non-priestly tribes, and the Tabernacle consecrated. Moses was given 8 prayer laws that were to be carried out in regards to the Tabernacle. These laws included light, incense and sacrifice.

Miriam and Aaron spoke against Moses on account of his marriage to an Ethiopian, Josephus explains the marriage of Moses to this Ethiopian in the Antiquities of the Jews and about him being the only one through whom the Lord spoke. Miriam was punished with leprosy for 7 days.

The people left Hazeroth and pitched camp in the wilderness of Paran. (Paran is a vaguely defined region in the northern part of the Sinai peninsula, just south of Canaan) Moses sent 12 spies into Canaan as scouts, including most famously Caleb and Joshua. After 40 days, they returned to the Israelite camp, bringing back grapes and other produce as samples of the regions fertility. Although all the spies agreed that the land’s resources were spectacular, only 2 of the 12 spies (Joshua and Caleb) were willing to try to conquer it, and are nearly stoned for their unpopular opinion. The people began weeping and wanted to return to Egypt. Moses turned down the opportunity to have the Israelites completely destroyed and a great nation made from his own offspring, and instead he told the people that they would wander the wilderness for 40 years until all those 20 years or older who had refused to enter Canaan had died, and that their children would then enter and possess Canaan. Early the next morning, the Israelites said they had sinned and now wanted to take possession of Canaan. Moses told them not to attempt it, but the Israelites chose to disobey Moses and invade Canaan, but were repulsed by the Amalekites and Canaanites. According to the Quran, Moses encourages the Israelites to enter Canaan, but they are unwilling to fight the Canaanites, fearing certain defeat. Moses responds by pleading to Allah that he and his brother Aaron be separated from the rebellious Israelites.

The Tribe of Reuben, led by Korah, Dathan, Abiram, and 250 Israelite princes accused Moses and Aaron of raising themselves over the rest of the people. Moses told them to come the next morning with a censer for every man. Dathan and Abiram refused to come when summoned by Moses. Moses went to the place of Dathan and Abiram’s tents. After Moses spoke the ground opened up and engulfed Dathan and Abiram’s tents, after which it closed again. Fire consumed the 250 men with the censers. Moses had the censers taken and made into plates to cover the altar. The following day, the Israelites came and accused Moses and Aaron of having killed his fellow Israelites. The people were struck with a plague that killed 14,700 persons, and was only ended when Aaron went with his censer into the midst of the people. To prevent further murmurings and settle the matter permanently, Moses had the chief prince of the non-Levitic tribes write his name on his staff and had them lay them in the sanctuary. Moses also had Aaron write his name on his staff and had it placed in the tabernacle. The next day, when Moses went into the tabernacle, Aaron’s staff had budded, blossomed, and yielded almonds.

After leaving Sinai, the Israelites camped in Kadesh. After more complaints from the Israelites, Moses struck the stone twice, and water gushed 4th. However, because Moses and Aaron had not shown the Lord’s holiness, they were not permitted to enter the land to be given to the Israelites. This was the 2nd occasion Moses struck a rock to bring 4th water; however, it appears that both sites were named Meribah after these 2 incidents.

Now ready to enter Canaan, the Israelites abandon the idea of attacking the Canaanites head-on in Hebron, a city in the southern part of Canaan, having been informed by spies that they were too strong, it is decided that they will flank Hebron by going further East, around the Dead Sea. This requires that they pass through Edom, Moab, and Ammon. These 3 tribes are considered Hebrews by the Israelites as descendants of Lot, and therefore cannot be attacked. However they are also rivals, and are therefore not permissive in allowing the Israelites to openly pass through their territory. So Moses leads his people carefully along the eastern border of Edom, the southernmost of these territories. While the Israelites were making their journey around Edom, they complained about the manna. After many of the people had been bitten by serpents and died, Moses made the brass serpent and mounted it on a pole, and if those who were bitten looked at it, they did not die.

According to the Biblical Book of Kings this brass serpent remained in existence until the days of King Hezekiah, who destroyed it after persons began treating it as an idol. When they reach Moab, it is revealed that Moab has been attacked and defeated by the Amorites led by a king named Sihon. The Amorites were a non-Hebrew Canannic people that once held power in the Fertile Crescent. When Moses asks the Amorites for passage and it is refused, Moses attacks the Amorites (as non-Hebrews, the Israelites have no reservations in attacking them), presumably weakened by conflict with the Moabites, and defeats them. The Israelites now holding the territory of the Amorites just north of Moab, desire to expand their holdings by acquiring Bashan, a fertile territory north of Ammon famous for its oak trees and cattle. It is led by a king named Og. Later rabbinical legends made Og a survivor of the flood, suggesting the he had sat on the ark and was fed by Noah. The Israelites fight with Og’s forces at Edrei, on the southern border of Bashan, where the Israelites are victorious and slay every man, woman, and child of his cities and take the spoil for their bounty.

Balak, king of Moab, having heard of the Israelites conquests, fears that his territory might be next. Therefore he sends elders of Moab, and of Midian, to Balaam (apparently a powerful and respected prophet), son of Beor (Bible), to induce him to come and curse the Israelites. Balaam’s location is unclear. Balaam sends back word that he can only do what God commands, and God has, via a dream, told him not to go. Moab consequently sends higher ranking priests and offers Balaam honours, and so God tells Balaam to go with them. Balaam thus sets out with 2 servants to go to Balak, but an Angel tries to prevent him. At first the Angel is seen only by the ass Balaam is riding. After Balaam starts punishing the ass for refusing to move, it is miraculously given the power to speak to Balaam, and it complains about Balaam’s treatment. At this point, Balaam is allowed to see the angel, who informs him that the ass is the only reason the Angel did not kill Balaam. Balaam immediately repents, but is told to go on.

Balak meets with Balaam at Kirjath-huzoth, and they go to the high places of Baal, and offer sacrifices at seven altars, leading to Balaam being given a prophecy by God, which Balaam relates to Balak. However, the prophecy blesses Israel; Balak remonstrates, but Balaam reminds him that he can only speak the words put in his mouth, so Balak takes him to another high place at Pisgah, to try again. Building another 7 altars here, and making sacrifices on each, Balaam provides another prophecy blessing Israel. Balaam finally gets taken by a now very frustrated Balak to Peor, and, after the 7 sacrifices there, decides not to seek enchantments but instead looks on the Israelites from the peak. The spirit of God comes upon Balaam and he delivers a 3rd positive prophecy concerning Israel. Balak’s anger rises to the point where he threatens Balaam, but Balaam merely offers a prediction of fate. Balaam then looks on the Kenites, and Amalekites and offers 2 more predictions of fate. Balak and Balaam then simply go to their respective homes. Later, Balaam informed Balak and the Midianites that, if they wished to overcome the Israelites for a short interval, they needed to seduce the Israelites to engage in idolatry. The Midianites sent beautiful women to the Israelite camp to seduce the young men to partake in idolatry, and the attempt proved successful.

Phinehas, the grandson of Aaron, put an end to the matter of the Midianite seduction by slaying 2 of the prominent offenders, but by that time a plague inflicted on the Israelites had already killed about 24000 persons. Moses was then told that because Phinehas had averted the wrath of God from the Israelites, Phinehas and his descendents were given the pledge of an everlasting priesthood. After Moses had taken a census of the people, he sent an army to avenge the perceived evil brought on the Israelites by the Midianites. Numbers 31 says Moses instructed the Israelite soldiers to kill every Midianite woman, boy and the non-virgin girl, although virgin girls were shared amongst the soldiers. The Israelites killed Balaam, and the 5 kings of Midian: Evi, Rekem, Zur, Hur, and Reba.

Moses appointed Joshua, son of Nun, to succeed him as the leader of the Israelites. Moses then died at the age of 20.

After all this was accomplished, Moses was warned that he would not be permitted to lead the nation of Israel across the Jordan river, but would die on its eastern shores. Moses therefore assembled the tribes, and delivered to them a parting address, which forms the Book of Deuteronomy. In this address it is commonly accepted that he recapitulated the Law, reminding them of its most important features. When Moses finished, and he had pronounced a blessing on the people, he went up Mount Nebo to the top of Pisgah, looked over the promised land of Israel spread out before him, and died, at the age of 120(dated by the Talmud to 7th of Adar 2488, or 1273 BCE). God Himself buried him in an unknown grave. Moses was thus the human instrument in the creation of the nation of Israel by communicating to it the Torah. More humble than any other man, he enjoyed unique privileges, for “there hath not arisen a prophet since in Israel like unto Moses, whom the HaShem knew face to face”.

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Speech Differences And Stutter Series-Disabled Legend Theodore Roosevelt

Theodore Roosevelt was born on 27 October, 1858, in a 4-story brownstone at 28 East 20th Street, in the modern-day Gramercy section of New York City, the 2nd of 4 children of Theodore Roosevelt, Sr. (1831–1877) and Mittie Bulloch (1835–1884). Theodore Roosevelt died on 6 January, 1919, also known as T.R., and to the public (but never to friends and intimates) as Teddy. Theodore Roosevelt was the 26th President of the United States. A leader of the Republican Party and of the Progressive Party, he was a Governor of New York and a professional historian, naturalist, explorer, hunter, author, and soldier. Theodore Roosevelt is most famous for his personality: his energy, his vast range of interests and achievements, his model of masculinity, and his “cowboy” personality. Originating from a story from one of Theodore Roosevelt’s hunting expeditions, Teddy bears are named after him.

Theodore Roosevelt had an elder sister Anna, nicknamed “Bamie” as a child and “Bye” as an adult for being always on the go, and 2 younger siblings—his brother Elliott (the father of Eleanor Roosevelt) and his sister Corinne (grandmother of newspaper columnists Joseph and Stewart Alsop).

As Assistant Secretary of the Navy, Theodore Roosevelt prepared for and advocated war with Spain in 1898. Theodore Roosevelt organised and helped command the 1st U.S. Volunteer Cavalry Regiment – the Rough Riders – during the Spanish-American War. Returning to New York as a war hero, he was elected governor. An avid writer, his 35 books include works on outdoor life, natural history, the American frontier, political history, naval history, and his autobiography.

In 1901, as Vice President, the 42-year-old Theodore Roosevelt succeeded President William McKinley after William McKinley’s assassination by anarchist Leon Czolgosz. Theodore Roosevelt is the youngest person to become President. Theodore Roosevelt was a Progressive reformer who sought to move the dominant Republican Party into the Progressive camp. Theodore Roosevelt distrusted wealthy businessmen and dissolved 40monopolistic corporations as a “trust buster”. Theodore Roosevelt was clear, however, to show he did not disagree with trusts and capitalism in principle but was only against corrupt, illegal practices. Theodore Roosevelt’s “Square Deal” promised a fair shake for both the average citizen (through regulation of railroad rates and pure food and drugs) and the businessmen. Theodore Roosevelt was the 1st U.S. president to call for universal health care and national health insurance. As an outdoorsman, he promoted the conservation movement, emphasizing efficient use of natural resources. After 1906 he attacked big business and suggested the courts were biased against labour unions. In 1910, he broke with his friend and anointed successor William Howard Taft, but lost the Republican nomination to William Howard Taft and ran in the 1912 election on his own one-time Bull Moose ticket. Theodore Roosevelt beat William Howard Taft in the popular vote and pulled so many Progressives out of the Republican Party that Democrat Woodrow Wilson won in 1912, and the conservative faction took control of the Republican Party for the next 2 decades.

Theodore Roosevelt negotiated for the U.S. to take control of the Panama Canal and its construction in 1904; he felt the Panama Canal’s completion was his most important and historically significant international achievement. Theodore Roosevelt was the 1st American to be awarded the Nobel Prize, winning its Peace Prize in 1906, for negotiating the peace in the Russo-Japanese War.

Historian Thomas Bailey, who disagreed with Theodore Roosevelt’s policies, nevertheless concluded, “Roosevelt was a great personality, a great activist, a great preacher of the moralities, a great controversialist, a great showman. Theodore Roosevelt dominated his era as he dominated conversations….the masses loved him; he proved to be a great popular idol and a great vote getter.” Theodore Roosevelt’s image stands alongside Washington, Jefferson and Lincoln on Mount Rushmore. Surveys of scholars have consistently ranked him from 3rd to 7th on the list of greatest American presidents.

The Roosevelts had been in New York since the mid-17th century. Theodore Roosevelt was born into a wealthy family; by the 19th century, the family had grown in wealth, power and influence from the profits of several businesses including hardware and plate-glass importing. The family was strongly Democratic in its political affiliation until the mid-1850s, then joined the new Republican Party. Theodore Roosevelt’s father, known in the family as “Thee”, was a New York City philanthropist, merchant, and partner in the family glass-importing firm Roosevelt and Son. Theodore Roosevelt was a prominent supporter of Abraham Lincoln and the Union effort during the American Civil War. Theodore Roosevelt’s mother Mittie Bulloch was a Southern belle from a slave-owning family in Roswell, Georgia and had quiet Confederate sympathies. Mittie’s brother, Theodore’s uncle, James Dunwoody Bulloch, was a United States Navy officer who became a Confederate admiral and naval procurement agent in Britain. Another uncle, Irvine Bulloch, was a midshipman on the Confederate raider CSS Alabama; both remained in England after the war. From his grandparents’ home, a young Theodore Roosevelt witnessed Abraham Lincoln’s funeral in New York.

Sickly and asthmatic as a youngster, Theodore Roosevelt had to sleep propped up in bed or slouching in a chair during much of his early childhood, and had frequent ailments. Despite his illnesses, he was a hyperactive and often mischievous boy. Theodore Roosevelt’s lifelong interest in zoology was formed at age 7 upon seeing a dead seal at a local market. After obtaining the seal’s head, the young Theodore Roosevelt and 2 of his cousins formed what they called the “Roosevelt Museum of Natural History”. Learning the rudiments of taxidermy, he filled his makeshift museum with many animals that he killed or caught, studied, and prepared for display. At the age of 9, he codified his observation of insects with a paper titled “The Natural History of Insects”.

To combat his poor physical condition, his father compelled the young Theodore Roosevelt to take up exercise. To deal with bullies, Theodore Roosevelt started boxing lessons. 2 trips abroad had a permanent impact: family tours of Europe in 1869and 1870, and of the Middle East 1872 to 1873.

Theodore, Sr. had a tremendous influence on his son. Of him Theodore Roosevelt wrote, “My father, Theodore Roosevelt, was the best man I ever knew. Theodore Roosevelt combined strength and courage with gentleness, tenderness, and great unselfishness. Theodore Roosevelt would not tolerate in us children selfishness or cruelty, idleness, cowardice, or untruthfulness.” Theodore Roosevelt’s sister, Corinne, later wrote, “He told me frequently that he never took any serious step or made any vital decision for his country without thinking first what position his father would have taken.”

Young “Teedie”, as he was nicknamed as a child, (the nickname “Teddy” was from his 1st wife, Alice Hathaway Lee, and he later harboured an intense dislike for it) was mostly home schooled by tutors and his parents. A leading biographer says: “The most obvious drawback to the home schooling Theodore Roosevelt received was uneven coverage of the various areas of human knowledge.” Theodore Roosevelt was solid in geography (thanks to his careful observations on all his travels) and very well read in history, strong in biology, French and German, but deficient in mathematics, Latin and Greek. Theodore Roosevelt matriculated at Harvard College in 1876. Theodore Roosevelt’s father’s death in 1878 was a tremendous blow, but Theodore Roosevelt redoubled his activities. Theodore Roosevelt did well in science, philosophy and rhetoric courses but fared poorly in Latin and Greek. Theodore Roosevelt studied biology with great interest and indeed was already an accomplished naturalist and published ornithologist. Theodore Roosevelt had a photographic memory and developed a life-long habit of devouring books, memorising every detail. Theodore Roosevelt was an eloquent conversationalist who, throughout his life, sought out the company of the smartest people. Theodore Roosevelt could multitask in extraordinary fashion, dictating letters to one secretary and memoranda to another, while browsing through a new book.

While at Harvard, Theodore Roosevelt was active in rowing, boxing, the Delta Kappa Epsilon fraternity, and was a member of the Porcellian Club. Theodore Roosevelt also edited a student magazine. Theodore Roosevelt was runner-up in the Harvard boxing championship, losing to C.S. Hanks. Upon graduating, he underwent a physical examination and his doctor advised him that due to serious heart problems, he should find a desk job and avoid strenuous activity. Theodore Roosevelt chose to embrace strenuous life instead.

Theodore Roosevelt graduated Phi Beta Kappa(22nd of 177) from Harvard in 1880, and entered Columbia Law School. When offered a chance to run for New York Assemblyman in 1881, he dropped out of law school to pursue his new goal of entering public life.

While at Harvard, the Theodore Roosevelt began a systematic study of the role played by the nascent US Navy in the War of 1812. Theodore Roosevelt recorded that right in the middle of classes on mathematics at Harvard, his mind would wander from his tedious lessons to the accomplishments of the infant US Navy, the clash of the “fighting tops”. Reading through the literature of the day, Theodore Roosevelt found both American and British accounts heavily biased and that there had been no systematic study of the tactics employed by opposing forces. Although a tremendous challenge for a young man with no formal military nor naval education, nevertheless, helped on the nautical science aspects by his 2 former Confederate naval officer uncles living in Liverpool and Theodore Roosevelt did his own original research. After graduation, in 1882, the 23 year old Theodore Roosevelt published his 1st book, “The Naval War of 1812.” Immediately, reviewers praised the book’s scholarship and style. The newly established Naval War College adopted it for study, and the Department of the Navy ordered a copy placed in library of every capital ship. Theodore Roosevelt brought out a subsequent edition with questions and answers from both scholars and critics. On modern naval historian, writes that, “Roosevelt’s study of the War of 1812 influenced all subsequent scholarship on the naval aspects of the War of 1812 and continues to be reprinted. More than a classic, it remains, after 120 years, a standard study of the war.”

Alice Hathaway Lee (July 29, 1861 in Chestnut Hill, Massachusetts – February 14, 1884in Manhattan, New York) was the 1st wife of Theodore Roosevelt and mother of their child, Alice. Roosevelt’s wife, Alice died of an undiagnosed case of kidney failure called, in those days, Bright’s disease at 2pm in the afternoon, 2 days after Alice Lee was born. Theodore Roosevelt’s mother, Mittie, had died of typhoid fever in the same house, on the same day, at 3am, some 11 hours earlier. After the near simultaneous deaths of his mother and wife, Theodore Roosevelt left his daughter in the care of his sister, Anna “Bamie/Bye” in New York City. In his diary he wrote a large X on the page and indicated that “the light has gone out of my life.”

A short time later, Theodore Roosevelt also wrote a short tribute to his wife published privately. To the immense disappointment of his wife’s namesake and daughter, Alice, he would not speak of his wife publicly or privately for the rest of his life and made no mention of her in his autobiography. Theodore Roosevelt would later indicate that this was his only method of dealing with a such a debilitating loss.

Theodore Roosevelt was a Republican activist during his years in the Assembly, writing more bills than any other New York state legislator. Already a major player in state politics, he attended the Republican National Convention in 1884 and fought alongside the Mugwump reformers; they lost to the Stalwart faction that nominated James G. Blaine. Refusing to join other Mugwumps in supporting Democrat Grover Cleveland, the Democratic nominee, he debated with his friend Henry Cabot Lodge the plusses and minuses of staying loyal or straying. When asked by a reporter whether he would support James G. Blaine, he replied, “That question I decline to answer. It is a subject I do not care to talk about.” Upon leaving the convention, he complained “off the record” to a reporter about James G. Blaine’s nomination. But, in probably the most crucial moment of his young political career, he resisted the very instinct to bolt from the Party that would overwhelm his political sense in 1912. In an account of the Convention, another reporter quoted him as saying that he would give “hearty support to any decent Democrat.” Theodore Roosevelt would later take great (and to some historical critics such as Henry Pringle, rather disingenuous) pains to distance himself from his own earlier comment, indicating that while he made it, it had not been made “for publication.” Leaving the convention, his idealism quite disillusioned by party politics, Theodore Roosevelt indicated that he had no further aspiration but to retire to his ranch in the wild Badlands of the Dakota Territory that he had purchased the previous year while on a buffalo hunting expedition.

Theodore Roosevelt built a 2nd ranch, which he named Elk Horn, 35 miles (56 km) north of the boomtown of Medora, North Dakota. On the banks of the Little Missouri, Theodore Roosevelt learned to ride, rope, and hunt. Theodore Roosevelt rebuilt his life and began writing about frontier life for Eastern magazines. As a deputy sheriff, Theodore Roosevelt hunted down 3 outlaws who stole his river boat and were escaping north with it up the Little Missouri. Capturing them, he decided against hanging them, and sending his foreman back by boat, he took the thieves back overland for trial in Dickinson, guarding them 40 hours without sleep and reading Tolstoy to keep himself awake. When he ran out of his own books, he read a dime store western that one of the thieves was carrying. .” While working on a tough project aimed at hunting down a group of relentless horse thieves, Theodore Roosevelt came across the famous Deadwood Sheriff, Seth Bullock. The 2 would remain friends for life.

After the uniquely severe U.S. winter of 1886-1887 wiped out his herd of cattle and his $60,000 investment (together with those of his competitors), he returned to the East, where in 1885 he had built Sagamore Hill in Oyster Bay, New York. It would be his home and estate until his death. Theodore Roosevelt ran as the Republican candidate for mayor of New York City in 1886 as “The Cowboy of the Dakotas”; he came in 3rd.

Following the election, he went to London in 1886 and married his childhood sweetheart, Edith Kermit Carow. They honeymooned in Europe, and Theodore Roosevelt led a party to the summit of Mont Blanc, a feat which resulted in his induction into the British Royal Society. They had 5 children: Theodore Jr., Kermit, Ethel Carow, Archibald Bulloch “Archie”, and Quentin.

Theodore Roosevelt’s definitive 1882 book The Naval War of 1812 was standard history for 2 generations. Theodore Roosevelt undertook extensive and original research, computing British and American man-of-war broadside throw weights. However, his biographies Thomas Hart Benton (1887) and Gouverneur Morris (1888) are considered hastily-written and superficial. Theodore Roosevelt’s 4-volume history of the frontier titled The Winning of the West (1889–1896) had a notable impact on historiography, as it presented a highly original version of the frontier thesis elaborated upon by his friend Frederick Jackson Turner in 1893.

In the 1888 presidential election, Theodore Roosevelt campaigned in the Midwest for Benjamin Harrison. President Benjamin Harrison appointed Theodore Roosevelt to the United States Civil Service Commission, where he served until 1895. In his term, he vigorously fought the spoilsmen and demanded the enforcement of civil service laws. In spite of Theodore Roosevelt’s support for Benjamin Harrison’s reelection bid in the presidential election of 1892, the eventual winner, Grover Cleveland (a Bourbon Democrat), reappointed him to the same post.

Theodore Roosevelt became president of the board of New York City Police Commissioners in 1895. During the 2 years he held this post, Theodore Roosevelt radically reformed the police department. The police force was reputed as one of the most corrupt in America. The NYPD’s history division records that Theodore Roosevelt was “an iron-willed leader of unimpeachable honesty, (who) brought a reforming zeal to the New York City Police Commission in 1895.” Theodore Roosevelt and his fellow commissioners established new disciplinary rules, created a bicycle squad to police New York’s traffic problems and standardized the use of pistols by officers. Thoedore Roosevelt implemented regular inspections of firearms, annual physical exams, appointed 1,600 new recruits based on their physical and mental qualifications and not on political affiliation, established meritorious service medals, and shut down corrupt police hostelries. During his tenure, a Municipal Lodging House was established by the Board of Charities, and Theodore Roosevelt required officers to register with the Board. Theodore Roosevelt also had telephones installed in station houses. Always an energetic man, he made a habit of walking officers’ beats late at night and early in the morning to make sure they were on duty. Theodore Roosevelt became caught up in public disagreements with Commissioner Parker, who sought to negate or delay the promotion of many officers put forward by Theodore Roosevelt. As Governor of New York State before becoming Vice President in March 1901, Theodore Roosevelt signed an act replacing the Police Commissioners with a single Police Commissioner.

Theodore Roosevelt was always facinated by history. Urged by Roosevelt’s close friend, Congressman Henry Cabot Lodge, President William McKinley appointed a delighted Theodore Roosevelt to the post of Assistant Secretary of the Navy in 1897. (Because of the inactivity of Secretary of the Navy John D. Long at the time, this basically gave Theodore Roosevelt control over the department.) Theodore Roosevelt was instrumental in preparing the Navy for the Spanish-American War and was an enthusiastic proponent of testing the U.S. military in battle, at one point stating “I should welcome almost any war, for I think this country needs one”.

On leaving the Army, Theodore Roosevelt was elected governor of New York in 1898 as a Republican. Theodore Roosevelt made such a concerted effort to root out corruption and “machine politics” that Republican boss Thomas Collier Platt forced him on William McKinley as a running mate in the 1900 election, against the wishes of William McKinley’s manager, Senator Mark Hanna. Theodore Roosevelt was a powerful campaign asset for the Republican ticket, which defeated William Jennings Bryan in a landslide based on restoration of prosperity at home and a successful war and new prestige abroad. William Jennings Bryan stumped for Free Silver again, but William McKinley’s promise of prosperity through the gold standard, high tariffs, and the restoration of business confidence enlarged his margin of victory. William Jennings Bryan had strongly supported the war against Spain, but denounced the annexation of the Philippines as imperialism that would spoil America’s innocence. Theodore Roosevelt countered with many speeches that argued it was best for the Filipinos to have stability, and the Americans to have a proud place in the world. Theodore Roosevelt’s 6 months as Vice President (March to September 1901) were uneventful. On 2 September, 1901, at the Minnesota State Fair, Theodore Roosevelt 1st used in a public speech a saying that would later be universally associated with him: “Speak softly and carry a big stick, and you will go far.”

At the Pan-American Exposition in Buffalo, New York, on 6 September, 1901, President William McKinley was shot by Leon Czolgosz (Zol-gash). Theodore Roosevelt had been at a luncheon of the Vermont Fish and Game League on Lake Champlain when he learned the news. Theodore Roosevelt rushed to Buffalo, but after being assured the President would recover, he went on a planned family camping and hiking trip to Mount Marcyin the Adirondacks. In the mountains, a runner notified him William McKinley was on his death bed. Theodore Roosevelt pondered with his wife, Edith, how best to respond, not wanting to show up in Buffalo and wait on William McKinley’s death. Theodore Roosevelt was rushed by a series of stagecoaches to North Creek train station. At the station, Theodore Roosevelt was handed a telegram that said President William McKinley died at 2:30 AM that morning. Theodore Roosevelt continued by train from North Creek to Buffalo. Theodore Roosevelt arrived in Buffalo later that day, accepting an invitation to stay at the home of Ansley Wilcox, a prominent lawyer and friend since the early 1880s when they had both worked closely with New York State Governor Grover Cleveland on civil service reform.

Theodore Roosevelt took the oath of office in the Ansley Wilcox House at Buffalo, borrowing Ansley Wilcox’s morning coat. Theodore Roosevelt did not swear on a Bible, in contrast to the usual tradition of US presidents. Expressing the fears of many old-line Republicans, Mark Hanna lamented “that damned cowboy is president now.” Theodore Roosevelt was the youngest person to assume the presidency, at 42, and he promised to continue William McKinley’s cabinet and his basic policies. Theodore Roosevelt did so, but after winning election in 1904, he moved to the political left, stretching his ties to the Republican Party’s conservative leaders.

Theodore Roosevelt commanding 2 large bears “Interstate Commerce Commission” and “Federal Courts” to attack Wall Street before the Panic of 1907. Puck May 8, 1907Theodore Roosevelt promised to continue William McKinley’s program, and at first he worked closely with William McKinley’s men. Theodore Roosevelt 20,000-word address to the Congress in December 1901 asked Congress to curb the power of trusts “within reasonable limits.” They did not act but Theodore Roosevelt did, issuing 44 lawsuits against major corporations; he was called the “trust-buster”.

Theodore Roosevelt firmly believed: “The Government must in increasing degree supervise and regulate the workings of the railways engaged in interstate commerce.” Inaction was a danger, he argued: “Such increased supervision is the only alternative to an increase of the present evils on the one hand or a still more radical policy on the other.”

Theodore Roosevelt’s biggest success was passage of the Hepburn Act of 1906, the provisions of which were to be regulated by the Interstate Commerce Commission (ICC). The most important provision of the Act gave the ICC the power to replace existing rates with “just-and-reasonable” maximum rates, with the ICC to define what was just and reasonable. Anti-rebate provisions were toughened, free passes were outlawed, and the penalties for violation were increased. Finally, the ICC gained the power to prescribe a uniform system of accounting, require standardised reports, and inspect railroad accounts. The Act made ICC orders binding; that is, the railroads had to either obey or contest the ICC orders in federal court. To speed the process, appeals from the district courts would go directly to the U.S. Supreme Court. The limited on railroad rates depreciated the value of railroad securities, a factor in causing the panic of 1907.

In response to public clamor (and due to the uproar cause by Upton Sinclair’s book The Jungle), Theodore Roosevelt pushed Congress to pass the Pure Food and Drug Act of 1906, as well as the Meat Inspection Act of 1906. These laws provided for labeling of foods and drugs, inspection of livestock and mandated sanitary conditions at meatpacking plants. Congress replaced Theodore Roosevelt’s proposals with a version supported by the major meatpackers who worried about the overseas markets, and did not want small unsanitary plants undercutting their domestic market.

Theodore Roosevelt was the 5ht Vice President to succeed to the office of President, but the 1st to win election in his own right. (Millard Fillmore ran and lost on a
3rd-party ticket 4 years after leaving office, and Chester Arthur was denied nomination by his party in 1884). After Senator Mark Hanna, William McKinley’s old campaign manager, died in February 1904, there was no one in the Republican Party to oppose Theodore Roosevelt, and he easily won the nomination. When an effort to draft former president Grover Cleveland failed, the Democrats were without a candidate and finally settled on obscure New York judge Alton B. Parker. The outcome was never in doubt. Theodore Roosevelt crushed Alton B. Parker 56%-38% in the popular vote and 336-140 in the Electoral College, sweeping the country outside the perennially Democratic Solid South. Socialist Eugene Debs got 3%. The night of the election, after his victory was clear, Theodore Roosevelt promised not to run again in 1908. Theodore Roosevelt later regretted that promise, as it compelled him to leave the White House at the age of only 50, at the height of his popularity.

Theodore Roosevelt took Cabinet members and friends on long, fast-paced hikes, boxed in the state rooms of the White House, romped with his children, and read voraciously. In 1908, he was permanently blinded in his left eye during one of his boxing bouts, but this injury was kept from the public at the time. Theodore Roosevelt’s many enthusiastic interests and limitless energy led one ambassador to wryly explain, “You must always remember that the President is about 6.”

During his presidency, Theodore Roosevelt tried but did not succeed to advance the cause of spelling reform as advocated by the Simplified Spelling Board. Theodore Roosevelt issued an executive order requiring the use of the reformed spelling system in August 1906. Theodore Roosevelt tried to force the federal government to adopt the system, sending an order to the Public Printer to use the system in all public federal documents. The order was obeyed, and among the documents thus printed was the President’s special message regarding the Panama Canal.

The reform annoyed the public, forcing him to rescind the order. Literary critic Brander Matthews, a friend of Theodore Roosevelt and one of the chief advocates of the reform as Chairman of the Spelling Reform Board, remonstrated with him for abandoning the effort. Theodore Roosevelt replied on 16 December: “I could not by fighting have kept the new spelling in, and it was evidently worse than useless to go into an undignified contest when I was beaten. Do you know that the one word as to which I thought the new spelling was wrong – thru – was more responsible than anything else for our discomfiture?” Next summer Theodore Roosevelt was watching a naval review when a newspaper launch marked “Pres Bot” chugged ostentatiously by. The President waved and laughed with delight.

Theodore Roosevelt’s oldest daughter, Alice, was a controversial character during his stay in the White House. When friends asked if he could rein in his elder daughter, Theodore Roosevelt said, “I can be President of the United States, or I can control Alice. I cannot possibly do both.” In turn, Alice said of him that he always wanted to be “the bride at every wedding and the corpse at every funeral.”

Theodore Roosevelt’s contribution to the White House was the construction of the original West Wing, which he had built to free up the 2nd floor rooms in the residence that formerly housed the president’s staff. Theodore Roosevelt and Edith also had the entire house renovated and restored to the federal style, tearing out the Victorian furnishings and details (including Tiffany windows) that had been installed over the previous 3 decades.

Theodore Roosevelt angrily complained about the foreign policy of President Wilson, calling it “weak.” This caused him to develop an intense dislike for Woodrow Wilson. When World War I began in 1914, Theodore Roosevelt strongly supported the Allies of World War I and demanded a harsher policy against Germany, especially regarding submarine warfare. In 1916, he campaigned energetically for Charles Evans Hughes and repeatedly denounced Irish-Americans and German-Americans who Theodore Roosevelt said were unpatriotic because they put the interest of Ireland and Germany ahead of America’s by supporting neutrality. Theodore Roosevelt insisted one had to be 100% American, not a “hyphenated American” who juggled multiple loyalties. When the U.S. entered the war in 1917, Theodore Roosevelt sought to raise a volunteer infantry division, but Woodrow Wilson refused.

Theodore Roosevelt’s attacks on Woodrow Wilson helped the Republicans win control of Congress in the off-year elections of 1918. Theodore Roosevelt was popular enough to seriously contest the 1920 Republican nomination, but his health was broken by 1918, because of the lingering malaria. Theodore Roosevelt’s son Quentin, a daring pilot with the American forces in France, was shot down behind German lines in 1918. Quentin was his youngest son and probably his favourite. It is said the death of his son distressed him so much that Theodore Roosevelt never recovered from his loss.

Theodore Roosevelt’s Grave in Youngs Memorial Cemetery Oyster Bay, New York 26 steps leading to Theodore Roosevelt’s grave, commemorating his service as 26th President Despite his debilitating diseases, Theodore Roosevelt remained active to the end of his life. Theodore Roosevelt was an enthusiastic proponent of the Scouting movement. The Boy Scouts of America gave him the title of Chief Scout Citizen, the only person to hold such title. One early Scout leader said, “The 2 things that gave Scouting great impetus and made it very popular were the uniform and Teddy Roosevelt’s jingoism.”

On 6 January, 1919 Theodore Roosevelt died in his sleep at Oyster Bay of a coronary embolism, preceded by a 2 1/2-month illness described as inflammatory rheumatism, and was buried in nearby Youngs Memorial Cemetery. Upon receiving word of his death, his son, Archie, telegraphed his siblings simply, “The old lion is dead.” Woodrow Wilson’s vice president at the time Thomas R. Marshall said of his death “Death had to take Roosevelt sleeping, for if he had been awake, there would have been a fight.”

Theodore Roosevelt intensely disliked being called “Teddy,” and was quick to point out this fact to those who used the nickname, though it would become widely used by newspapers during his political career. Theodore Roosevelt attended the Madison Square Presbyterian Church until the age of 16. Later in life, when Theodore Roosevelt lived at Oyster Bay he attended an Episcopal church with his wife. While in Washington he attended services at Grace Reformed Church. As President he firmly believed in the separation of church and state and thought it unwise to have In God We Trust on currency, because he thought it sacrilegious to put the name of the Deity on something so common as money. Theodore Roosevelt was also a Freemason, and regularly attended the Matinecock Lodge’s meetings. Theodore Roosevelt once said that “One of the things that so greatly attracted me to Masonry that I hailed the chance of becoming a Mason was that it really did act up to what we, as a government, are pledged to – namely to treat each man on his merit as a man.”

Theodore Roosevelt had a lifelong interest in pursuing what he called, in an 1899 speech, “the strenuous life.” To this end, he exercised regularly and took up boxing, tennis, hiking, rowing, polo, and horseback riding. As governor of New York, he boxed with sparring partners several times a week, a practice he regularly continued as President until one blow detached his left retina, leaving him blind in that eye (a fact not made public until many years later). Thereafter, he practiced jujutsu and continued his habit of skinny-dipping in the Potomac River during winter.

Theodore Roosevelt was an enthusiastic singlestick player and, according to Harper’s Weekly, in 1905 showed up at a White House reception with his arm bandaged after a bout with General Leonard Wood. Theodore Roosevelt was also an avid reader, reading tens of thousands of books, at a rate of several a day in multiple languages. Along with Thomas Jefferson, Theodore Roosevelt is often considered the most well read of any American politician.

For his gallantry at San Juan Hill, Theodore Roosevelt’s commanders recommended him for the Medal of Honour, but his subsequent telegrams to the War Department complaining about the delays in returning American troops from Cuba doomed his chances. In the late 1990s, Theodore Roosevelt’s supporters again took up the flag on his behalf and overcame opposition from elements within the U.S. Army and the National Archives. On 16 January, 2001, President Bill Clinton awarded Theodore Roosevelt the Medal of Honour posthumously for his charge up San Juan Hill, Cuba, during the Spanish-American War. Theodore Roosevelt’s eldest son, Brigadier General Theodore Roosevelt, Jr., received the Medal of Honour for heroism at the Battle of Normandy in 1944. The Roosevelts thus became 1 of only 2 father-son pairs to receive this honour.

The Hollywood Roosevelt Hotel in Los Angeles is named after him.

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Speech Differences And Stutter Series-Disabled Legend Sir Isaac Newton

Sir Isaac Newton, FRS (pronounced /ˈnjuːtən/; was born on 4 January 1643 at Woolsthorpe Manor in Woolsthorpe-by-Colsterworth, a hamlet in the county of Lincolnshire. At the time of Sir Isaac Newton’s birth, England had not adopted the latest papal calendar and therefore his date of birth was recorded as Christmas Day, 25 December 1642. Sir Isaac Newton was born 3 months after the death of his father. Born prematurely, he was a small child; his mother Hannah Ayscough reportedly said that he could have fit inside a quart mug. Sir Isaac Newton died on 31 March 1727 in London and was buried in Westminster Abbey.

After Isaac Newton’s death, his body was discovered to have had massive amounts of mercury in it, probably resulting from his alchemical pursuits. Mercury poisoning could explain Sir Isaac Newton’s eccentricity in late life.

Sir Isaac Newton was an English physicist, mathematician, astronomer, natural philosopher, alchemist and theologian. Sir Isaac Newton’s Philosophiæ Naturalis Principia Mathematica, published in 1687, is considered to be the most influential book in the history of science. In this work, Sir Isaac Newton described universal gravitation and the 3 laws of motion, laying the groundwork for classical mechanics, which dominated the scientific view of the physical universe for the next 3 centuries and is the basis for modern engineering. Sir Isaac Newton showed that the motions of objects on Earth and of celestial bodies are governed by the same set of natural laws by demonstrating the consistency between Kepler’s laws of planetary motion and his theory of gravitation, thus removing the last doubts about heliocentrism and advancing the scientific revolution.

In mechanics, Sir Isaac Newton enunciated the principles of conservation of momentum and angular momentum. In optics, he invented the reflecting telescope and developed a theory of colour based on the observation that a prism decomposes white light into a visible spectrum. Sir Isaac Newton also formulated an empirical law of cooling and studied the speed of sound.

In mathematics, Sir Isaac Newton shares the credit with Gottfried Leibniz for the development of the differential and integral calculus. Sir Isaac Newton also demonstrated the generalised binomial theorem, developed the so-called “Newton’s method” for approximating the 0’s of a function, and contributed to the study of power series.

Sir Isaac Newton was also highly religious (though unorthodox), producing more work on Biblical hermeneutics than the natural science he is remembered for today.

In a 2005 poll of the Royal Society asking who had the greater effect on the history of science, Sir Isaac Newton was deemed much more influential than Albert Einstein.

Sir Isaac Newton was 3, when his mother remarried and went to live with her new husband, the Reverend Barnabus Smith, leaving her son in the care of his maternal grandmother, Margery Ayscough. The young Isaac disliked his stepfather and held some enmity towards his mother for marrying him, as revealed by this entry in a list of sins committed up to the age of 19: Threatening my father and mother Smith to burn them and the house over them.

According to E.T. Bell and H. Eves:

Sir Isaac Newton began his schooling in the village schools and was later sent to The King’s School, Grantham, where he became the top student in the school. At The King’s School, he lodged with the local apothecary, William Clarke and eventually became engaged to the apothecary’s stepdaughter, Anne Storer, before he went off to the University of Cambridge at the age of 19. As Sir Isaac Newton became engrossed in his studies, the romance cooled and Miss Storer married someone else. It is said he kept a warm memory of this love, but Sir Isaac Newton had no other recorded “sweet-hearts” and never married.

There are rumours that he remained a confirmed celibate. However, Bell and Eves’ sources for this claim, William Stukeley and Mrs. Vincent (the former Miss Storer – actually named Katherine, not Anne), merely say that Sir Isaac Newton entertained “a passion” for Storer while he lodged at the William Clarke house.

From the age of about 12 until he was 17, Sir Isaac Newton was educated at The King’s School, Grantham (where his signature can still be seen upon a library window sill). Sir Isaac Newton was removed from school, and by October 1659, he was to be found at Woolsthorpe-by-Colsterworth, where his mother, widowed by now for a 2nd time, attempted to make a farmer of him. Sir Isaac Newton hated farming. Henry Stokes, master at the King’s School, who persuaded his mother to send him back to school so that he might complete his education. This he did at the age of 18, achieving an admirable final report.

In June 1661, he was admitted to Trinity College, Cambridge. According to John Stillwell, he entered Trinity as a sizar. At that time, the college’s teachings were based on those of Aristotle, but Sir Isaac Newton preferred to read the more advanced ideas of modern philosophers such as Descartes and astronomers such as Copernicus, Galileo, and Kepler. In 1665, he discovered the generalised binomial theorem and began to develop a mathematical theory that would later become infinitesimal calculus. Soon after Sir Isaac Newton had obtained his degree in August of 1665, the University closed down as a precaution against the Great Plague. Although he had been undistinguished as a Cambridge student, Sir Isaac Newton’s private studies at his home in Woolsthorpe over the subsequent 2 years saw the development of his theories on calculus, optics and the law of gravitation.

Most modern historians believe that Sir Isaac Newton and Leibniz had developed infinitesimal calculus independently, using their own unique notations. According to Sir Isaac Newton’s inner circle, Sir Isaac Newton had worked out his method years before Leibniz, yet he published almost nothing about it until 1693, and did not give a full account until 1704. Meanwhile, Leibniz began publishing a full account of his methods in 1684. Moreover, Leibniz’s notation and “differential Method” were universally adopted on the Continent, and after 1820 or so, in the British Empire. Whereas Leibniz’s notebooks show the advancement of the ideas from early stages until maturity, there is only the end product in Sir Isaac Newton’s known notes. Sir Isaac Newton claimed that he had been reluctant to publish his calculus because he feared being mocked for it. Sir Isaac Newton had a very close relationship with Swiss mathematician Nicolas Fatio de Duillier, who from the beginning was impressed by Sir Isaac Newton’s gravitational theory. In 1691 Nicolas Fatio de Duillier planned to prepare a new version of Sir Isaac Newton’s Philosophiae Naturalis Principia Mathematica, but never finished it. However, in 1694 the relationship between the 2 men changed. At the time, Nicolas Fatio de Duillier had also exchanged several letters with Leibniz.

Starting in 1699, other members of the Royal Society (of which Sir Isaac Newton was a member) accused Leibniz of plagiarism, and the dispute broke out in full force in 1711. Sir Isaac Newton’s Royal Society proclaimed in a study that it was Sir Isaac Newton who was the true discoverer and labeled Leibniz a fraud. This study was cast into doubt when it was later found that Sir Isaac Newton himself wrote the study’s concluding remarks on Leibniz. Thus began the bitter Newton v. Leibniz calculus controversy, which marred the lives of both Sir Isaac Newton and Leibniz until the latter’s death in 1716.

Sir Isaac Newton is generally credited with the generalised binomial theorem, valid for any exponent. Sir Isaac Newton discovered Newton’s identities, Newton’s method, classified cubic plane curves (polynomials of degree 3 in 2 variables), made substantial contributions to the theory of finite differences, and was the 1st to use fractional indices and to employ coordinate geometry to derive solutions to Diophantine equations. Sir Isaac Newton approximated partial sums of the harmonic series by logarithms (a precursor to Euler’s summation formula), and was the 1st to use power series with confidence and to revert power series. Sir Isaac Newton also discovered a new formula for calculating pi.

Sir Isaac Newton was elected Lucasian Professor of Mathematics in 1669. In that day, any fellow of Cambridge or Oxford had to be an ordained Anglican priest. However, the terms of the Lucasian professorship required that the holder not be active in the church (presumably so as to have more time for science). Sir Isaac Newton argued that this should exempt him from the ordination requirement, and Charles II, whose permission was needed, accepted this argument. Thus a conflict between Sir Isaac Newton’s religious views and Anglican orthodoxy was averted.

From 1670 to 1672, Sir Isaac Newton lectured on optics. During this period he investigated the refraction of light, demonstrating that a prism could decompose white light into a spectrum of colours, and that a lens and a 2nd prism could recompose the multicoloured spectrum into white light.

Sir Isaac Newton also showed that the coloured light does not change its properties by separating out a coloured beam and shining it on various objects. Sir Isaac Newton noted that regardless of whether it was reflected or scattered or transmitted, it stayed the same colour. Thus, he observed that colour is the result of objects interacting with already-coloured light rather than objects generating the colour themselves. This is known as Newton’s theory of colour.

From this work he concluded that any refracting telescope would suffer from the dispersion of light into colours, and invented a reflecting telescope (today known as a Newtonian telescope) to bypass that problem. By grinding his own mirrors, using Sir Isaac Newton’s rings to judge the quality of the optics for his telescopes, he was able to produce a superior instrument to the refracting telescope, due primarily to the wider diameter of the mirror. In 1671 the Royal Society asked for a demonstration of his reflecting telescope. Their interest encouraged him to publish his notes On Colour, which he later expanded into his Opticks. When Robert Hooke criticised some of Sir Isaac Newton’s ideas, Sir Isaac Newton was so offended that he withdrew from public debate. The 2 men remained enemies until Hooke’s death.

Sir Isaac Newton argued that light is composed of particles or corpuscles, which were refracted by accelerating toward the denser medium, but he had to associate them with waves to explain the diffraction of light (Opticks Bk. II, Props. XII-L). Later physicists instead favoured a purely wavelike explanation of light to account for diffraction. Today’s quantum mechanics, photons and the idea of wave–particle duality bear only a minor resemblance to Sir Isaac Newton’s understanding of light.

In his Hypothesis of Light of 1675, Sir Isaac Newton posited the existence of the ether to transmit forces between particles. The contact with the theosophist Henry More, revived his interest in alchemy. Sir Isaac Newton replaced the ether with occult forces based on Hermetic ideas of attraction and repulsion between particles. John Maynard Keynes, who acquired many of Sir Isaac Newton’s writings on alchemy, stated that “Newton was not the first of the age of reason: he was the last of the magicians.” Sir Isaac Newton’s interest in alchemy cannot be isolated from his contributions to science.(This was at a time when there was no clear distinction between alchemy and science.) Had Sir Isaac Newton not relied on the occult idea of action at a distance, across a vacuum, he might not have developed his theory of gravity.

In 1704 Sir Isaac Newton published Opticks, in which he expounded his corpuscular theory of light. Sir Isaac Newton considered light to be made up of extremely subtle corpuscles, that ordinary matter was made of grosser corpuscles and speculated that through a kind of alchemical transmutation “Are not gross Bodies and Light convertible into one another, …and may not Bodies receive much of their Activity from the Particles of Light which enter their Composition?” Sir Isaac Newton also constructed a primitive form of a frictional electrostatic generator, using a glass globe.

In 1677, Sir Isaac Newton returned to his work on mechanics, i.e., gravitation and its effect on the orbits of planets, with reference to Kepler’s laws of planetary motion, and consulting with Hooke and Flamsteed on the subject. Sir Isaac Newton published his results in De motu corporum in gyrum (1684). This contained the beginnings of the laws of motion that would inform the Principia.

The Philosophiae Naturalis Principia Mathematica (now known as the Principia) was published on 5 July 1687 with encouragement and financial help from Edmond Halley. In this work Sir Isaac Newton stated the 3 universal laws of motion that were not to be improved upon for more than 200 years. Sir Isaac Newton used the Latin word gravitas (weight) for the effect that would become known as gravity, and defined the law of universal gravitation. In the same work he presented the 1st analytical determination, based on Boyle’s law, of the speed of sound in air. Sir Isaac Newton’s postulate of an invisible force able to act over vast distances led to him being criticised for introducing “occult agencies” into science.

With the Principia, Sir Isaac Newton became internationally recognised. Sir Isaac Newton acquired a circle of admirers, including the Swiss-born mathematician Nicolas Fatio de Duillier, with whom he formed an intense relationship that lasted until 1693. The end of this friendship led Sir Isaac Newton to a nervous breakdown.

In the 1690s, Sir Isaac Newton wrote a number of religious tracts dealing with the literal interpretation of the Bible. Henry More’s belief in the universe and rejection of Cartesian dualism may have influenced Sir Isaac Newton’s religious ideas. A manuscript he sent to John Locke in which he disputed the existence of the Trinity was never published. Later works – The Chronology of Ancient Kingdoms Amended (1728) and Observations Upon the Prophecies of Daniel and the Apocalypse of St. John (1733) – were published after his death. Sir Isaac Newton also devoted a great deal of time to alchemy.

Sir Isaac Newton was also a member of the Parliament of England from 1689 to 1690 and in 1701, but his only recorded comments were to complain about a cold draft in the chamber and request that the window be closed.

Sir Isaac Newton moved to London to take up the post of warden of the Royal Mint in 1696, a position that he had obtained through the patronage of Charles Montagu, 1st Earl of Halifax, then Chancellor of the Exchequer. Sir Isaac Newton took charge of England’s great recoining, somewhat treading on the toes of Master Lucas (and securing the job of deputy comptroller of the temporary Chester branch for Edmond Halley). Sir Isaac Newton became perhaps the best-known Master of the Mint upon Lucas’ death in 1699, a position Sir Isaac Newton held until his death. These appointments were intended as sinecures, but Sir Isaac Newton took them seriously, retiring from his Cambridge duties in 1701, and exercising his power to reform the currency and punish clippers and counterfeiters. As Master of the Mint in 1717 Sir Isaac Newton unofficially moved the Pound Sterling from the silver standard to the gold standard by creating a relationship between gold coins and the silver penny in the “Law of Queen Anne”; these were all great reforms at the time, adding considerably to the wealth and stability of England. It was his work at the Mint, rather than his earlier contributions to science, that earned him a knighthood from Queen Anne in 1705.

Sir Isaac Newton was made President of the Royal Society in 1703 and an associate of the French Académie des Sciences. In his position at the Royal Society, Sir Isaac Newton made an enemy of John Flamsteed, the Astronomer Royal, by prematurely publishing Flamsteed’s star catalogue, which Sir Isaac Newton had used in his studies.

Sir Isaac Newton’s half-niece, Catherine Barton Conduitt, served as his hostess in social affairs at his house on Jermyn Street in London; he was her “very loving Uncle,” according to his letter to her when she was recovering from smallpox.

Although Sir Isaac Newton, who had no children, had divested much of his estate onto relatives in his last years, he actually died intestate.

Historian Stephen D. Snobelen says of Newton, “Isaac Newton was a heretic. But like Nicodemus, the secret disciple of Jesus, he never made a public declaration of his private faith – which the orthodox would have deemed extremely radical. Sir Isaac Newton hid his faith so well that scholars are still unravelling his personal beliefs.” Stephen D. Snobelen concludes that Sir Isaac Newton was at least a Socinian sympathiser (he owned and had thoroughly read at least 8 Socinian books), possibly an Arian and almost certainly an antitrinitarian. In an age notable for its religious intolerance there are few public expressions of Sir Isaac Newton’s radical views, most notably his refusal to take holy orders and his refusal, on his death bed, to take the sacrament when it was offered to him.

In a view disputed by Snobelen, T.C. Pfizenmaier argues that Sir Isaac Newton held the Eastern Orthodox view of the Trinity rather than the Western one held by Roman Catholics, Anglicans, and most Protestants. In his own day, he was also accused of being a Rosicrucian (as were many in the Royal Society and in the court of Charles II).

Although the laws of motion and universal gravitation became Sir Isaac Newton’s best-known discoveries, he warned against using them to view the universe as a mere machine, as if akin to a great clock. Sir Isaac Newton said, “Gravity explains the motions of the planets, but it cannot explain who set the planets in motion. God governs all things and knows all that is or can be done.”

Sir Isaac Newton’s scientific fame notwithstanding, Sir Isaac Newton’s studies of the Bible and of the early Church Fathers were also noteworthy. Sir Isaac Newton wrote works on textual criticism, most notably An Historical Account of Two Notable Corruptions of Scripture. Sir Isaac Newton also placed the crucifixion of Jesus Christ at 3 April, AD 33, which agrees with one traditionally accepted date. Sir Isaac Newton also attempted, unsuccessfully, to find hidden messages within the Bible.

In his own lifetime, Sir Isaac Newton wrote more on religion than he did on natural science. Sir Isaac Newton believed in a rationally immanent world, but he rejected the hylozoism implicit in Leibniz and Baruch Spinoza. Thus, the ordered and dynamically informed universe could be understood, and must be understood, by an active reason, but this universe, to be perfect and ordained, had to be regular.

“Newton,” by William Blake; here, Newton is depicted as a “divine geometer” Sir Isaac Newton and Robert Boyle’s mechanical philosophy was promoted by rationalist pamphleteers as a viable alternative to the pantheists and enthusiasts, and was accepted hesitantly by orthodox preachers as well as dissident preachers like the latitudinarians. Thus, the clarity and simplicity of science was seen as a way to combat the emotional and metaphysical superlatives of both superstitious enthusiasm and the threat of atheism, and, at the same time, the 2nd wave of English deists used Sir Isaac Newton’s discoveries to demonstrate the possibility of a “Natural Religion.”

The attacks made against pre-Enlightenment “magical thinking,” and the mystical elements of Christianity, were given their foundation with Robert Boyle’s mechanical conception of the universe. Sir Isaac Newton gave Robert Boyle’s ideas their completion through mathematical proofs and, perhaps more importantly, was very successful in popularising them. Sir Isaac Newton refashioned the world governed by an interventionist God into a world crafted by a God that designs along rational and universal principles. These principles were available for all people to discover, allowed people to pursue their own aims fruitfully in this life, not the next, and to perfect themselves with their own rational powers.

Sir Isaac Newton saw God as the master creator whose existence could not be denied in the face of the grandeur of all creation. But the unforeseen theological consequence of his conception of God, as Leibniz pointed out, was that God was now entirely removed from the world’s affairs, since the need for intervention would only evidence some imperfection in God’s creation, something impossible for a perfect and omnipotent creator. Leibniz’s theodicy cleared God from the responsibility for “l’origine du mal” by making God removed from participation in his creation. The understanding of the world was now brought down to the level of simple human reason, and humans, as Odo Marquard argued, became responsible for the correction and elimination of evil.

On the other hand, latitudinarian and Sir Isaac Newtonian ideas taken too far resulted in the millenarians, a religious faction dedicated to the concept of a mechanical universe, but finding in it the same enthusiasm and mysticism that the Enlightenment had fought so hard to extinguish.

In a manuscript he wrote in 1704 in which he describes his attempts to extract scientific information from the Bible, he estimated that the world would end no earlier than 2060. In predicting this he said, “This I mention not to assert when the time of the end shall be, but to put a stop to the rash conjectures of fanciful men who are frequently predicting the time of the end, and by doing so bring the sacred prophesies into discredit as often as their predictions fail.”

As warden of the Royal Mint, Sir Isaac Newton estimated that 20% of the coins taken in during The Great Recoinage were counterfeit. Counterfeiting was high treason, punishable by being hanged, drawn and quartered. Despite this, convictions of the most flagrant criminals could be extremely difficult to achieve; however, Sir Isaac Newton proved to be equal to the task.

Disguised as an habitué of bars and taverns, he gathered much of that evidence himself. For all the barriers placed to prosecution, and separating the branches of government, English law still had ancient and formidable customs of authority. Sir Isaac Newton was made a justice of the peace and between June 1698 and Christmas 1699conducted some 200 cross-examinations of witnesses, informers and suspects. Sir Isaac Newton won his convictions and in February 1699, he had 10 prisoners waiting to be executed.

Possibly Sir Isaac Newton’s greatest triumph as the king’s attorney was against William Chaloner. One of William Chaloner’s schemes was to set up phony conspiracies of Catholics and then turn in the hapless conspirators whom he entrapped. William Chaloner made himself rich enough to posture as a gentleman. Petitioning Parliament, William Chaloner accused the Mint of providing tools to counterfeiters (a charge also made by others). Sir Isaac Newton proposed that he be allowed to inspect the Mint’s processes in order to improve them. Sir Isaac Newton petitioned Parliament to adopt his plans for a coinage that could not be counterfeited, while at the same time striking false coins. Sir Isaac Newton was outraged, and went about the work to uncover anything about William Chaloner. During his studies, he found that William Chaloner was engaged in counterfeiting. Sir Isaac Newton immediately put William Chaloner on trial, but William Chaloner had friends in high places and, to Sir Isaac Newton’s horror, William Chaloner walked free. Sir Isaac Newton put him on trial a 2nd time with conclusive evidence. William Chaloner was convicted of high treason and hanged, drawn and quartered on 23 March 1699 at Tyburn gallows.

Enlightenment philosophers chose a short history of scientific predecessors—Galileo, Roger Boyle,and Sir Isaac Newton principally—as the guides and guarantors of their applications of the singular concept of Nature and Natural Law to every physical and social field of the day. In this respect, the lessons of history and the social structures built upon it could be discarded.

It was Sir Isaac Newton’s conception of the universe based upon Natural and rationally understandable laws that became the seed for Enlightenment ideology. Locke and Voltaire applied concepts of Natural Law to political systems advocating intrinsic rights; the physiocrats and Adam Smith applied Natural conceptions of psychology and self-interest to economic systems and the sociologists criticised the current social order for trying to fit history into Natural models of progress. Monboddo and Samuel Clarke resisted elements of Sir Isaac Newton’s work, but eventually rationalised it to conform with their strong religious views of nature.

The famous three laws of motion:

Newton’s 1st Law (also known as the Law of Inertia) states that an object at rest tends to stay at rest and that an object in uniform motion tends to stay in uniform motion unless acted upon by a net external force.

Newton’s 2nd Law states that an applied force, on an object equals the rate of change of its momentum, with time. Mathematically, this is expressed as

Because this relation only holds when the mass is constant, that is, when, the 1st term vanishes, and the equation can be written in the iconic form

This equation states that a force applied to an object of mass m causes it to accelerate at a rate.

This equality requires a consistent set of units for measuring mass, length, and time. One such set is the SI system, where mass is in kilograms, length in metres, and time in seconds. This leads to force being in newtons, named in his honour, and acceleration in metres per second per second. The English analogous system is slugs, feet, and seconds.

Sir Isaac Newton’s 3rd Law states that for every action there is an equal and opposite reaction. This means that any force exerted onto an object has a counterpart force that is exerted in the opposite direction back onto the 1st object. The most common example is of 2 ice skaters pushing against each other and sliding apart in opposite directions. Another example is the recoil of a firearm, in which the force propelling the bullet is exerted equally back onto the gun and is felt by the shooter. Since the objects in question do not necessarily have the same mass, the resulting acceleration of the 2 objects can be different (as in the case of firearm recoil).

Newton’s apple

Reputed descendants of Newton’s apple tree, at the Botanic Gardens in Cambridge and the Instituto Balseiro library garden“ When Newton saw an apple fall, he found

In that slight startle from his contemplation –
‘Tis said (for I’ll not answer above ground
For any sage’s creed or calculation) –
A mode of proving that the earth turn’d round
In a most natural whirl, called “gravitation;”
And this is the sole mortal who could grapple,
Since Adam, with a fall or with an apple.

Newton himself often told that story that he was inspired to formulate his theory of gravitation by watching the fall of an apple from a tree. It fell straight down–why was that, he asked?

Cartoons have gone further to suggest the apple actually hit Sir Isaac Newton’s head, and that its impact somehow made him aware of the force of gravity. John Conduitt, Sir Isaac Newton’s assistant at the Royal Mint and husband of Sir Isaac Newton’s niece, described the event when he wrote about Sir Isaac Newton’s life:

“In the year 1666 he retired again from Cambridge to his mother in Lincolnshire. Whilst he was pensively meandering in a garden it came into his thought that the power of gravity (which brought an apple from a tree to the ground) was not limited to a certain distance from earth, but that this power must extend much further than was usually thought. Why not as high as the Moon said he to himself and if so, that must influence her motion and perhaps retain her in her orbit, where upon he fell a calculating what would be the effect of that supposition.”

The question was not whether gravity existed, but whether it extended so far from Earth that it could also be the force holding the moon to its orbit. Sir Isaac Newton showed that if the force decreased as the inverse square of the distance, one could indeed calculate the Moon’s orbital period, and get good agreement. Sir Isaac Newton guessed the same force was responsible for other orbital motions, and hence named it “universal gravitation”.

A contemporary writer, William Stukeley, recorded in his Memoirs of Sir Isaac Newton’s Life a conversation with Newton in Kensington on 15 April 1726, in which Sir Isaac Newton recalled “when formerly, the notion of gravitation came into his mind. It was occasioned by the fall of an apple, as he sat in contemplative mood. Why should that apple always descend perpendicularly to the ground, thought he to himself. Why should it not go sideways or upwards, but constantly to the earth’s centre.” In similar terms, Voltaire wrote in his Essay on Epic Poetry (1727), “Sir Isaac Newton walking in his gardens, had the first thought of his system of gravitation, upon seeing an apple falling from a tree.” These accounts are probably exaggerations of Sir Isaac Newton’s own tale about sitting by a window in his home (Woolsthorpe Manor) and watching an apple fall from a tree.

Various trees are claimed to be “the” apple tree which Sir Isaac Newton describes. The King’s School, Grantham, claims that the tree was purchased by the school, uprooted and transported to the headmaster’s garden some years later, the staff of the [now] National Trust-owned Woolsthorpe Manor dispute this, and claim that a tree present in their gardens is the one described by Sir Isaac Newton. A descendant of the original tree can be seen growing outside the main gate of Trinity College, Cambridge, below the room Sir Isaac Newton lived in when he studied there. The National Fruit Collection at Brogdale can supply grafts from their tree, which appears identical to Flower of Kent, a coarse-fleshed cooking variety.

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Speech Differences And Stutter Series-Disabled Legend Charles Darwin

Charles Robert Darwin was born on 12 February, 1809 in Shrewsbury, Shropshire, England and died on 19 April, 1882 in Downe, Kent, England. Charles Darwin had expected to be buried in St Mary’s churchyard at Downe, but at the request of Charles Darwin’s colleagues, William Spottiswoode (President of the Royal Society) arranged for Charles Darwin to be given a state funeral and buried in Westminster Abbey, close to John Herschel and Isaac Newton. Only 5 non-royal personages were granted that honour of a UK state funeral during the 19th century.

Charles Darwin was an English naturalist, who realised and demonstrated that all species of life have evolved over time from common ancestors through the process he called natural selection. The fact that evolution occurs became accepted by the scientific community and the general public in his lifetime, while his theory of natural selection came to be widely seen as the primary explanation of the process of evolution in the 1930s, and now forms the basis of modern evolutionary theory. In modified form, Charles Darwin’s scientific discovery remains the foundation of biology, as it provides a unifying logical explanation for the diversity of life.

Charles Darwin developed his interest in natural history while studying medicine at Edinburgh University, then theology at Cambridge. Charles Darwin’s 5-year voyage on the Beagle established him as an eminent geologist whose observations and theories supported Charles Lyell’s uniformitarian ideas, and publication of his journal of the voyage made him famous as a popular author. Puzzled by the geographical distribution of wildlife and fossils he collected on the voyage, Charles Darwin investigated the transmutation of species and conceived his theory of natural selection in 1838. Although he discussed his ideas with several naturalists, he needed time for extensive research and his geological work had priority. Charles Darwin was writing up his theory in 1858 when Alfred Russel Wallace sent him an essay which described the same idea, prompting immediate joint publication of both of their theories.

Charles Darwin’s 1859 book On the Origin of Species established evolution by common descent as the dominant scientific explanation of diversification in nature. Charles Darwin examined human evolution and sexual selection in The Descent of Man, and Selection in Relation to Sex, followed by The Expression of the Emotions in Man and Animals. Charles Darwin’s research on plants was published in a series of books, and in his final book, he examined earthworms and their effect on soil.

In recognition of Charles Darwin’s pre-eminence, he was 1 of only 5 19th century UK non-royal personages to be honoured by a state funeral, and was buried in Westminster Abbey, close to John Herschel and Isaac Newton.

Charles Robert Darwin was born in his family home, the Mount. Charles Darwin was the 5th of 6 children of wealthy society doctor and financier Robert Darwin, and Susannah Darwin (née Wedgwood). Charles Darwin was the grandson of Erasmus Darwin on his father’s side, and of Josiah Wedgwood on his mother’s side. Both families were largely Unitarian, though the Wedgwoods were adopting Anglicanism. Robert Darwin, himself quietly a freethinker, made a nod toward convention by having baby Charles Darwin baptised in the Anglican Church. Nonetheless, Charles Darwin and his siblings attended the Unitarian chapel with their mother, and in 1817, Charles Darwin joined the day school, run by its preacher. In July of that year, when Charles Darwin was 8years old, his mother died. From September 1818, he joined his older brother Erasmus attending the nearby Anglican Shrewsbury School as a boarder.

Charles Darwin spent the summer of 1825 as an apprentice doctor, helping his father treat the poor of Shropshire. In the autumn, he went with Erasmus to the University of Edinburgh to study medicine, but was revolted by the brutality of surgery and neglected his medical studies. Charles Darwin learned taxidermy from John Edmonstone, a freed black slave who told him exciting tales of the South American rainforest. This experience gave him evidence that “Negroes and Europeans” were closely related despite superficial differences in appearance.

In Charles Darwin’s 2nd year he joined the Plinian Society, a student group of natural history enthusiasts, and assisted Dr. Robert Edmund Grant’s investigations of the anatomy and life cycle of marine animals in the Firth of Forth. In March 1827 Charles Darwin made a presentation to the Plinian of his own discovery that the black spores often found in oyster shells were the eggs of a skate leech. Dr Edmund Grant expounded Jean-Baptiste Lamarck’s theory of evolution by acquired characteristics, and the evolutionary ideas of Charles Darwin’s grandfather Erasmus which Charles Darwin had recently read. Dr Edmund Grant found evidence for homology, the radical theory that all animals have similar organs which differ only in complexity, thus showing common descent.

Charles Darwin also joined Robert Jameson’s natural history course, learning geology including the debate between Neptunism and Plutonism, receiving training in classifying plants, and assisting with work on the extensive collections of the University Museum, one of the largest museums in Europe at the time.

In 1827, his father, unhappy at his younger son’s lack of progress, shrewdly enrolled him in a Bachelor of Arts course at Christ’s College, Cambridge to qualify as a clergyman, expecting him to get a good income as an Anglican parson. However, Charles Darwin preferred riding and shooting to studying. Along with his cousin William Darwin Fox, he became engrossed in the craze at the time for the competitive collecting of beetles. William Darwin Fox introduced him to the Reverend John Stevens Henslow, professor of botany, for expert advice on beetles. Charles Darwin joined Henslow’s natural history course, and became known to the dons as “the man who walks with Henslow”. When exams drew near, Charles Darwin focused on his studies and received private instruction from Reverend John Stevens Henslow. Charles Darwin particularly liked the writings of William Paley, including his argument for divine design in nature, which showed adaptation arising from divine laws. In his finals in January 1831, Charles Darwin performed well in theology and, having scraped through in classics, mathematics and physics, came 10th out of a pass list of 178.

Residential requirements kept Charles Darwin at Cambridge until June. Following Reverend John Stevens Henslow’s example and advice, he was in no rush to take Holy Orders. Inspired by Alexander von Humboldt’s Personal Narrative, he planned to visit Tenerife with some classmates after graduation to study natural history in the tropics. To prepare himself, Charles Darwin joined the geology course of the Reverend Adam Sedgwick and, in the summer, went with him to assist in mapping strata in Wales. After a fortnight with student friends at Barmouth, he returned home to find a letter from Reverend John Stevens Henslow recommending Charles Darwin as a suitable (if unfinished) naturalist for the unpaid position of gentleman’s companion to Robert FitzRoy, the captain of HMS Beagle, which was to leave in 4 weeks on an expedition to chart the coastline of South America. Charles Darwin’s father objected to the planned 2-year voyage, regarding it as a waste of time, but was persuaded by his brother-in-law, Josiah Wedgwood, to agree to his son’s participation.

The Beagle survey took 5 years, 2/3 of which Charles Darwin spent on land. Charles Darwin carefully noted a rich variety of geological features, fossils and living organisms, and methodically collected an enormous number of specimens, many of them new to science. At intervals during the voyage he sent specimens to Cambridge together with letters about his findings, and these established his reputation as a naturalist. Charles Darwin’s extensive detailed notes showed his gift for theorising and formed the basis for his later work. The journal he originally wrote for his family, published as The Voyage of the Beagle, summarises his findings and provides social, political and anthropological insights into the wide range of people he met, both native and colonial.

While on board the ship, Charles Darwin suffered badly from seasickness. In October 1833 he caught a fever in Argentina, and in July 1834, while returning from the Andes down to Valparaíso, he fell ill and spent a month in bed.

Before they set out, Robert FitzRoy gave Charles Darwin the 1st volume of Charles Lyell’s Principles of Geology, which explained landforms as the outcome of gradual processes over huge periods of time. On their 1st stop ashore at St Jago, Charles Darwin found that a white band high in the volcanic rock cliffs consisted of baked coral fragments and shells. This matched Charles Lyell’s concept of land slowly rising or falling, giving Charles Darwin a new insight into the geological history of the island which inspired him to think of writing a book on geology. Charles Darwin went on to make many more discoveries, some of them particularly dramatic. Charles Darwin saw stepped plains of shingle and seashells in Patagonia as raised beaches, and after experiencing an earthquake in Chile saw mussel-beds stranded above high tide showing that the land had just been raised. High in the Andes he saw several fossil trees that had grown on a sand beach, with seashells nearby. Charles Darwin theorised that coral atolls form on sinking volcanic mountains, and confirmed this when the Beagle surveyed the Cocos (Keeling) Islands.

During the 1st year in South America, Charles Darwin made a major find of fossils of huge extinct mammals in strata with modern seashells, indicating recent extinction and no change in climate or signs of catastrophe. They included the little known Megatherium and fragments of armour which he thought looked like giant versions of the armour on local armadillos, as well as unknown species which aroused great interest when they were sent to England. After the voyage Richard Owen showed that most were closely related to living creatures exclusively found in the Americas.

As HMS Beagle surveyed the coasts of South America, Charles Darwin began to theorise about the wonders of nature around him. Charles Lyell’s 2nd volume, which argued against evolutionism and explained species distribution by “centres of creation”, was sent out to Charles Darwin. Charles Darwin puzzled over all he saw, and his ideas went beyond Charles Lyell. In Argentina, he found that 2 types of rhea had separate but overlapping territories. On the Galápagos Islands he collected birds, and noted that mockingbirds differed depending on which island they came from. Charles Darwin also heard that local Spaniards could tell from their appearance on which island tortoises originated, but thought the creatures had been imported by buccaneers. In Australia, the marsupial rat-kangaroo and the platypus seemed so unusual that Charles Darwin thought it was almost as though 2 distinct Creators had been at work.

In Cape Town he and Robert FitzRoy met John Herschel, who had recently written to Charles Lyell about that “mystery of mysteries”, the origin of species. When organising his notes on the return journey, Charles Darwin wrote that if his growing suspicions about the mockingbirds, the tortoises and the Falkland Island William Darwin Fox were correct, “such facts undermine the stability of Species”, then cautiously added “would” before “undermine”. Charles Darwin later wrote that such facts “seemed to me to throw some light on the origin of species”.

3 natives who had been taken from Tierra del Fuego on the Beagle’s previous voyage were taken back there to become missionaries. They had become “civilised” in England over the previous 2 years, yet their relatives appeared to Charles Darwin to be “miserable, degraded savages”. A year on, the mission had been abandoned and only Jemmy Button spoke with them to say he preferred his harsh previous way of life and did not want to return to England. Because of this experience, Charles Darwin came to think that humans were not as far removed from animals as his friends then believed, and saw differences as relating to cultural advances towards civilisation rather than being racial. Charles Darwin detested the slavery he saw elsewhere in South America, and was saddened by the effects of European settlement on Aborigines in Australia and Maori in New Zealand.

Towards the end of the voyage Captain Roger FitzRoy began writing the official Narrative of the Beagle voyages, and after reading Charles Darwin’s diary he proposed incorporating it into the account. Charles Darwin agreed to rewrite his Journal to provide a separate 3rd volume, on natural history.

While Charles Darwin was still on the voyage, Revrend John Stevens Henslow fostered his former pupil’s reputation by giving selected naturalists access to the fossil specimens and a pamphlet of Charles Darwin’s geological letters. When the Beagle returned on 2 October 1836, Charles Darwin was a celebrity in scientific circles. After visiting his home in Shrewsbury and seeing relatives, Charles Darwin hurried to Cambridge to see Revrend John Stevens Henslow, who advised on finding naturalists available to describe and catalogue the collections, and agreed to take on the botanical specimens. Charles Darwin’s father organised investments, enabling his son to be a self-funded gentleman scientist, and an excited Charles Darwin went round the London institutions being fêted and seeking experts to describe the collections. Zoologists had a huge backlog of work, and there was a danger of specimens just being left in storage.

An eager Charles Lyell met Charles Darwin for the first time on 29 October and soon introduced him to the up-and-coming anatomist Richard Owen, who had the facilities of the Royal College of Surgeons at his disposal to work on the fossil bones collected by Charles Darwin. Richard Owen’s surprising results included gigantic extinct sloths including a near complete skeleton of the unknown Scelidotherium, a hippopotamus-sized rodent-like skull named Toxodon resembling a giant capybara, and armour fragments from a huge armadillo (Glyptodon), as Charles Darwin had initially surmised. These extinct creatures were closely related to living species in South America.

In mid-December, Charles Darwin moved to Cambridge to organise work on his collections and rewrite his Journal. Charles Darwin wrote his 1st paper, showing that the South American landmass was slowly rising, and with Charles Lyell’s enthusiastic backing read it to the Geological Society of London on 4 January 1837. On the same day, he presented his mammal and bird specimens to the Zoological Society. The ornithologist John Gould soon revealed that the Galapagos birds that Charles Darwin had thought a mixture of blackbirds, “gros-beaks” and finches, were, in fact, 12 separate species of finches. On 17 February 1837, Charles Darwin was elected to the Council of the Geographical Society, and in his presidential address, Charles Lyell presented Richard Owen’s findings on Charles Darwin’s fossils, stressing geographical continuity of species as supporting his uniformitarian ideas.

Charles Darwin’s 1st sketch of an evolutionary tree from his 1st Notebook on Transmutation of Species (1837)On 6 March 1837, Charles Darwin moved to London to be close to this work, and joined the social whirl around scientists and savants such as Charles Babbage, who thought that God preordained life by natural laws rather than ad hoc miraculous creations. Charles Darwin lived near his freethinking brother Erasmus, who was part of this Whig circle and whose close friend the writer Harriet Martineau promoted the ideas of Thomas Malthus underlying the Whig “Poor Law reforms” aimed at discouraging the poor from breeding beyond available food supplies. John Herschel’s question on the origin of species was widely discussed. Medical men even joined Grant in endorsing transmutation of species, but to Charles Darwin’s scientist friends such radical heresy attacked the divine basis of the social order already under threat from recession and riots.

John Gould now revealed that the Galapagos mockingbirds from different islands were separate species, not just varieties, and the “wrens” were yet another species of finches. Darwin had not kept track of which islands the finch specimens were from, but found information from the notes of others on the Beagle, including FitzRoy, who had more carefully recorded their own collections. The zoologist Thomas Bell showed that the Galápagos tortoises were native to the islands. By mid-March, Charles Darwin was convinced that creatures arriving in the islands had become altered in some way to form new species on the different islands, and investigated transmutation while noting his speculations in his “Red Notebook” which he had begun on the Beagle. In mid-July, he began his secret “B” notebook on transmutation, and on page 36 wrote “I think” above his 1st sketch of an evolutionary tree.

As well as launching into this intensive study of transmutation, Charles Darwin became mired in more work. While still rewriting his Journal, he took on editing and publishing the expert reports on his collections, and with Revrend John Stevens Henslow’s help obtained a Treasury grant of £1,000 to sponsor this multi-volume Zoology of the Voyage of H.M.S. Beagle. Charles Darwin agreed to unrealistic dates for this and for a book on South American Geology supporting Charles Lyell’s ideas. Charles Darwin finished writing his Journal around 20 June 1837 just as Queen Victoria came to the throne, but then had its proofs to correct.

Charles Darwin’s health suffered from the pressure. On 20 September 1837, he had “palpitations of the heart”. On doctor’s advice that a month of recuperation was needed, he went to Shrewsbury then on to visit his Wedgwood relatives at Maer Hall, but found them too eager for tales of his travels to give him much rest. Charles Darwin’s charming, intelligent, and cultured cousin Emma Wedgwood, 9 months older than Charles Darwin, was nursing his invalid aunt. Charles Darwin’s uncle Jos pointed out an area of ground where cinders had disappeared under loam and suggested that this might have been the work of earthworms. This inspired a talk which Charles Darwin gave to the Geological Society on 1 November, the 1st demonstration of the role of earthworms in soil formation.

William Whewell pushed Charles Darwin to take on the duties of Secretary of the Geological Society. After first declining this extra work, he accepted the post in March 1838. Despite the grind of writing and editing the Beagle reports, remarkable progress was made on transmutation. Charles Darwin took every opportunity to question expert naturalists and, unconventionally, people with practical experience such as farmers and pigeon fanciers. Over time his research drew on information from his relatives and children, the family butler, neighbours, colonists and former shipmates. Charles Darwin included mankind in his speculations from the outset, and on seeing an ape in the zoo on 28 March 1838 noted its child-like behaviour.

The strain took its toll, and by June he was being laid up for days on end with stomach problems, headaches and heart symptoms. For the rest of his life, he was repeatedly incapacitated with episodes of stomach pains, vomiting, severe boils, palpitations, trembling and other symptoms, particularly during times of stress, such as when attending meetings or dealing with controversy over his theory. The cause of Charles Darwin’s illness was unknown during his lifetime, and attempts at treatment had little success. Recent attempts at diagnosis have suggested Chagas disease caught from insect bites in South America, Ménière’s disease, or various psychological illnesses as possible causes, without any conclusive results.

On 23 June 1838, he took a break from the pressure of work and went “geologising” in Scotland. Charles Darwin visited Glen Roy in glorious weather to see the parallel “roads” cut into the hillsides at 3 heights. Charles Darwin thought that these were marine raised beaches: they were later shown to have been shorelines of a proglacial lake.

Fully recuperated, he returned to Shrewsbury in July. Used to jotting down daily notes on animal breeding, he scrawled rambling thoughts about career and prospects on 2 scraps of paper, 1 with columns headed “Marry” and “Not Marry”. Advantages included “constant companion and a friend in old age … better than a dog anyhow”, against points such as “less money for books” and “terrible loss of time.” Having decided in favour, he discussed it with his father, then went to visit Emma on 29 July 1838. Charles Darwin did not get around to proposing, but against his father’s advice he mentioned his ideas on transmutation.

Continuing his research in London, Charles Darwin’s wide reading now included the 6th edition of Malthus’s An Essay on the Principle of Population

In October 1838, that is, 15 months after I had begun my systematic enquiry, I happened to read for amusement Malthus on Population, and being well prepared to appreciate the struggle for existence which everywhere goes on from long-continued observation of the habits of animals and plants, it at once struck me that under these circumstances favourable variations would tend to be preserved, and unfavourable ones to be destroyed. The result of this would be the formation of new species. Here, then, I had at last got a theory by which to work…

Malthus asserted that unless human population is kept in check, it increases in a geometrical progression and soon exceeds food supply in what is known as a Malthusian catastrophe. Charles Darwin was well prepared to see at once that this also applied to de Candolle’s “warring of the species” of plants and the struggle for existence among wildlife, explaining how numbers of a species kept roughly stable. As species always breed beyond available resources, favourable variations would make organisms better at surviving and passing the variations on to their offspring, while unfavourable variations would be lost. This would result in the formation of new species. On 28 September 1838 he noted this insight, describing it as a kind of wedging, forcing adapted structures into gaps in the economy of nature as weaker structures were thrust out. Over the following months he compared farmers picking the best breeding stock to a Malthusian Nature selecting from variants thrown up by “chance” so that “every part of [every] newly acquired structure is fully practised and perfected”, and thought this analogy “the most beautiful part of my theory”.

On 11 November, he returned to Maer and proposed to Emma, once more telling her his ideas. Emma accepted, then in exchanges of loving letters she showed how she valued his openness, but her upbringing as a very devout Anglican led her to express fears that his lapses of faith could endanger her hopes to meet in the afterlife.

While he was house-hunting in London, bouts of illness continued and Emma wrote urging him to get some rest, almost prophetically remarking “So don’t be ill any more my dear Charley till I can be with you to nurse you.” Charles Darwin found what they called “Macaw Cottage” (because of its gaudy interiors) in Gower Street, then moved his “museum” in over Christmas. The marriage was arranged for 24 January 1839, but the Wedgwoods set the date back. On the 24th, Charles Darwin was honoured by being elected as Fellow of the Royal Society.

On 29 January 1839, Charles Darwin and Emma Wedgwood were married at Maer in an Anglican ceremony arranged to suit the Unitarians, then immediately caught the train to London and their new home.

Charles Darwin’s research subsequently included animal husbandry and extensive experiments with plants, investigating many detailed ideas and finding evidence that species were not fixed to convince sceptical naturalists. For more than a decade this work was in the background to his main occupation, publication of the scientific results of the Beagle voyage.

When Robert FitzRoy’s Narrative was published in May 1839, Charles Darwin’s Journal and Remarks (The Voyage of the Beagle) as the 3rd volume was such a success that later that year it was published on its own.

Early in 1842, Charles Darwin sent a letter about his ideas to Charles Lyell, who was dismayed that his ally now denied “seeing a beginning to each crop of species”. In May, Charles Darwin’s book on coral reefs was published after more than 3 years of work, and he then wrote a “pencil sketch” of his theory. To escape the pressures of London, the family moved to rural Down House in November. On 11 January 1844 Charles Darwin mentioned his theorising to the botanist Joseph Dalton Hooker, writing with melodramatic humour “it is like confessing a murder”. To his relief, Joseph Dalton Hooker replied “There may in my opinion have been a series of productions on different spots, & also a gradual change of species. I shall be delighted to hear how you think that this change may have taken place, as no presently conceived opinions satisfy me on the subject.”

By July, Charles Darwin had expanded his “sketch” into a 230-page “Essay”, to be expanded with his research results if he died prematurely. Charles Darwin was shocked in November to find many of his arguments anticipated in the anonymously published Vestiges of the Natural History of Creation, though it lacked any convincing explanation for transmutation. The book was amateurish and he scorned its geology and anatomy, but as a best-seller it widened middle-class interest in transmutation, paving the way for Charles Darwin as well as reminding him of the need to counter all arguments.

Charles Darwin completed his 3rd geological book in 1846, and turned in relief to dissecting and classifying the barnacles he had collected, using his new ideas of common descent, and the anatomy he had learnt as Dr. Robert Edmund Grant’s student. In 1847, Joseph Dalton Hooker read the “Essay” and sent notes that provided Charles Darwin with the calm critical feedback that he needed, but would not commit himself and questioned Charles Darwin’s opposition to continuing acts of creation.

In an attempt to improve his chronic ill health, Charles Darwin went in 1849 to Dr. James Gully’s Malvern spa and was surprised to find some benefit from hydrotherapy. Then in 1851 his treasured daughter Annie fell ill, reawakening his fears that his illness might be hereditary. After a long series of crises, she died and Charles Darwin’s faith in Christianity dwindled away.

In 8 years of work on barnacles (Cirripedia), Charles Darwin found “homologies” that supported his theory by showing that slightly changed body parts could serve different functions to meet new conditions. In 1853 it earned him the Royal Society’s Royal Medal, and it made his reputation as a biologist. Charles Darwin resumed work on his theory of species in 1854, and in November realised that divergence in the character of descendants could be explained by them becoming adapted to “diversified places in the economy of nature”.

By the start of 1856, Charles Darwin was investigating whether eggs and seeds could survive travel across seawater to spread species across oceans. Joseph Dalton Hooker increasingly doubted the traditional view that species were fixed, but their young friend Thomas Henry Huxley was firmly against evolution. Charles Lyell was intrigued by Charles Darwin’s speculations without realising their extent. When he read a paper by Alfred Russel Wallace on the Introduction of species, he saw similarities with Charles Darwin’s thoughts and urged him to publish to establish precedence. Though Charles Darwin saw no threat, he began work on a short paper. Finding answers to difficult questions held him up repeatedly, and he expanded his plans to a “big book on species” titled Natural Selection. Charles Darwin continued his researches, obtaining information and specimens from naturalists worldwide including Alfred Russel Wallace who was working in Borneo. In December 1857, Charles Darwin received a letter from Alfred Russel Wallace asking if the book would examine human origins. Charles Darwin responded that he would avoid that subject, “so surrounded with prejudices”, while encouraging Alfred Russel Wallace’s theorising and adding that “I go much further than you.”

Charles Darwin’s book was half way when, on 18 June 1858, he received a paper from Alfred Russel Wallace describing natural selection. Shocked that he had been “forestalled”, Charles Darwin sent it on to Charles Lyell, as requested, and, though Alfred Russel Wallace had not asked for publication, he suggested he would send it to any journal that Alfred Russell Wallace chose. Charles Darwin’s family was in crisis with children in the village dying of scarlet fever, and he put matters in the hands of Charles Lyell and Joseph Dalton Hooker. They decided on a joint presentation at the Linnean Society on 1 July of On the Tendency of Species to form Varieties; and on the Perpetuation of Varieties and Species by Natural Means of Selection; however, Charles Darwin’s baby son died of the scarlet fever and he was too distraught to attend.

There was little immediate attention to this announcement of the theory; after the paper was published in the August journal of the society, it was reprinted in several magazines and there were some reviews and letters, but the president of the Linnean remarked in May 1859 that the year had not been marked by any revolutionary discoveries. Only one review rankled enough for Charles Darwin to recall it later; Professor Samuel Haughton of Dublin claimed that “all that was new in them was false, and what was true was old.” Charles Darwin struggled for 13 months to produce an abstract of his “big book”, suffering from ill health but getting constant encouragement from his scientific friends. Charles Lyell arranged to have it published by John Murray.

On the Origin of Species by Means of Natural Selection, or The Preservation of Favoured Races in the Struggle for Life (usually abbreviated to On the Origin of Species) proved unexpectedly popular, with the entire stock of 1,250 copies oversubscribed when it went on sale to booksellers on 22 November 1859. In the book, Charles Darwin set out “one long argument” of detailed observations, inferences and consideration of anticipated objections. Charles Darwin’s only allusion to human evolution was the understatement that “light will be thrown on the origin of man and his history”.

Charles Darwin’s theory is simply stated in the introduction:

As many more individuals of each species are born than can possibly survive; and as, consequently, there is a frequently recurring struggle for existence, it follows that any being, if it vary however slightly in any manner profitable to itself, under the complex and sometimes varying conditions of life, will have a better chance of surviving, and thus be naturally selected. From the strong principle of inheritance, any selected variety will tend to propagate its new and modified form.

Charles Darwin put a strong case for common descent, but avoided the then controversial term “evolution”, and at the end of the book concluded that;

There is grandeur in this view of life, with its several powers, having been originally breathed into a few forms or into one; and that, whilst this planet has gone cycling on according to the fixed law of gravity, from so simple a beginning endless forms most beautiful and most wonderful have been, and are being, evolved.

As “Darwinism” became widely accepted in the 1870s, amusing cariacatures of him with an ape or monkey body symbolised evolution.

There was wide public interest in Charles Darwin’s book and a controversy which he monitored closely, keeping press cuttings of reviews, articles, satires, parodies and caricatures. Charles Darwin had carefully said no more than “Light will be thrown on the origin of man”, but the 1st review claimed it made a creed of the “men from monkeys” idea already controversial from Vestiges. Amongst favourable responses were Thomas Henry Huxley’s reviews which included swipes at Richard Owen, leader of the scientific establishment Thomas Henry Huxley was trying to overthrow, and when Richard Owen’s review appeared it joined those that condemned the book.

The Church of England scientific establishment, including Charles Darwin’s old Cambridge tutors Sedgwick and Henslow, reacted against the book, though it was well received by liberal clergymen who interpreted natural selection as an instrument of God’s design, with the cleric Charles Kingsley seeing it as “just as noble a conception of Deity”. In 1860, the publication of Essays and Reviews by 7 liberal Anglican theologians diverted clerical attention from Charles Darwin, with its ideas including higher criticism attacked by church authorities as heresy. It included Baden Powell’s argument that miracles broke God’s laws, so belief in them was atheistic, and his praise for “Mr Darwin’s masterly volume [supporting] the grand principle of the self-evolving powers of nature”.

The most famous confrontation took place at the public 1860 Oxford evolution debate during a meeting of the British Association for the Advancement of Science. Professor John William Draper delivered a long lecture about Charles Darwin and social progress. The Bishop of Oxford Samuel Wilberforce, who was not opposed to transmutation, then argued against Charles Darwin’s explanation. In the ensuing debate Joseph Hooker argued strongly for Charles Darwin and Thomas Huxley established himself as “Darwin’s bulldog” – the fiercest defender of evolutionary theory on the Victorian stage. Both sides came away feeling victorious, but Thomas Huxley went on to make much of his claim that on being asked by Wilberforce whether he was descended from monkeys on his grandfather’s side or his grandmother’s side, Thomas Huxley muttered: “The Lord has delivered him into my hands” and replied that he “would rather be descended from an ape than from a cultivated man who used his gifts of culture and eloquence in the service of prejudice and falsehood”. Thomas Huxley portrayed a polarisation between religion and science and used Charles Darwinism to campaign against the authority of the clergy in education.

Charles Darwin’s illness kept him away from the public debates, though he read eagerly about them and mustered support through correspondence. Asa Gray persuaded a publisher in the United States to pay royalties, and Charles Darwin imported and distributed Asa Gray’s pamphlet Natural Selection is not inconsistent with Natural Theology. In Britain, friends including Joseph Hooker and Charles Lyell took part in the scientific debates which Thomas Henry Huxley pugnaciously led to overturn the dominance of clergymen and aristocratic amateurs under Roger Owen in favour of a new generation of professional scientists. Roger Owen mistakenly claimed certain anatomical differences between ape and human brains, and accused Thomas Henry Huxley of advocating “Ape Origin of Man”. Thomas Henry Huxley gladly did just that, and his campaign over two years was devastatingly successful in ousting Roger Owen and the “old guard”. Darwin’s friends formed The X Club and helped to gain him the honour of the Royal Society’s Copley Medal in 1864.

Broader public interest had already been stimulated by Vestiges, and the Origin of Species was translated into many languages and went through numerous reprints, becoming a staple scientific text accessible both to a newly curious middle class and to “working men” who flocked to Thomas Henry Huxley’s lectures. Charles Darwin’s theory also resonated with various movements at the time and became a key fixture of popular culture.

Despite repeated bouts of illness during the last 22 years of his life, Charles Darwin pressed on with his work. Charles Darwin had published an abstract of his theory, but more controversial aspects of his “big book” were still incomplete, including explicit evidence of humankind’s descent from earlier animals, and exploration of possible causes underlying the development of society and of human mental abilities. Charles Darwin had yet to explain features with no obvious utility other than decorative beauty. Charles Darwin’s experiments, research and writing continued.

When Charles Darwin’s daughter fell ill, he set aside his experiments with seedlings and domestic animals to accompany her to a seaside resort where he became interested in wild orchids. This developed into an innovative study of how their beautiful flowers served to control insect pollination and ensure cross fertilisation. As with the barnacles, homologous parts served different functions in different species. Back at home, he lay on his sickbed in a room filled with experiments on climbing plants. A reverent Ernst Haeckel who had spread a version of Darwinismus in Germany visited him. Alfred Russel Wallace remained supportive, though he increasingly turned to Spiritualism.

Variation of Plants and Animals Under Domestication, the 1st part of Charles Darwin’s planned “big book” (expanding on his “abstract” published as The Origin of Species), grew to 2 huge volumes, forcing him to leave out human evolution and sexual selection, and sold briskly despite its size. A further book of evidence, dealing with natural selection in the same style, was largely written, but remained unpublished until transcribed in 1975.

The question of human evolution had been taken up by his supporters (and detractors) shortly after the publication of The Origin of Species, but Charles Darwin’s own contribution to the subject came more than 10 years later with the 2-volume The Descent of Man, and Selection in Relation to Sex published in 1871. In the 2nd volume, Charles Darwin introduced in full his concept of sexual selection to explain the evolution of human culture, the differences between the human sexes, and the differentiation of human races, as well as the beautiful (and seemingly non-adaptive) plumage of birds. A year later Charles Darwin published his last major work, The Expression of the Emotions in Man and Animals, which focused on the evolution of human psychology and its continuity with the behaviour of animals. Charles Darwin developed his ideas that the human mind and cultures were developed by natural and sexual selection, an approach which has been revived in the last 3 decades with the emergence of evolutionary psychology. As he concluded in Descent of Man, Charles Darwin felt that, despite all of humankind’s “noble qualities” and “exalted powers”: “Man still bears in his bodily frame the indelible stamp of his lowly origin.”

Charles Darwin’s evolution-related experiments and investigations culminated in books on the movement of climbing plants, insectivorous plants, the effects of cross and self fertilisation of plants, different forms of flowers on plants of the same species, and The Power of Movement in Plants. In his last book, he returned to the effect earthworms have on soil formation.

Charles Darwin and his eldest son William Erasmus Darwin in 1842.

Charles Darwin’s Children:

William Erasmus Darwin (27 December 1839–1914)

Anne Elizabeth Darwin (2 March 1841–22 April 1851)

Mary Eleanor Darwin (23 September 1842–16 October 1842)

Henrietta Emma “Etty” Darwin (25 September 1843–1929)

George Howard Darwin (9 July 1845–7 December 1912)

Elizabeth “Bessy” Darwin (8 July 1847–1926)

Francis Darwin (16 August 1848–19 September 1925)

Leonard Darwin (15 January 1850–26 March 1943)

Horace Darwin (13 May 1851–29 September 1928)

Charles Waring Darwin (6 December 1856–28 June 1858)

The Darwin had 10 children: 2 died in infancy, and Annie’s death at the age of 10 had a devastating effect on her parents. Charles Darwin was a devoted father and uncommonly attentive to his children. Whenever they fell ill he feared that they might have inherited weaknesses from inbreeding due to the close family ties he shared with his wife and cousin, Emma Wedgwood. Charles Darwin examined this topic in his writings, contrasting it with the advantages of crossing amongst many organisms. Despite his fears, most of the surviving children went on to have distinguished careers as notable members of the prominent Darwin-Wedgwood family.

Of his surviving children, George, Francis and Horace became Fellows of the Royal Society, distinguished as astronomer, botanist and civil engineer, respectively. Charles Darwin’s son Leonard, on the other hand, went on to be a soldier, politician, economist, eugenicist and mentor of the statistician and evolutionary biologist Ronald Fisher.

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