Speech Differences And Stutter Series-Disabled Legend Washington Irving

Washington Irving was born on 3 April, 1783 and died on 28 November, 1859. Washington Irving was an American author, essayist, biographer and historian of the early 19th century. Washington Irving was best known for his short stories “The Legend of Sleepy Hollow” and “Rip Van Winkle”, both of which appear in his book The Sketch Book of Geoffrey Crayon, Gent. Washington Irving’s historical works include biographies of George Washington, Oliver Goldsmith and Muhammad, and several histories of 15th-century Spain dealing with subjects such as Christopher Columbus, the Moors, and the Alhambra. Washington Irving also served as the U.S. minister to Spain from 1842 to 1846.

Washington Irving made his literary debut in 1802 with a series of observational letters to the Morning Chronicle, written under the pseudonym Jonathan Oldstyle. After moving to England for the family business in 1815, he achieved international fame with the publication of The Sketch Book of Geoffrey Crayon, Gent. in 1819. Washington Irving continued to publish regularly—and almost always successfully—throughout his life, and completed a 5-volume biography of George Washington just 8months before his death, at age 76, in Tarrytown, New York.

Washington Irving, along with James Fenimore Cooper, was the 1st American writer to earn acclaim in Europe, and Washington Irving encouraged American authors such as Nathaniel Hawthorne, Herman Melville, Henry Wadsworth Longfellow, and Edgar Allan Poe. Washington Irving was also admired by some European writers, including Sir Walter Scott, Lord Byron, Thomas Campbell, Francis Jeffrey, and Charles Dickens. As America’s 1st genuine internationally best-selling author, Washington Irving advocated for writing as a legitimate profession, and argued for stronger laws to protect American writers from copyright infringement.

Washington Irving’s parents were William Irving, Sr., originally of Shapinsay, Orkney, and Sarah (née Sanders), Scottish-English immigrants. They married in 1761 while William was serving as a petty officer in the British Navy. They had 11 children, 8 of which survived to adulthood. Their 1st 2 sons, each named William, died in infancy, as did their 4th child, John. Their surviving children were: William, Jr. (1766), Ann (1770), Peter (1772), Catherine (1774), Ebenezer (1776), John Treat (1778), Sarah (1780), and Washington.

The Irving family was settled in Manhattan, New York City as part of the city’s small vibrant merchant class when Washington Irving was born on April 3, 1783, the same week city residents learned of the British ceasefire that ended the American Revolution. Consequently, Washington Irving’s mother named him after the hero of the revolution, George Washington. At age 6, with the help of a nanny, Washington Irving met his namesake, who was then living in New York after his inauguration as president in 1789. The president blessed young Washington Irving, an encounter Washington Irving later commemorated in a small watercolor painting, which still hangs in his home today. Several of Washington Irving’s older brothers became active New York merchants, and they encouraged their younger brother’s literary aspirations, often supporting him financially as he pursued his writing career.

A disinterested student, Washington Irving preferred adventure stories and drama and, by age 14, was regularly sneaking out of class in the evenings to attend the theater. The 1798 outbreak of yellow fever in Manhattan prompted his family to send him to healthier climes upriver, and Washington Irving was dispatched to stay with his friend James Kirke Paulding in Tarrytown, New York. It was in Tarrytown that Washington Irving became familiar with the nearby town of Sleepy Hollow, with its quaint Dutch customs and local ghost stories. Washington Irving made several other trips up the Hudson as a teenager, including an extended visit to Johnstown, New York, where he passed through the Catskill mountain region, the setting for “Rip Van Winkle”. ” of all the scenery of the Hudson”, Wshington Irving wrote later, “the Kaatskill Mountains had the most witching effect on my boyish imagination”.

The 19 year old Wshington Irving began writing letters to The Morning Chronicle in 1802, submitting commentaries on New York’s social and theater scene under the name of Jonathan Oldstyle. The name, which purposely evoked the writer’s Federalist leanings, was the 1st of many pseudonyms Washington Irving would employ throughout his career. The letters brought Wshington Irving some early fame and moderate notoriety. Aaron Burr, a co-publisher of the Chronicle, was impressed enough to send clippings of the Oldstyle pieces to his daughter, Theodosia, while writer Charles Brockden Brown made a trip to New York to recruit Oldstyle for a literary magazine he was editing in Philadelphia.

Concerned for his health, Washington Irving’s brothers financed an extended tour of Europe from 1804 to 1806. Washington Irving bypassed most of the sites and locations considered essential for the development of an upwardly-mobile young man, to the dismay of his brother William. William wrote that, though he was pleased his brother’s health was improving, he did not like the choice to “gallop through Italy… leaving Florence on your left and Venice on your right”. Instead, Washington Irving honed the social and conversational skills that would later make him one of the world’s most in-demand guests. “I endeavor to take things as they come with cheerfulness”, Washington Irving wrote, “and when I cannot get a dinner to suit my taste, I endeavor to get a taste to suit my dinner”. While visiting Rome in 1805, Washington Irving struck up a friendship with the American painter Washington Allston, and nearly allowed himself to be persuaded into following Washington Allston into a career as a painter. “My lot in life, however”, Washington Irving said later, “was differently cast”.

A younger Washington Irving returned from Europe to study law with his legal mentor, Judge Josiah Ogden Hoffman, in New York City. By his own admission, he was not a good student, and barely passed the bar in 1806. Washington Irving began actively socialising with a group of literate young men he dubbed “The Lads of Kilkenny”. Collaborating with his brother William and fellow Lad James Kirke Paulding, Washington Irving created the literary magazine Salmagundi in January 1807. Writing under various pseudonyms, such as William Wizard and Launcelot Langstaff, Washington Irving lampooned New York culture and politics in a manner similar to today’s Mad magazine. Salmagundi was a moderate success, spreading Washington Irving’s name and reputation beyond New York. In its 17th issue, dated 11 November, 1807, Washington Irving affixed the nickname “Gotham”—an Anglo-Saxon word meaning “Goat’s Town”—to New York City.

In late 1809, while mourning the death of his 17 year old fiancée Matilda Hoffman, Washington Irving completed work on his 1st major book, A History of New-York from the Beginning of the World to the End of the Dutch Dynasty, by Diedrich Knickerbocker(1809), a satire on self-important local history and contemporary politics. Prior to its publication, Washington Irving started a hoax akin to today’s viral marketing campaigns; he placed a series of missing person adverts in New York newspapers seeking information on Diedrich Knickerbocker, a crusty Dutch historian who had allegedly gone missing from his hotel in New York City. As part of the ruse, Washington Irving placed a notice—allegedly from the hotel’s proprietor—informing readers that if Mr. Knickerbocker failed to return to the hotel to pay his bill, he would publish a manuscript Knickerbocker had left behind.

Unsuspecting readers followed the story of Knickerbocker and his manuscript with interest, and some New York city officials were concerned enough about the missing historian that they considered offering a reward for his safe return. Riding the wave of public interest he had created with his hoax, Washington Irving—adopting the pseudonym of his Dutch historian—published A History of New York on 6 December, 1809, to immediate critical and popular success. “It took with the public”, Washington Irving remarked, “and gave me celebrity, as an original work was something remarkable and uncommon in America”. Today, the surname of Diedrich Knickerbocker, the fictional narrator of this and other Washington Irving works, has become a nickname for Manhattan residents in general.

After the success of A History of New York, Washington Irving searched for a job and eventually became an editor of Analectic magazine, where he wrote biographies of naval heroes like James Lawrence and Oliver Perry. Washington Irving was also among the 1st magazine editors to reprint Francis Scott Key’s poem “Defense of Fort McHenry”, which would later be immortalized as “The Star-Spangled Banner”, the national anthem of the United States.

Like many merchants and New Yorkers, Washington Irving originally opposed the War of 1812, but the British attack on Washington, D.C. in 1814 convinced him to enlist. Washington Irving served on the staff of Daniel Tompkins, governor of New York and commander of the New York State Militia. Apart from a reconnaissance mission in the Great Lakes region, he saw no real action. The war was disastrous for many American merchants, including Washington Irving’s family, and in mid-1815 he left for England to attempt to salvage the family trading company. Washington Irving remained in Europe for the next 17 years.

Washington Irving spent the next 2 years trying to bail out the family firm financially but was eventually forced to declare bankruptcy. With no job prospects, Washington Irving continued writing throughout 1817 and 1818. In the summer of 1817, he visited the home of novelist Walter Scott, marking the beginning of a lifelong personal and professional friendship for both men. Washington Irving continued writing prolifically—the short story “Rip Van Winkle” was written overnight while staying with his sister Sarah and her husband, Henry van Wart in Birmingham, England, a place that also inspired some of his other works. In October 1818, Washington Irving’s brother William secured for Washington Irving a post as chief clerk to the United States Navy, and urged him to return home. Washington Irving, however, turned the offer down, opting to stay in England to pursue a writing career.

In the spring of 1819, Washington Irving sent to his brother Ebenezer in New York a set of essays that he asked be published as The Sketch Book of Geoffrey Crayon, Gent. The 1st installment, containing “Rip Van Winkle”, was an enormous success, and the rest of the work, published in 7 installments in the United States and England throughout 1819 and 1820 (“The Legend of Sleepy Hollow” would appear in the 6th issue), would be equally as successful.

Like many successful authors of this era, Washington Irving struggled against literary bootleggers. While in England, his sketches were published in book form by British publishers without his permission, an entirely legal practice as there were no clear international copyright laws. Seeking an English publisher to protect his copyright, Washington Irving appealed to Walter Scott for help. Walter Scott referred Washington Irving to his own publisher, London powerhouse John Murray, who agreed to take on The Sketch Book. From then on, Washington Irving would publish concurrently in the United States and England to protect his copyright, with John Murray being his English publisher of choice.

Washington Irving’s reputation soared, and for the next 2 years, he led an active social life in Paris and England, where he was often feted as an anomaly of literature: an upstart American who dared to write English well.

With bothb Washington Irving and publisher John Murray eager to follow up on the success of The Sketch Book, Washington Irving spent much of 1821 travelling in Europe in search of new material, reading widely in Dutch and German folk tales. Hampered by writer’s block—and depressed by the death of his brother William—Irving worked slowly, finally delivering a completed manuscript to John Murray in March 1822. The book, Bracebridge Hall, or The Humorists, A Medley (the location was based loosely on Aston Hall, occupied by members of the Bracebridge family, near his sister’s home in Birmingham) was published in June 1822.

The format of Bracebridge was similar to that of The Sketch Book, with Washington Irving, as Crayon, narrating a series of more than 50 loosely connected short stories and essays. While some reviewers thought Bracebridge to be a lesser imitation of The Sketch Book, the book was well-received by readers and critics. “We have received so much pleasure from this book,” wrote critic Francis Jeffrey in the Edinburgh Review, “that we think ourselves bound in gratitude . . . to make a public acknowledgement of it.” Washington Irving was relieved at its reception, which did much to cement his reputation with European readers.

Still struggling with writer’s block, Washington Irving traveled to Germany, settling in Dresden in the winter of 1822. Here he dazzled the royal family and attached himself to Mrs. Amelia Foster, an American living in Dresden with her 5 children. Washington Irving was particularly attracted to Mrs. Foster’s 18-year-old daughter Emily, and vied in frustration for her hand. Emily finally refused his offer of marriage in the spring of 1823.

Washington Irving returned to Paris and began collaborating with playwright John Howard Payne on translations of French plays for the English stage, with little success. Washington Irving also learned through Payne that the novelist Mary Wollstonecraft Shelley was romantically interested in him, though Washington Irving never pursued the relationship.

In August 1824, Washington Irving published the collection of essays Tales of a Traveller—including the short story “The Devil and Tom Walker”—under his Geoffrey Crayon persona. “I think there are in it some of the best things I have ever written,” Washington Irving told his sister. But while the book sold respectably, Traveller largely bombed with critics, who panned both Traveller and its author. “The public have been led to expect better things,” wrote the United States Literary Gazette, while the New-York Mirror pronounced Washington Irving “overrated.” Hurt and depressed by the book’s reception, Washington Irving retreated to Paris where he spent the next year worrying about finances and scribbling down ideas for projects that never materialised.

While in Paris, Washington Irving received a letter from Alexander Hill Everett on 30January, 1826. Alexander Hill Everett, recently the American Minister to Spain, urged Washington Irving to join him in Madrid, noting that a number of manuscripts dealing with the Spanish conquest of the Americas had recently been made public. Washington Irving left for Madrid and enthusiastically began scouring the Spanish archives for colourful material.

The palace Alhambra, where Washington Irving briefly resided in 1829, inspired one of his most colourful books. With full access to the American consul’s massive library of Spanish history, Washington Irving began working on several books at once. The 1st offspring of this hard work, The Life and Voyages of Christopher Columbus, was published in January 1828. The book was popular in the United States and in Europe and would have 175 editions published before the end of the century. It was also the 1st project of Washington Irving’s to be published with his own name, instead of a pseudonym, on the title page. The Chronicles of the Conquest of Granada was published a year later, followed by Voyages and Discoveries of the Companions of Columbus in 1831.

Washington Irving’s writings on Columbus are a mixture of history and fiction, a genre now called romantic history. Washington Irving based them on extensive research in the Spanish archives, but also added imaginative elements aimed at sharpening the story. The 1st of these works is the source of the durable myth that medieval Europeans believed the Earth was flat.

In 1829, Washington Irving moved into Granada’s ancient palace Alhambra, “determined to linger here”, he said, “until I get some writings under way connected with the place”. Before he could get any significant writing underway, however, he was notified of his appointment as Secretary to the American Legation in London. Worried he would disappoint friends and family if he refused the position, Washington Irving left Spain for England in July 1829.

Arriving in London, Washington Irving joined the staff of American Minister Louis McLane. Louis McLane immediately assigned the daily secretary work to another man and tapped Washington Irving to fill the role of aide-de-camp. The 2 worked over the next year to negotiate a trade agreement between the United States and the British West Indies, finally reaching a deal in August 1830. That same year, Washington Irving was awarded a medal by the Royal Society of Literature, followed by an honourary doctorate of civil law from Oxford in 1831.

Following Louis McLane’s recall to the United States in 1831 to serve as Secretary of Treasury, Washington Irving stayed on as the legation’s chargé d’affaires until the arrival of Martin Van Buren, President Jackson’s nominee for British Minister. With Van Buren in place, Washington Irving resigned his post to concentrate on writing, eventually completing Tales of the Alhambra, which would be published concurrently in the United States and England in 1832.

Washington Irving was still in London when Van Buren received word that the United States Senate had refused to confirm him as the new Minister. Consoling Van Buren, Washington Irving predicted that the Senate’s partisan move would backfire. “I should not be surprised”, Washington Irving said, “if this vote of the Senate goes far toward elevating him to the presidential chair”.

Washington Irving arrived in New York, after 17 years abroad on 21 May, 1832. That September, he accompanied the U.S. Commissioner on Indian Affairs, Henry Ellsworth, along with companions Charles La Trobe and Count Albert-Alexandre de Pourtales, on a surveying mission deep in Indian Territory. At the completion of his western tour, Washington Irving traveled through Washington, D.C. and Baltimore, where he became acquainted with the politician and novelist John Pendleton Kennedy.

Frustrated by bad investments, Washington Irving turned to writing to generate additional income, beginning with A Tour on the Prairies, a work which related his recent travels on the frontier. The book was another popular success and also the 1st book written and published by Washington Irving in the United States since A History of New York in 1809. In 1834, he was approached by fur magnate John Jacob Astor, who convinced Washington Irving to write a history of his fur trading colony in the American Northwest, now known as Astoria, Oregon. Washington Irving made quick work of Astor’s project, shipping the fawning biographical account titled Astoria in February 1836.

During an extended stay at Astor’s, Washington Irving met the explorer Benjamin Bonneville, who intrigued Washington Irving with his maps and stories of the territories beyond the Rocky Mountains. When the 2 met in Washington, D.C. several months later, Bonneville opted to sell his maps and rough notes to Washington Irving for $1,000. Washington Irving used these materials as the basis for his 1837 book The Adventures of Captain Bonneville.

These 3 works made up Washington Irving’s “western” series of books and were written partly as a response to criticism that his time in England and Spain had made him more European than American. In the minds of some critics, especially James Fenimore Cooper and Philip Freneau, Washington Irving had turned his back on his American heritage in favour of English aristocracy. Washington Irving’s western books, particularly A Tour on the Prairies, were well-received in the United States, though British critics accused Washington Irving of “book-making”.

In 1835, Washington Irving purchased a “neglected cottage” and its surrounding riverfront property in Tarrytown, New York. The house, which Washington Irving named Sunnyside in 1841, would require constant repair and renovation over the next 20 years. With costs of Sunnyside escalating, Washington Irving reluctantly agreed in 1839 to become a regular contributor to Knickerbocker magazine, writing new essays and short stories under the Knickerbocker and Crayon pseudonyms.

Washington Irving was regularly approached by aspiring young authors for advice or endorsement, including Edgar Allan Poe, who sought Washington Irving’s comments “on William Wilson” and “The Fall of the House of Usher”. Washington Irving also championed America’s maturing literature, advocating for stronger copyright laws to protect writers from the kind of piracy that had initially plagued The Sketch Book. Writing in the January 1840 issue of Knickerbocker, he openly endorsed copyright legislation pending in the U.S. Congress. “We have a young literature”, Washington Irving wrote, “springing up and daily unfolding itself with wonderful energy and luxuriance, which… deserves all its fostering care”. The legislation did not pass.

Washington Irving at this time also began a friendly correspondence with the English writer Charles Dickens, and hosted the author and his wife at Sunnyside during Dickens’s American tour in 1842.

In 1842, after an endorsement from Secretary of State Daniel Webster, President John Tyler appointed Washington Irving as Minister to Spain. Washington Irving was surprised and honoured, writing, “It will be a severe trial to absent myself for a time from my dear little Sunnyside, but I shall return to it better enabled to carry it on comfortably”.

While Washington Irving hoped his position as Minister would allow him plenty of time to write, Spain was in a state of perpetual political upheaval during most of his tenure, with a number of warring factions vying for control of the 12-year-old Queen Isabella II. Washington Irving maintained good relations with the various generals and politicians, as control of Spain rotated through Espartero, Bravo, then Narvaez. However, the politics and warfare were exhausting, and Washington Irving—homesick and suffering from a crippling skin condition—grew quickly disheartened:

“I am wearied and at times heartsick of the wretched politics of this country. . . . The last 10 or 12 years of my life, passed among sordid speculators in the United States, and political adventurers in Spain, has shewn me so much of the dark side of human nature, that I begin to have painful doubts of my fellow man; and look back with regret to the confiding period of my literary career, when, poor as a rat, but rich in dreams, I beheld the world through the medium of my imagination and was apt to believe men as good as I wished them to be.”

With the political situation in Spain relatively settled, Washington Irving continued to closely monitor the development of the new government and the fate of Isabella. Washington Irving’s official duties as Spanish Minister also involved negotiating American trade interests with Cuba and following the Spanish parliament’s debates over slave trade. Washington Irving was also pressed into service by the American Minister to the Court of St. James’s in London, Louis McLane, to assist in negotiating the Anglo-American disagreement over the Oregon border that newly-elected president James K. Polk had vowed to resolve.

Returning from Spain in 1846, Washington Irving took up permanent residence at Sunnyside and began work on an “Author’s Revised Edition” of his works for publisher George Palmer Putnam. For its publication, Washington Irving had made a deal that guaranteed him 12% of the retail price of all copies sold. Such an agreement was unprecedented at that time. On the death of John Jacob Astor in 1848, Washington Irving was hired as an executor of Astor’s estate and appointed, by Astor’s will, as 1st chairman of the Astor library, a forerunner to the New York Public Library.

As he revised his older works for Putnam, Washington Irving continued to write regularly, publishing biographies of the writer and poet Oliver Goldsmith in 1849 and the prophet Muhammad in 1850. In 1855, he produced Wolfert’s Roost, a collection of stories and essays he had originally written for Knickerbocker and other publications, and began publishing at intervals a biography of his namesake, George Washington, a work which he expected to be his masterpiece. 5 volumes of the biography were published between 1855 and 1859. Washington Irving traveled regularly to Mount Vernon and Washington, D.C. for his research, and struck up friendships with Presidents Millard Fillmore and Franklin Pierce.

Washington Irving continued to socialise and keep up with his correspondence well into his 70s, and his fame and popularity continued to soar. “I don’t believe that any man, in any country, has ever had a more affectionate admiration for him than that given to you in America”, wrote Senator William C. Preston in a letter to Washington Irving. “I believe that we have had but one man who is so much in the popular heart”.

On the evening of 28 November, 1859, only 8 months after completing the final volume of his Washington biography, Washington Irving died of a heart attack in his bedroom at Sunnyside at the age of 76. Legend has it that his last words were: “Well, I must arrange my pillows for another night. When will this end?” Washington Irving was buried under a simple headstone at Sleepy Hollow cemetery on 1 December, 1859.

Washington Irving and his grave were commemorated by Henry Wadsworth Longfellow in his 1876 poem, “In The Churchyard at Tarrytown”, which concludes with:

How sweet a life was his; how sweet a death!
Living, to wing with mirth the weary hours,
Or with romantic tales the heart to cheer;
Dying, to leave a memory like the breath
Of summers full of sunshine and of showers,
A grief and gladness in the atmosphere.

Washington Irving is largely credited as the 1st American Man of Letters, and the 1st to earn his living solely by his pen. Eulogizing Washington Irving before the Massachusetts Historical Society in December 1859, his friend, the poet Henry Wadsworth Longfellow, acknowledged Washington Irving’s role in promoting American literature: “We feel a just pride in his renown as an author, not forgetting that, to his other claims upon our gratitude, he adds also that of having been the 1st to win for our country an honourable name and position in the History of Letters”.

Washington Irving perfected the American short story, and was the 1st American writer to place his stories firmly in the United States, even as he poached from German or Dutch folklore. Washington Irving is also generally credited as one of the first to write both in the vernacular, and without an obligation to the moral or didactic in his short stories, writing stories simply to entertain rather to enlighten.

Some critics, however—including Edgar Allan Poe—felt that while Washington Irving should be given credit for being an innovator, the writing itself was often unsophisticated. “Irving is much over-rated”, Poe wrote in 1838, ” and a nice distinction might be drawn between his just and his surreptitious and adventitious reputation—between what is due to the pioneer solely, and what to the writer”.

Other critics were inclined to be more forgiving of Washington Irving’s style. Henry Makepeace Thakeray was the 1st to refer to Washington Irving as the “ambassador whom the New World of Letters sent to the Old”, a banner picked up by writers and critics throughout the 19th and 20th centuries. “He is the first of the American humorists, as he is almost the first of the American writers”, wrote critic H.R. Hawless in 1881, “yet belonging to the New World, there is a quaint Old World flavour about him”.

Early critics often had difficulty separating Washington Irving the man from Irving the writer—”The life of Washington Irving was one of the brightest ever led by an author”, wrote Richard Henry Stoddard, an early Washington Irving biographer—but as years passed and Washington Irving’s celebrity personality faded into the background, critics often began to review his writings as all style, no substance. “The man had no message”, said critic Barrett Wendell. Yet, critics conceded that despite Washington Irving’s lack of sophisticated themes—Irving biographer Stanley T. Williams could be scathing in his assessment of Washington Irving’s work—most agreed he wrote elegantly.

Washington Irving popularised the nickname “Gotham” for New York City, later used in Batman comics and movies, and is credited with inventing the expression “the almighty dollar”.

The surname of his Dutch historian, Diedrich Knickerbocker, is generally associated with New York and New Yorkers, and can still be seen across the jerseys of New York’s professional basketball team, albeit in its more familiar, abbreviated form, reading simply Knicks.

One of Washington Irving’s most lasting contributions to American culture is in the way Americans perceive and celebrate Christmas. In his 1812 revisions to A History of New York, Washington Irving inserted a dream sequence featuring St. Nicholas soaring over treetops in a flying wagon—a creation others would later dress up as Santa Claus. Later, in his 5 Christmas stories in The Sketch Book, Washington Irving portrayed an idealised celebration of old-fashioned Christmas customs at a quaint English manor, which directly contributed to the revival and reinterpretation of the Christmas holiday in the United States. Charles Dickens later credited Washington Irving as a strong influence on his own Christmas writings, including the classic A Christmas Carol. The Community Area of Irving Park in Chicago was named in Washington Irving’s honour.

The Irving Trust Corporation (now the Bank of New York Mellon Corporation) was named after him. Since there was not yet a federal currency in 1851, each bank issued its own paper and those institutions with the most appealing names found their certificates more widely accepted. Washington Irving’s portrait appeared on the bank’s notes and contributed to their wide appeal.

Washington Irving’s home, Sunnyside, is still standing, just south of the Tappan Zee Bridge in Tarrytown, New York. The original house and the surrounding property were once owned by 18th-century colonialist Wolfert Acker, about whom Washington Irving wrote his sketch Wolfert’s Roost (the name of the house). The house is now owned and operated as a historic site by Historic Hudson Valley and is open to the public for tours. A memorial to him stands near the entrance to Sunnyside in the village of Irvington, which renamed itself in his memory, and visitors to Christ Episcopal Church in nearby Tarrytown, where he served as a vestryman in the last years of his life, can see his pew. Washington Irving’s name is also frequently mentioned in Joseph Heller’s novel Catch-22 in which his name is signed on papers.

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Speech Differences And Stutter Series-Disabled Legend Adrian Peterson

Adrian Lewis Peterson was born on 21 March, 1985 in Palestine, Texas. Nicknamed “A.D.” (for “All Day”) or “Purple Jesus”, is a professional American football running back for the Minnesota Vikings of the National Football League (NFL). Adrian Peterson played college football as a running back for 3 years at the University of Oklahoma. At Oklahoma, Adrian Peterson set the NCAA freshman rushing record with 1,925 yards (as a true freshman). Adrian Peterson was a 1st team All-American, and he also set a freshman record by finishing as the runner-up in the Heisman Trophy balloting. Adrian Peterson finished as the school’s 3rd all-time leading rusher.

Adrian Peterson was selected by the Minnesota Vikings with the 7th overall pick in the 1st round of the 2007 NFL Draft. Coming into the league, he was known as a tall, upright runner possessing a rare combination of speed, strength, agility, size, and vision, along with a highly aggressive running style. Adrian Peterson’s rare talent as both a great breakaway and power runner has often raised comparisons to past legends, including Eric Dickerson, O.J. Simpson, Walter Payton, Gale Sayers, and Jim Brown. As a rookie in the NFL, he broke numerous franchise and league records for rushing yardage, the foremost being the NFL single-game rushing record when he ran for 296 yards on 30 carries on 4 November, 2007, against the San Diego Chargers. Following his stellar 1st pro season, Adrian Peterson was a near-unanimous choice as the NFL Offensive Rookie of the Year. In the 2008 NFL Pro Bowl, Adrian Peterson rushed for 129 yards and 2 touchdowns, achieving the 2nd highest rushing total in Pro Bowl history. Adrian Peterson was awarded the MVP award for his performance in the Pro Bowl, which led to a 42-30 victory over the AFC.

Adrian Peterson has 1 daughter, Adeja. Adrian Peterson currently resides in Eden Prairie, Minnesota, a suburb of Minneapolis, Minnesota, with his brothers, Eldon, and Derrick Peterson.

Adrian Peterson was interested in football as a child as he began playing at the age of 7 and participated in the popular Pop Warner Football programme. Adrian Peterson continued his interest in athletics into high school where he competed in track and field, basketball, and football at Palestine High School. Adrian Peterson was most notable in football where he played during his junior and senior years. Adrian Peterson finished his 2002 campaign as a junior with 2,051 yards on 246 carries, an average of 8.3 yards per carry, and 22 touchdowns. As a senior in 2003, he rushed for 2,960 yards on 252 attempts, an average of 11.7 yards per carry, and 32 touchdowns. Concluding his high school football career at the annual U.S. Army All-American Bowl, he led the West squad with 95 yards on 9 carries and scoring 2 touchdowns and announced at the game he would attend college at Oklahoma. Among his other choices of schools were the University of Southern California, University of Texas at Austin, Texas A&M University, University of California, Los Angeles, University of Arkansas, and University of Miami. Following the season, he was awarded the Hall Trophy as the Ball Park National High School Player of the Year. In addition, he was named the top high school player by College Football News and Rivals.com.

During his freshman season, Adrian Peterson broke many NCAA freshman rushing records, rushing for 1925 yards and leading the nation in carries with 339. Adrian Peterson was a finalist for the Heisman Trophy, finishing 2nd to USC quarterback Matt Leinart, which was the highest finish ever for a freshman. Adrian Peterson was also a finalist for the Doak Walker Award. Among other honours include being the 1st Oklahoma freshman recognised as a 1st-Team Associated Press All-American. Adrian Peterson contributed to an undefeated season for the Oklahoma Sooners and participated in the 2005 BCS National Championship Game with a berth to the FedEx Orange Bowl.

Adrian Peterson’s playing time in 2005 was limited by a high ankle sprain. Adrian Peterson injured his ankle in the 1st Big 12 Conference game of the season against Kansas State University. Despite missing time in 4 games, he rushed for 1,208 yards and 14 touchdowns on 220 carries, finishing 2nd in Big 12 rushing yardage. Adrian Peterson’s 2005 season was also notable for a career-long 84 yard touchdown run against Oklahoma State University. Upon the conclusion of the season, he was named a member of the All-Big 12 Conference team.

Nelson Peterson was released from prison during the 2006 college football season and was able to watch his son as a spectator for the 1st time on 14 October, 2006 when Oklahoma played Iowa State University. Oklahoma defeated Iowa State in that game, but Adrian Peterson broke his collar bone falling into the end zone to end a 53 yard touchdown run. During a press conference on 18 October, Adrian Peterson said he was told by doctors to expect to be out for 4 to 6 weeks. At the time of the injury, Adrian Peterson needed only 150 yards to gain to pass Billy Sims as the University of Oklahoma’s all-time leading rusher. Adrian Peterson was unable to return for the rest of the Sooners regular season, but returned for the Sooners’ last game against Boise State in the 2007 Fiesta Bowl, where he rushed for 77 yards and a touchdown. Adrian Peterson refused to discuss his plans beyond the end of this season with the press. Adrian Peterson concluded his college football career with 1,112 rushing yards his final season, even after missing multiple games due to injury for a total of 4,045 rushing yards (only 3 season). Adrian Peterson was 73 yards short of passing Billy Sims as Oklahoma’s all-time leading rusher.

Awards And Honours

Hall Trophy (2003)
First-team AP All-Freshman (2004)
First-team AP All-American (2004)
Doak Walker Award finalist (2004)
Heisman Trophy finalist (2004)

On 15 January, 2007, Adrian Peterson declared that he would forego his senior year of college and enter the 2007 NFL Draft. Concerns about his injuries suffered during college were noted by the media and potential NFL teams. Adrian Peterson started 22 out of 31 games in his college career and missed games due to a dislocated shoulder his 1st year, a high ankle sprain his sophomore year, and a broken collarbone his final year at Oklahoma. Adrian Peterson’s durability was a consideration by at least 2 teams in their draft analysis, which impacted selection position. Prior to the 2007NFL Draft, Adrian Peterson was compared by professional football scouts to Eric Dickerson. ESPN NFL Draft analyst Mel Kiper, Jr. said of Peterson, “You can make the argument,[Peterson]is the best player in this draft, if not, certainly 1 of the top 3.”

On 28 April, 2007, Adrian Peterson was selected by the Minnesota Vikings with the 7th overall pick in the 1st round of the 2007 NFL Draft. Adrian Peterson was the 1st running back selected in that year’s draft. At a press conference during the draft, Adrian Peterson announced, “My collarbone, I would say it’s 90% healed. A lot of teams know that, and I don’t see it stopping me from being prepared for the season.”

After being drafted by the Vikings, there was speculation that Adrian Peterson would require surgery to fully heal the collarbone injury he suffered during college, but it was soon learned that was not the case.

Adrian Peterson believes he is a player that a franchise can build around. In an interview with IGN following the NFL Draft, he said, “I’m a player who is coming in with the determination to turn a team around. I want to help my team get to the playoffs, win…and run wild. I want to bring people to the stands. I want people to come to the game to see what I can do next. Things like that can change the whole attitude of an organisation. I want to win.” Adrian Peterson later told the Star Tribune in an interview, “I want to be the best player to ever play this game.”

Nearly 3 months after being drafted, he was signed by the Vikings on 29 July, 2007. Adrian Peterson’s contract is worth US$40.5,000,000 over 5 years, with $17,000,000 guaranteed.

Adrian Peterson’s outstanding rookie season began with high expectations from Adrian Peterson himself; he announced ambitious goals including being named Offensive Rookie of the Year, rushing for 1,800 yards during the course of the year, and breaking the league’s rookie rushing record just as he broke the freshman rushing record during his 1st season at Oklahoma. The NFL’s rushing record for a rookie is currently held by Eric Dickerson at 1,808 yards. Just 11 weeks into his rookie season with the Vikings, Adrian Peterson was well on his way to Eric Dickerson’s record and considered one of the elite running backs in the NFL.

On 10 August, Adrian Peterson made his Minnesota Vikings debut in a preseason game against the St. Louis Rams. Adrian Peterson ran for 33 yards on 11 carries with 1 catch for 2 yards. On 9 September, 2007, Adrian Peterson ran for 103 yards on 19carries in his 1st NFL regular season game against the Atlanta Falcons. In addition to his rushing yardage, he scored his 1st professional football touchdown on a 60 yard pass reception. Over his 1st 3 regular season games, his 431 yards (271 rushing & 160 receiving) from scrimmage are a team record. For his performance during the 3 games, Adrian Peterson received the NFL Offensive Rookie of the Month award for both September and October 2007.

Adrian Peterson’s breakout game as a professional came on 14 October, 2007 against the Chicago Bears, highlighted by a 3 touchdown performance and a then franchise record of 224 yards rushing on 20 carries. Adrian Peterson established additional team records for a rookie during this game, which included the most 100-yard games rushing and the longest touchdown run from scrimmage. Adrian Peterson also set an NFL rookie record with 361 all-purpose yards in a single game. Adrian Peterson’s 607 rushing yards through the 1st 5 games of the season is 2nd in NFL history to Eric Dickerson. Following Adrian Peterson’s record performance, Deion Sanders, now an NFL Network analyst said the following about Adrian Peterson: “He has the vision of a Marshall Faulk, the power of an Earl Campbell, and the speed of an Eric Dickerson. Let’s pray he has the endurance of an Emmitt Smith.” Adrian Peterson has also been compared to Walter Payton and Tony Dorsett by Star Tribune sports journalist Jim Souhan.

3 weeks later on 4 November, 2007, Adrian Peterson broke his own franchise record as well as the NFL single game rushing yard record previously held by Jamal Lewis since 2003 when he rushed for 296 yards on 30 carries and 3 touchdowns against the San Diego Chargers. That game was his 2nd game of over 200 yards rushing, a feat no other rookie has ever accomplished in a season. In addition to the NFL rushing record in a single game, it took him past 1,000 yards rushing for the year after just 8 games. Adrian Peterson’s 1,036 rushing yards represents the best 8-game performance by a rookie in NFL history.

On 11 November, 2007, just a week after his record-breaking performance against the Chargers, Adrian Peterson injured the lateral collateral ligament in his right knee in a game against the Green Bay Packers. The injury occurred in the 3rd quarter of a 34-0 defeat at Lambeau Field on a low, yet clean tackle by Packers cornerback Al Harris. Almost a month after the injury, Adrian Peterson returned to action on 2 December, 2007 against the Detroit Lions scoring 2 touchdowns and rushing for 116 yards. On 17 December Adrian Peterson played in his 1st Monday Night Football game where he had 78 yards rushing, 17 yards receiving and 2 TDs. The next day Adrian Peterson was named as the starting running back for the 2008 NFC Pro Bowl team. On 2 January, he was named The Associated Press NFL Offensive Rookie of the Year.

On 10 February, 2008, Adrian Peterson won the 2008 NFL Pro Bowl MVP award with 16 carries for 129 yards rushing along with 2 touchdowns. The 129 yards rushing was the 2nd most in Pro Bowl history. Adrian Peterson was the 1st rookie since Marshall Faulk in 1995 to win the Pro Bowl MVP award.

Adrian Peterson finished in 2nd place in rushing yards (1341)in the 2007 season behind LaDainian Tomlinson, who finished with (1474) rushing yards.

Adrian Peterson and the Vikings entered the 2008 season with high expectations and as he did during his rookie season, Adrian Peterson set high goals for himself including a 2000-yard campaign and the NFL MVP award. Questions remained as to Adrian Peterson’s durability and the ability of the Vikings offense to take the focus of opposing defenses off of Adrian Peterson. In the 1st game of the season against the Packers, Adrian Peterson ran for 103 yards on 19 carries and a TD, including 1 reception for 11 yards. In week 2 against the Colts, Adrian Peterson had 29 carries for 160 yards and 4 receptions for 20 yards. Against Carolina in week 3 Adrian Peterson ran for 77 yards on 17 carries. In week 4 Adrianh Peterson ran the ball 18 times for 80 yards and 2 TDs against the Titans. Adrian Peterson also had 4 catches 21 yards. Against New Orleans he ran for a dismal 32 yards on 21 yards and 9 yards on a catch. Week 6 against Detroit Adrian ran for 111 yards on 25 carries and 1catch for -5 yards, but he had 2 vital fumbles that almost lost them the game. Adrian Peterson currently ranks 3rd in the NFL in rushing and 6th in yards from scrimmage.

Records

Most 200-yard rushing games for a rookie (2)
Most yards rushing in the first eight games (1,036)
Most yards rushing in a single game (296)

Awards

2008 NFL Pro Bowl MVP
2007 NFL AP Offensive Rookie of the Year
2007 Diet Pepsi NFL Rookie of the Year
Two 2007 Player of the Month awards
2008 Best Breakthrough Athlete ESPY Award

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