Speech Differences And Stutter Series-Disabled Legend Alfred Kazin

Alfred Kazin was born on 5 June, 1915 and died on 5 June, 1998. Alfred Kazin was an American writer and literary critic, many of whose writings depicted the immigrant experience in early 20th century America.

Alfred Kazin is regarded as one of “The New York Intellectuals”, and like many other members of this group he was born in Brooklyn and attended the City College of New York. However, his politics were more moderate than most of the New York intellectuals, many of whom were socialists. Alfred Kazin wrote out of a great passion– or great disgust — for what he was reading and embedded his opinions in a deep knowledge of history, both literary history and politics and culture. Alfred Kazin was a friend of the political theorist Hannah Arendt. In 1996 he was awarded the 1st Truman Capote Lifetime Achievement Award for literary criticism.

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Speech Differences And Stutter Series-Disabled Legend Clara Barton

Clarissa Harlowe Barton was born on 25 December, 1821 in Oxford Massachusetts, USA and died on 12 April, 1912. Clara Barton was a pioneer American teacher, nurse, and humanitarian. Clara Barton has been described as having a “strong and independent spirit” and is best remembered for organising the American Red Cross.

Clara Barton was born to Stephen and Sarah Barton. Clara Barton was the youngest of 5children. Clara Barton’s father and mother were abolitionists. Clara Barton’s father was a farmer and horse breeder, while her mother Sarah managed the household. The 2 later helped found the 1st Universalist Church in Oxford.

Clara Barton had 2 brothers, Stephen and David. Young Clara was educated at home and extremely bright. It is said that her siblings were kept busy answering her many questions, and each taught her complementary skills. Clara Barton’s brothers were happy to teach her how to ride horses and do other things that, at the time, were thought appropriate only for men.

When Clara Barton was 11, her brother David became her 1st patient after he fell from a rafter in their unfinished barn. Clara Barton stayed by his side for 2 years and learned to administer all his medicines, including the “great, loathsome crawling leeches”.

As she continued to develop an interest in nursing, Clara Barton may have drawn inspiration from stories of her great-aunt, Martha Ballard, who served the town of Hallowell (later Augusta), Maine, as a midwife for over 3 decades. Ballard helped deliver nearly 1000 infants between 1777 and 1812, and in many cases administered medical care in much the same way as a formally trained doctor of her era.

On his death bed, Clara Barton’s father gave her advice that she would later recall:

“As a patriot, he had me serve my country with all I had, even with my life if need be; as the daughter of an accepted Mason, he had me seek and comfort the afflicted everywhere, and as a Christian he charged me to honour God and love mankind.”

In April 1862, after the First Battle of Bull Run, Clara Barton established an agency to obtain and distribute supplies to wounded soldiers. Clara Barton was given a pass by General William Hammond to ride in army ambulances to provide comfort to the soldiers and nurse them back to health and lobbied the U.S. Army bureaucracy, at first without success, to bring her own medical supplies to the battlefields. Finally, in July 1862, she obtained permission to travel behind the lines, eventually reaching some of the grimmest battlefields of the war and serving during the sieges of Petersburg, Virginia and Richmond, Virginia. In 1864 she was appointed by Union general Benjamin Butler as the “lady in charge” of the hospitals at the front of the Army of the James.

In 1865, President Abraham Lincoln placed Clara Barton in charge of the search for the missing men of the Union Army. Around this time, a young soldier named Dorence Atwater came to her door. Dorence Atwater had copied the list of the dead without being discovered by the Andersonville officials, and taken it with him through the lines when he was released from the prison. Having been afraid that the names of the dead would never get to the families, it was his intention to publish the list. Dorence Atwater did accomplish this. Dorence Atwater’s list of nearly 13,000 men was considered invaluable. When the war ended, Clara Barton and Dorence Atwater were sent to Andersonville with 42 headboard carvers, and Clara Barton gave credit to young Dorence Atwater for what came to be known as “The Atwater List” in her report of the venture. Dorence Atwater also has a report at the beginning of this list, still available through Andersonville National Historic Site in Georgia. Because of the work they did, they became known as the “Angels of Andersonville,” according to a biography of Clara Barton. Clara Barton’s work in Andersonville is displayed in the book, Numbering All the Bones, by Ann Rinaldi. This experience launched her on a nationwide campaign to identify all soldiers missing during the Civil War. Clara Barton published lists of names in newspapers and exchanged letters with soldiers’ families.

Clara Barton then achieved widespread recognition by delivering lectures around the country about her war experiences. Clara Barton met Susan B. Anthony and began a long association with the suffrage movement. Clara Barton also became acquainted with Frederick Douglass and became an activist for black civil rights, or an abolitionist.

The years of toil during the Civil War and her dedicated work searching for missing soldiers debilitated Clara Barton’s health. In 1869, her doctors recommended a restful trip to Europe. In 1870, while she was overseas, she became involved with the International Committee of the Red Cross (ICRC) and its humanitarian work during the Franco-Prussian War. Created in 1864, the ICRC had been chartered to provide humane services to all victims of war under a flag of neutrality.

When Clara Barton returned to the United States, she inaugurated a movement to gain recognition for the International Committee of the Red Cross by the United States government. When she began work on this project in 1873, most Americans thought the U.S. would never again face a calamity like the Civil War, but Clara Barton finally succeeded during the administration of President James Garfield, using the argument that the new American Red Cross could respond to crises other than war. As Clara Barton expanded the original concept of the Red Cross to include assisting in any great national disaster, this service brought the United States the “Good Samaritan of Nations” label.

Clara Barton naturally became President of the American branch of the society, which was founded on 21 May, 1881 in Dansville, NY.(www.redcrossclara.com) John D. Rockefeller donated funds to create a national headquarters in Washington, DC, located one block from the White House.

Clara Barton at first dedicated the American Red Cross to performing disaster relief, such as after the 1893 Sea Islands Hurricane. This changed with the advent of the Spanish-American War during which it aided refugees and prisoners of war. In 1896, responding to the humanitarian crisis in the Ottoman Empire in the aftermath of the Hamidian Massacres, Clara Barton sailed to Constantinople and after long negotiations with Abdul Hamid II, opened the 1st American International Red Cross headquarters in the heart of Asia Minor. Clara Barton herself traveled along with 5other Red Cross expeditions to the Armenian provinces in the spring of 1896. Clara Barton also worked in hospitals in Cuba in 1898 at the age of 77. As criticism arose of her management of the American Red Cross, plus her advancing age, Clara Barton resigned as president in 1904, at the age of 83.

Various authorities have called Clara Barton a “Deist-Unitarian.” However, her actual beliefs varied throughout her life along a spectrum between freethought and deism. In a 1905 letter to her friend, Norman Thrasher, she called herself a “Universalist.”

Clara Barton Birthplace Museum in North Oxford, Massachusetts is operated as part of the Barton Center for Diabetes Education, a humanitarian project established in her honour to educate and support children with diabetes and their families.

In 1975, Clara Barton National Historic Site was established as a unit of the National Park Service at Clara Barton’s Glen Echo, Maryland home, where she spent the last 15 years of her life. One of the first National Historic Sites dedicated to the accomplishments of a woman, it preserves the early history of the American Red Cross, since the home also served as an early headquarters of the organization.

The National Park Service has restored 11 rooms, including the Red Cross offices, the parlours and Clara Barton’s bedroom. Visitors to Clara Barton National Historic Site can gain a sense of how Clara Barton lived and worked. Guides lead tourists through the 3 levels, emphasizing Clara Barton’s use of her unusual home. Modern visitors can come to appreciate the site in the same way visitors did in Clara Barton’s lifetime.

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Speech Differences And Stutter Series-Disabled Legend Washington Irving

Washington Irving was born on 3 April, 1783 and died on 28 November, 1859. Washington Irving was an American author, essayist, biographer and historian of the early 19th century. Washington Irving was best known for his short stories “The Legend of Sleepy Hollow” and “Rip Van Winkle”, both of which appear in his book The Sketch Book of Geoffrey Crayon, Gent. Washington Irving’s historical works include biographies of George Washington, Oliver Goldsmith and Muhammad, and several histories of 15th-century Spain dealing with subjects such as Christopher Columbus, the Moors, and the Alhambra. Washington Irving also served as the U.S. minister to Spain from 1842 to 1846.

Washington Irving made his literary debut in 1802 with a series of observational letters to the Morning Chronicle, written under the pseudonym Jonathan Oldstyle. After moving to England for the family business in 1815, he achieved international fame with the publication of The Sketch Book of Geoffrey Crayon, Gent. in 1819. Washington Irving continued to publish regularly—and almost always successfully—throughout his life, and completed a 5-volume biography of George Washington just 8months before his death, at age 76, in Tarrytown, New York.

Washington Irving, along with James Fenimore Cooper, was the 1st American writer to earn acclaim in Europe, and Washington Irving encouraged American authors such as Nathaniel Hawthorne, Herman Melville, Henry Wadsworth Longfellow, and Edgar Allan Poe. Washington Irving was also admired by some European writers, including Sir Walter Scott, Lord Byron, Thomas Campbell, Francis Jeffrey, and Charles Dickens. As America’s 1st genuine internationally best-selling author, Washington Irving advocated for writing as a legitimate profession, and argued for stronger laws to protect American writers from copyright infringement.

Washington Irving’s parents were William Irving, Sr., originally of Shapinsay, Orkney, and Sarah (née Sanders), Scottish-English immigrants. They married in 1761 while William was serving as a petty officer in the British Navy. They had 11 children, 8 of which survived to adulthood. Their 1st 2 sons, each named William, died in infancy, as did their 4th child, John. Their surviving children were: William, Jr. (1766), Ann (1770), Peter (1772), Catherine (1774), Ebenezer (1776), John Treat (1778), Sarah (1780), and Washington.

The Irving family was settled in Manhattan, New York City as part of the city’s small vibrant merchant class when Washington Irving was born on April 3, 1783, the same week city residents learned of the British ceasefire that ended the American Revolution. Consequently, Washington Irving’s mother named him after the hero of the revolution, George Washington. At age 6, with the help of a nanny, Washington Irving met his namesake, who was then living in New York after his inauguration as president in 1789. The president blessed young Washington Irving, an encounter Washington Irving later commemorated in a small watercolor painting, which still hangs in his home today. Several of Washington Irving’s older brothers became active New York merchants, and they encouraged their younger brother’s literary aspirations, often supporting him financially as he pursued his writing career.

A disinterested student, Washington Irving preferred adventure stories and drama and, by age 14, was regularly sneaking out of class in the evenings to attend the theater. The 1798 outbreak of yellow fever in Manhattan prompted his family to send him to healthier climes upriver, and Washington Irving was dispatched to stay with his friend James Kirke Paulding in Tarrytown, New York. It was in Tarrytown that Washington Irving became familiar with the nearby town of Sleepy Hollow, with its quaint Dutch customs and local ghost stories. Washington Irving made several other trips up the Hudson as a teenager, including an extended visit to Johnstown, New York, where he passed through the Catskill mountain region, the setting for “Rip Van Winkle”. ” of all the scenery of the Hudson”, Wshington Irving wrote later, “the Kaatskill Mountains had the most witching effect on my boyish imagination”.

The 19 year old Wshington Irving began writing letters to The Morning Chronicle in 1802, submitting commentaries on New York’s social and theater scene under the name of Jonathan Oldstyle. The name, which purposely evoked the writer’s Federalist leanings, was the 1st of many pseudonyms Washington Irving would employ throughout his career. The letters brought Wshington Irving some early fame and moderate notoriety. Aaron Burr, a co-publisher of the Chronicle, was impressed enough to send clippings of the Oldstyle pieces to his daughter, Theodosia, while writer Charles Brockden Brown made a trip to New York to recruit Oldstyle for a literary magazine he was editing in Philadelphia.

Concerned for his health, Washington Irving’s brothers financed an extended tour of Europe from 1804 to 1806. Washington Irving bypassed most of the sites and locations considered essential for the development of an upwardly-mobile young man, to the dismay of his brother William. William wrote that, though he was pleased his brother’s health was improving, he did not like the choice to “gallop through Italy… leaving Florence on your left and Venice on your right”. Instead, Washington Irving honed the social and conversational skills that would later make him one of the world’s most in-demand guests. “I endeavor to take things as they come with cheerfulness”, Washington Irving wrote, “and when I cannot get a dinner to suit my taste, I endeavor to get a taste to suit my dinner”. While visiting Rome in 1805, Washington Irving struck up a friendship with the American painter Washington Allston, and nearly allowed himself to be persuaded into following Washington Allston into a career as a painter. “My lot in life, however”, Washington Irving said later, “was differently cast”.

A younger Washington Irving returned from Europe to study law with his legal mentor, Judge Josiah Ogden Hoffman, in New York City. By his own admission, he was not a good student, and barely passed the bar in 1806. Washington Irving began actively socialising with a group of literate young men he dubbed “The Lads of Kilkenny”. Collaborating with his brother William and fellow Lad James Kirke Paulding, Washington Irving created the literary magazine Salmagundi in January 1807. Writing under various pseudonyms, such as William Wizard and Launcelot Langstaff, Washington Irving lampooned New York culture and politics in a manner similar to today’s Mad magazine. Salmagundi was a moderate success, spreading Washington Irving’s name and reputation beyond New York. In its 17th issue, dated 11 November, 1807, Washington Irving affixed the nickname “Gotham”—an Anglo-Saxon word meaning “Goat’s Town”—to New York City.

In late 1809, while mourning the death of his 17 year old fiancée Matilda Hoffman, Washington Irving completed work on his 1st major book, A History of New-York from the Beginning of the World to the End of the Dutch Dynasty, by Diedrich Knickerbocker(1809), a satire on self-important local history and contemporary politics. Prior to its publication, Washington Irving started a hoax akin to today’s viral marketing campaigns; he placed a series of missing person adverts in New York newspapers seeking information on Diedrich Knickerbocker, a crusty Dutch historian who had allegedly gone missing from his hotel in New York City. As part of the ruse, Washington Irving placed a notice—allegedly from the hotel’s proprietor—informing readers that if Mr. Knickerbocker failed to return to the hotel to pay his bill, he would publish a manuscript Knickerbocker had left behind.

Unsuspecting readers followed the story of Knickerbocker and his manuscript with interest, and some New York city officials were concerned enough about the missing historian that they considered offering a reward for his safe return. Riding the wave of public interest he had created with his hoax, Washington Irving—adopting the pseudonym of his Dutch historian—published A History of New York on 6 December, 1809, to immediate critical and popular success. “It took with the public”, Washington Irving remarked, “and gave me celebrity, as an original work was something remarkable and uncommon in America”. Today, the surname of Diedrich Knickerbocker, the fictional narrator of this and other Washington Irving works, has become a nickname for Manhattan residents in general.

After the success of A History of New York, Washington Irving searched for a job and eventually became an editor of Analectic magazine, where he wrote biographies of naval heroes like James Lawrence and Oliver Perry. Washington Irving was also among the 1st magazine editors to reprint Francis Scott Key’s poem “Defense of Fort McHenry”, which would later be immortalized as “The Star-Spangled Banner”, the national anthem of the United States.

Like many merchants and New Yorkers, Washington Irving originally opposed the War of 1812, but the British attack on Washington, D.C. in 1814 convinced him to enlist. Washington Irving served on the staff of Daniel Tompkins, governor of New York and commander of the New York State Militia. Apart from a reconnaissance mission in the Great Lakes region, he saw no real action. The war was disastrous for many American merchants, including Washington Irving’s family, and in mid-1815 he left for England to attempt to salvage the family trading company. Washington Irving remained in Europe for the next 17 years.

Washington Irving spent the next 2 years trying to bail out the family firm financially but was eventually forced to declare bankruptcy. With no job prospects, Washington Irving continued writing throughout 1817 and 1818. In the summer of 1817, he visited the home of novelist Walter Scott, marking the beginning of a lifelong personal and professional friendship for both men. Washington Irving continued writing prolifically—the short story “Rip Van Winkle” was written overnight while staying with his sister Sarah and her husband, Henry van Wart in Birmingham, England, a place that also inspired some of his other works. In October 1818, Washington Irving’s brother William secured for Washington Irving a post as chief clerk to the United States Navy, and urged him to return home. Washington Irving, however, turned the offer down, opting to stay in England to pursue a writing career.

In the spring of 1819, Washington Irving sent to his brother Ebenezer in New York a set of essays that he asked be published as The Sketch Book of Geoffrey Crayon, Gent. The 1st installment, containing “Rip Van Winkle”, was an enormous success, and the rest of the work, published in 7 installments in the United States and England throughout 1819 and 1820 (“The Legend of Sleepy Hollow” would appear in the 6th issue), would be equally as successful.

Like many successful authors of this era, Washington Irving struggled against literary bootleggers. While in England, his sketches were published in book form by British publishers without his permission, an entirely legal practice as there were no clear international copyright laws. Seeking an English publisher to protect his copyright, Washington Irving appealed to Walter Scott for help. Walter Scott referred Washington Irving to his own publisher, London powerhouse John Murray, who agreed to take on The Sketch Book. From then on, Washington Irving would publish concurrently in the United States and England to protect his copyright, with John Murray being his English publisher of choice.

Washington Irving’s reputation soared, and for the next 2 years, he led an active social life in Paris and England, where he was often feted as an anomaly of literature: an upstart American who dared to write English well.

With bothb Washington Irving and publisher John Murray eager to follow up on the success of The Sketch Book, Washington Irving spent much of 1821 travelling in Europe in search of new material, reading widely in Dutch and German folk tales. Hampered by writer’s block—and depressed by the death of his brother William—Irving worked slowly, finally delivering a completed manuscript to John Murray in March 1822. The book, Bracebridge Hall, or The Humorists, A Medley (the location was based loosely on Aston Hall, occupied by members of the Bracebridge family, near his sister’s home in Birmingham) was published in June 1822.

The format of Bracebridge was similar to that of The Sketch Book, with Washington Irving, as Crayon, narrating a series of more than 50 loosely connected short stories and essays. While some reviewers thought Bracebridge to be a lesser imitation of The Sketch Book, the book was well-received by readers and critics. “We have received so much pleasure from this book,” wrote critic Francis Jeffrey in the Edinburgh Review, “that we think ourselves bound in gratitude . . . to make a public acknowledgement of it.” Washington Irving was relieved at its reception, which did much to cement his reputation with European readers.

Still struggling with writer’s block, Washington Irving traveled to Germany, settling in Dresden in the winter of 1822. Here he dazzled the royal family and attached himself to Mrs. Amelia Foster, an American living in Dresden with her 5 children. Washington Irving was particularly attracted to Mrs. Foster’s 18-year-old daughter Emily, and vied in frustration for her hand. Emily finally refused his offer of marriage in the spring of 1823.

Washington Irving returned to Paris and began collaborating with playwright John Howard Payne on translations of French plays for the English stage, with little success. Washington Irving also learned through Payne that the novelist Mary Wollstonecraft Shelley was romantically interested in him, though Washington Irving never pursued the relationship.

In August 1824, Washington Irving published the collection of essays Tales of a Traveller—including the short story “The Devil and Tom Walker”—under his Geoffrey Crayon persona. “I think there are in it some of the best things I have ever written,” Washington Irving told his sister. But while the book sold respectably, Traveller largely bombed with critics, who panned both Traveller and its author. “The public have been led to expect better things,” wrote the United States Literary Gazette, while the New-York Mirror pronounced Washington Irving “overrated.” Hurt and depressed by the book’s reception, Washington Irving retreated to Paris where he spent the next year worrying about finances and scribbling down ideas for projects that never materialised.

While in Paris, Washington Irving received a letter from Alexander Hill Everett on 30January, 1826. Alexander Hill Everett, recently the American Minister to Spain, urged Washington Irving to join him in Madrid, noting that a number of manuscripts dealing with the Spanish conquest of the Americas had recently been made public. Washington Irving left for Madrid and enthusiastically began scouring the Spanish archives for colourful material.

The palace Alhambra, where Washington Irving briefly resided in 1829, inspired one of his most colourful books. With full access to the American consul’s massive library of Spanish history, Washington Irving began working on several books at once. The 1st offspring of this hard work, The Life and Voyages of Christopher Columbus, was published in January 1828. The book was popular in the United States and in Europe and would have 175 editions published before the end of the century. It was also the 1st project of Washington Irving’s to be published with his own name, instead of a pseudonym, on the title page. The Chronicles of the Conquest of Granada was published a year later, followed by Voyages and Discoveries of the Companions of Columbus in 1831.

Washington Irving’s writings on Columbus are a mixture of history and fiction, a genre now called romantic history. Washington Irving based them on extensive research in the Spanish archives, but also added imaginative elements aimed at sharpening the story. The 1st of these works is the source of the durable myth that medieval Europeans believed the Earth was flat.

In 1829, Washington Irving moved into Granada’s ancient palace Alhambra, “determined to linger here”, he said, “until I get some writings under way connected with the place”. Before he could get any significant writing underway, however, he was notified of his appointment as Secretary to the American Legation in London. Worried he would disappoint friends and family if he refused the position, Washington Irving left Spain for England in July 1829.

Arriving in London, Washington Irving joined the staff of American Minister Louis McLane. Louis McLane immediately assigned the daily secretary work to another man and tapped Washington Irving to fill the role of aide-de-camp. The 2 worked over the next year to negotiate a trade agreement between the United States and the British West Indies, finally reaching a deal in August 1830. That same year, Washington Irving was awarded a medal by the Royal Society of Literature, followed by an honourary doctorate of civil law from Oxford in 1831.

Following Louis McLane’s recall to the United States in 1831 to serve as Secretary of Treasury, Washington Irving stayed on as the legation’s chargé d’affaires until the arrival of Martin Van Buren, President Jackson’s nominee for British Minister. With Van Buren in place, Washington Irving resigned his post to concentrate on writing, eventually completing Tales of the Alhambra, which would be published concurrently in the United States and England in 1832.

Washington Irving was still in London when Van Buren received word that the United States Senate had refused to confirm him as the new Minister. Consoling Van Buren, Washington Irving predicted that the Senate’s partisan move would backfire. “I should not be surprised”, Washington Irving said, “if this vote of the Senate goes far toward elevating him to the presidential chair”.

Washington Irving arrived in New York, after 17 years abroad on 21 May, 1832. That September, he accompanied the U.S. Commissioner on Indian Affairs, Henry Ellsworth, along with companions Charles La Trobe and Count Albert-Alexandre de Pourtales, on a surveying mission deep in Indian Territory. At the completion of his western tour, Washington Irving traveled through Washington, D.C. and Baltimore, where he became acquainted with the politician and novelist John Pendleton Kennedy.

Frustrated by bad investments, Washington Irving turned to writing to generate additional income, beginning with A Tour on the Prairies, a work which related his recent travels on the frontier. The book was another popular success and also the 1st book written and published by Washington Irving in the United States since A History of New York in 1809. In 1834, he was approached by fur magnate John Jacob Astor, who convinced Washington Irving to write a history of his fur trading colony in the American Northwest, now known as Astoria, Oregon. Washington Irving made quick work of Astor’s project, shipping the fawning biographical account titled Astoria in February 1836.

During an extended stay at Astor’s, Washington Irving met the explorer Benjamin Bonneville, who intrigued Washington Irving with his maps and stories of the territories beyond the Rocky Mountains. When the 2 met in Washington, D.C. several months later, Bonneville opted to sell his maps and rough notes to Washington Irving for $1,000. Washington Irving used these materials as the basis for his 1837 book The Adventures of Captain Bonneville.

These 3 works made up Washington Irving’s “western” series of books and were written partly as a response to criticism that his time in England and Spain had made him more European than American. In the minds of some critics, especially James Fenimore Cooper and Philip Freneau, Washington Irving had turned his back on his American heritage in favour of English aristocracy. Washington Irving’s western books, particularly A Tour on the Prairies, were well-received in the United States, though British critics accused Washington Irving of “book-making”.

In 1835, Washington Irving purchased a “neglected cottage” and its surrounding riverfront property in Tarrytown, New York. The house, which Washington Irving named Sunnyside in 1841, would require constant repair and renovation over the next 20 years. With costs of Sunnyside escalating, Washington Irving reluctantly agreed in 1839 to become a regular contributor to Knickerbocker magazine, writing new essays and short stories under the Knickerbocker and Crayon pseudonyms.

Washington Irving was regularly approached by aspiring young authors for advice or endorsement, including Edgar Allan Poe, who sought Washington Irving’s comments “on William Wilson” and “The Fall of the House of Usher”. Washington Irving also championed America’s maturing literature, advocating for stronger copyright laws to protect writers from the kind of piracy that had initially plagued The Sketch Book. Writing in the January 1840 issue of Knickerbocker, he openly endorsed copyright legislation pending in the U.S. Congress. “We have a young literature”, Washington Irving wrote, “springing up and daily unfolding itself with wonderful energy and luxuriance, which… deserves all its fostering care”. The legislation did not pass.

Washington Irving at this time also began a friendly correspondence with the English writer Charles Dickens, and hosted the author and his wife at Sunnyside during Dickens’s American tour in 1842.

In 1842, after an endorsement from Secretary of State Daniel Webster, President John Tyler appointed Washington Irving as Minister to Spain. Washington Irving was surprised and honoured, writing, “It will be a severe trial to absent myself for a time from my dear little Sunnyside, but I shall return to it better enabled to carry it on comfortably”.

While Washington Irving hoped his position as Minister would allow him plenty of time to write, Spain was in a state of perpetual political upheaval during most of his tenure, with a number of warring factions vying for control of the 12-year-old Queen Isabella II. Washington Irving maintained good relations with the various generals and politicians, as control of Spain rotated through Espartero, Bravo, then Narvaez. However, the politics and warfare were exhausting, and Washington Irving—homesick and suffering from a crippling skin condition—grew quickly disheartened:

“I am wearied and at times heartsick of the wretched politics of this country. . . . The last 10 or 12 years of my life, passed among sordid speculators in the United States, and political adventurers in Spain, has shewn me so much of the dark side of human nature, that I begin to have painful doubts of my fellow man; and look back with regret to the confiding period of my literary career, when, poor as a rat, but rich in dreams, I beheld the world through the medium of my imagination and was apt to believe men as good as I wished them to be.”

With the political situation in Spain relatively settled, Washington Irving continued to closely monitor the development of the new government and the fate of Isabella. Washington Irving’s official duties as Spanish Minister also involved negotiating American trade interests with Cuba and following the Spanish parliament’s debates over slave trade. Washington Irving was also pressed into service by the American Minister to the Court of St. James’s in London, Louis McLane, to assist in negotiating the Anglo-American disagreement over the Oregon border that newly-elected president James K. Polk had vowed to resolve.

Returning from Spain in 1846, Washington Irving took up permanent residence at Sunnyside and began work on an “Author’s Revised Edition” of his works for publisher George Palmer Putnam. For its publication, Washington Irving had made a deal that guaranteed him 12% of the retail price of all copies sold. Such an agreement was unprecedented at that time. On the death of John Jacob Astor in 1848, Washington Irving was hired as an executor of Astor’s estate and appointed, by Astor’s will, as 1st chairman of the Astor library, a forerunner to the New York Public Library.

As he revised his older works for Putnam, Washington Irving continued to write regularly, publishing biographies of the writer and poet Oliver Goldsmith in 1849 and the prophet Muhammad in 1850. In 1855, he produced Wolfert’s Roost, a collection of stories and essays he had originally written for Knickerbocker and other publications, and began publishing at intervals a biography of his namesake, George Washington, a work which he expected to be his masterpiece. 5 volumes of the biography were published between 1855 and 1859. Washington Irving traveled regularly to Mount Vernon and Washington, D.C. for his research, and struck up friendships with Presidents Millard Fillmore and Franklin Pierce.

Washington Irving continued to socialise and keep up with his correspondence well into his 70s, and his fame and popularity continued to soar. “I don’t believe that any man, in any country, has ever had a more affectionate admiration for him than that given to you in America”, wrote Senator William C. Preston in a letter to Washington Irving. “I believe that we have had but one man who is so much in the popular heart”.

On the evening of 28 November, 1859, only 8 months after completing the final volume of his Washington biography, Washington Irving died of a heart attack in his bedroom at Sunnyside at the age of 76. Legend has it that his last words were: “Well, I must arrange my pillows for another night. When will this end?” Washington Irving was buried under a simple headstone at Sleepy Hollow cemetery on 1 December, 1859.

Washington Irving and his grave were commemorated by Henry Wadsworth Longfellow in his 1876 poem, “In The Churchyard at Tarrytown”, which concludes with:

How sweet a life was his; how sweet a death!
Living, to wing with mirth the weary hours,
Or with romantic tales the heart to cheer;
Dying, to leave a memory like the breath
Of summers full of sunshine and of showers,
A grief and gladness in the atmosphere.

Washington Irving is largely credited as the 1st American Man of Letters, and the 1st to earn his living solely by his pen. Eulogizing Washington Irving before the Massachusetts Historical Society in December 1859, his friend, the poet Henry Wadsworth Longfellow, acknowledged Washington Irving’s role in promoting American literature: “We feel a just pride in his renown as an author, not forgetting that, to his other claims upon our gratitude, he adds also that of having been the 1st to win for our country an honourable name and position in the History of Letters”.

Washington Irving perfected the American short story, and was the 1st American writer to place his stories firmly in the United States, even as he poached from German or Dutch folklore. Washington Irving is also generally credited as one of the first to write both in the vernacular, and without an obligation to the moral or didactic in his short stories, writing stories simply to entertain rather to enlighten.

Some critics, however—including Edgar Allan Poe—felt that while Washington Irving should be given credit for being an innovator, the writing itself was often unsophisticated. “Irving is much over-rated”, Poe wrote in 1838, ” and a nice distinction might be drawn between his just and his surreptitious and adventitious reputation—between what is due to the pioneer solely, and what to the writer”.

Other critics were inclined to be more forgiving of Washington Irving’s style. Henry Makepeace Thakeray was the 1st to refer to Washington Irving as the “ambassador whom the New World of Letters sent to the Old”, a banner picked up by writers and critics throughout the 19th and 20th centuries. “He is the first of the American humorists, as he is almost the first of the American writers”, wrote critic H.R. Hawless in 1881, “yet belonging to the New World, there is a quaint Old World flavour about him”.

Early critics often had difficulty separating Washington Irving the man from Irving the writer—”The life of Washington Irving was one of the brightest ever led by an author”, wrote Richard Henry Stoddard, an early Washington Irving biographer—but as years passed and Washington Irving’s celebrity personality faded into the background, critics often began to review his writings as all style, no substance. “The man had no message”, said critic Barrett Wendell. Yet, critics conceded that despite Washington Irving’s lack of sophisticated themes—Irving biographer Stanley T. Williams could be scathing in his assessment of Washington Irving’s work—most agreed he wrote elegantly.

Washington Irving popularised the nickname “Gotham” for New York City, later used in Batman comics and movies, and is credited with inventing the expression “the almighty dollar”.

The surname of his Dutch historian, Diedrich Knickerbocker, is generally associated with New York and New Yorkers, and can still be seen across the jerseys of New York’s professional basketball team, albeit in its more familiar, abbreviated form, reading simply Knicks.

One of Washington Irving’s most lasting contributions to American culture is in the way Americans perceive and celebrate Christmas. In his 1812 revisions to A History of New York, Washington Irving inserted a dream sequence featuring St. Nicholas soaring over treetops in a flying wagon—a creation others would later dress up as Santa Claus. Later, in his 5 Christmas stories in The Sketch Book, Washington Irving portrayed an idealised celebration of old-fashioned Christmas customs at a quaint English manor, which directly contributed to the revival and reinterpretation of the Christmas holiday in the United States. Charles Dickens later credited Washington Irving as a strong influence on his own Christmas writings, including the classic A Christmas Carol. The Community Area of Irving Park in Chicago was named in Washington Irving’s honour.

The Irving Trust Corporation (now the Bank of New York Mellon Corporation) was named after him. Since there was not yet a federal currency in 1851, each bank issued its own paper and those institutions with the most appealing names found their certificates more widely accepted. Washington Irving’s portrait appeared on the bank’s notes and contributed to their wide appeal.

Washington Irving’s home, Sunnyside, is still standing, just south of the Tappan Zee Bridge in Tarrytown, New York. The original house and the surrounding property were once owned by 18th-century colonialist Wolfert Acker, about whom Washington Irving wrote his sketch Wolfert’s Roost (the name of the house). The house is now owned and operated as a historic site by Historic Hudson Valley and is open to the public for tours. A memorial to him stands near the entrance to Sunnyside in the village of Irvington, which renamed itself in his memory, and visitors to Christ Episcopal Church in nearby Tarrytown, where he served as a vestryman in the last years of his life, can see his pew. Washington Irving’s name is also frequently mentioned in Joseph Heller’s novel Catch-22 in which his name is signed on papers.

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Speech Differences And Stutter Series-Disabled Legend Adrian Peterson

Adrian Lewis Peterson was born on 21 March, 1985 in Palestine, Texas. Nicknamed “A.D.” (for “All Day”) or “Purple Jesus”, is a professional American football running back for the Minnesota Vikings of the National Football League (NFL). Adrian Peterson played college football as a running back for 3 years at the University of Oklahoma. At Oklahoma, Adrian Peterson set the NCAA freshman rushing record with 1,925 yards (as a true freshman). Adrian Peterson was a 1st team All-American, and he also set a freshman record by finishing as the runner-up in the Heisman Trophy balloting. Adrian Peterson finished as the school’s 3rd all-time leading rusher.

Adrian Peterson was selected by the Minnesota Vikings with the 7th overall pick in the 1st round of the 2007 NFL Draft. Coming into the league, he was known as a tall, upright runner possessing a rare combination of speed, strength, agility, size, and vision, along with a highly aggressive running style. Adrian Peterson’s rare talent as both a great breakaway and power runner has often raised comparisons to past legends, including Eric Dickerson, O.J. Simpson, Walter Payton, Gale Sayers, and Jim Brown. As a rookie in the NFL, he broke numerous franchise and league records for rushing yardage, the foremost being the NFL single-game rushing record when he ran for 296 yards on 30 carries on 4 November, 2007, against the San Diego Chargers. Following his stellar 1st pro season, Adrian Peterson was a near-unanimous choice as the NFL Offensive Rookie of the Year. In the 2008 NFL Pro Bowl, Adrian Peterson rushed for 129 yards and 2 touchdowns, achieving the 2nd highest rushing total in Pro Bowl history. Adrian Peterson was awarded the MVP award for his performance in the Pro Bowl, which led to a 42-30 victory over the AFC.

Adrian Peterson has 1 daughter, Adeja. Adrian Peterson currently resides in Eden Prairie, Minnesota, a suburb of Minneapolis, Minnesota, with his brothers, Eldon, and Derrick Peterson.

Adrian Peterson was interested in football as a child as he began playing at the age of 7 and participated in the popular Pop Warner Football programme. Adrian Peterson continued his interest in athletics into high school where he competed in track and field, basketball, and football at Palestine High School. Adrian Peterson was most notable in football where he played during his junior and senior years. Adrian Peterson finished his 2002 campaign as a junior with 2,051 yards on 246 carries, an average of 8.3 yards per carry, and 22 touchdowns. As a senior in 2003, he rushed for 2,960 yards on 252 attempts, an average of 11.7 yards per carry, and 32 touchdowns. Concluding his high school football career at the annual U.S. Army All-American Bowl, he led the West squad with 95 yards on 9 carries and scoring 2 touchdowns and announced at the game he would attend college at Oklahoma. Among his other choices of schools were the University of Southern California, University of Texas at Austin, Texas A&M University, University of California, Los Angeles, University of Arkansas, and University of Miami. Following the season, he was awarded the Hall Trophy as the Ball Park National High School Player of the Year. In addition, he was named the top high school player by College Football News and Rivals.com.

During his freshman season, Adrian Peterson broke many NCAA freshman rushing records, rushing for 1925 yards and leading the nation in carries with 339. Adrian Peterson was a finalist for the Heisman Trophy, finishing 2nd to USC quarterback Matt Leinart, which was the highest finish ever for a freshman. Adrian Peterson was also a finalist for the Doak Walker Award. Among other honours include being the 1st Oklahoma freshman recognised as a 1st-Team Associated Press All-American. Adrian Peterson contributed to an undefeated season for the Oklahoma Sooners and participated in the 2005 BCS National Championship Game with a berth to the FedEx Orange Bowl.

Adrian Peterson’s playing time in 2005 was limited by a high ankle sprain. Adrian Peterson injured his ankle in the 1st Big 12 Conference game of the season against Kansas State University. Despite missing time in 4 games, he rushed for 1,208 yards and 14 touchdowns on 220 carries, finishing 2nd in Big 12 rushing yardage. Adrian Peterson’s 2005 season was also notable for a career-long 84 yard touchdown run against Oklahoma State University. Upon the conclusion of the season, he was named a member of the All-Big 12 Conference team.

Nelson Peterson was released from prison during the 2006 college football season and was able to watch his son as a spectator for the 1st time on 14 October, 2006 when Oklahoma played Iowa State University. Oklahoma defeated Iowa State in that game, but Adrian Peterson broke his collar bone falling into the end zone to end a 53 yard touchdown run. During a press conference on 18 October, Adrian Peterson said he was told by doctors to expect to be out for 4 to 6 weeks. At the time of the injury, Adrian Peterson needed only 150 yards to gain to pass Billy Sims as the University of Oklahoma’s all-time leading rusher. Adrian Peterson was unable to return for the rest of the Sooners regular season, but returned for the Sooners’ last game against Boise State in the 2007 Fiesta Bowl, where he rushed for 77 yards and a touchdown. Adrian Peterson refused to discuss his plans beyond the end of this season with the press. Adrian Peterson concluded his college football career with 1,112 rushing yards his final season, even after missing multiple games due to injury for a total of 4,045 rushing yards (only 3 season). Adrian Peterson was 73 yards short of passing Billy Sims as Oklahoma’s all-time leading rusher.

Awards And Honours

Hall Trophy (2003)
First-team AP All-Freshman (2004)
First-team AP All-American (2004)
Doak Walker Award finalist (2004)
Heisman Trophy finalist (2004)

On 15 January, 2007, Adrian Peterson declared that he would forego his senior year of college and enter the 2007 NFL Draft. Concerns about his injuries suffered during college were noted by the media and potential NFL teams. Adrian Peterson started 22 out of 31 games in his college career and missed games due to a dislocated shoulder his 1st year, a high ankle sprain his sophomore year, and a broken collarbone his final year at Oklahoma. Adrian Peterson’s durability was a consideration by at least 2 teams in their draft analysis, which impacted selection position. Prior to the 2007NFL Draft, Adrian Peterson was compared by professional football scouts to Eric Dickerson. ESPN NFL Draft analyst Mel Kiper, Jr. said of Peterson, “You can make the argument,[Peterson]is the best player in this draft, if not, certainly 1 of the top 3.”

On 28 April, 2007, Adrian Peterson was selected by the Minnesota Vikings with the 7th overall pick in the 1st round of the 2007 NFL Draft. Adrian Peterson was the 1st running back selected in that year’s draft. At a press conference during the draft, Adrian Peterson announced, “My collarbone, I would say it’s 90% healed. A lot of teams know that, and I don’t see it stopping me from being prepared for the season.”

After being drafted by the Vikings, there was speculation that Adrian Peterson would require surgery to fully heal the collarbone injury he suffered during college, but it was soon learned that was not the case.

Adrian Peterson believes he is a player that a franchise can build around. In an interview with IGN following the NFL Draft, he said, “I’m a player who is coming in with the determination to turn a team around. I want to help my team get to the playoffs, win…and run wild. I want to bring people to the stands. I want people to come to the game to see what I can do next. Things like that can change the whole attitude of an organisation. I want to win.” Adrian Peterson later told the Star Tribune in an interview, “I want to be the best player to ever play this game.”

Nearly 3 months after being drafted, he was signed by the Vikings on 29 July, 2007. Adrian Peterson’s contract is worth US$40.5,000,000 over 5 years, with $17,000,000 guaranteed.

Adrian Peterson’s outstanding rookie season began with high expectations from Adrian Peterson himself; he announced ambitious goals including being named Offensive Rookie of the Year, rushing for 1,800 yards during the course of the year, and breaking the league’s rookie rushing record just as he broke the freshman rushing record during his 1st season at Oklahoma. The NFL’s rushing record for a rookie is currently held by Eric Dickerson at 1,808 yards. Just 11 weeks into his rookie season with the Vikings, Adrian Peterson was well on his way to Eric Dickerson’s record and considered one of the elite running backs in the NFL.

On 10 August, Adrian Peterson made his Minnesota Vikings debut in a preseason game against the St. Louis Rams. Adrian Peterson ran for 33 yards on 11 carries with 1 catch for 2 yards. On 9 September, 2007, Adrian Peterson ran for 103 yards on 19carries in his 1st NFL regular season game against the Atlanta Falcons. In addition to his rushing yardage, he scored his 1st professional football touchdown on a 60 yard pass reception. Over his 1st 3 regular season games, his 431 yards (271 rushing & 160 receiving) from scrimmage are a team record. For his performance during the 3 games, Adrian Peterson received the NFL Offensive Rookie of the Month award for both September and October 2007.

Adrian Peterson’s breakout game as a professional came on 14 October, 2007 against the Chicago Bears, highlighted by a 3 touchdown performance and a then franchise record of 224 yards rushing on 20 carries. Adrian Peterson established additional team records for a rookie during this game, which included the most 100-yard games rushing and the longest touchdown run from scrimmage. Adrian Peterson also set an NFL rookie record with 361 all-purpose yards in a single game. Adrian Peterson’s 607 rushing yards through the 1st 5 games of the season is 2nd in NFL history to Eric Dickerson. Following Adrian Peterson’s record performance, Deion Sanders, now an NFL Network analyst said the following about Adrian Peterson: “He has the vision of a Marshall Faulk, the power of an Earl Campbell, and the speed of an Eric Dickerson. Let’s pray he has the endurance of an Emmitt Smith.” Adrian Peterson has also been compared to Walter Payton and Tony Dorsett by Star Tribune sports journalist Jim Souhan.

3 weeks later on 4 November, 2007, Adrian Peterson broke his own franchise record as well as the NFL single game rushing yard record previously held by Jamal Lewis since 2003 when he rushed for 296 yards on 30 carries and 3 touchdowns against the San Diego Chargers. That game was his 2nd game of over 200 yards rushing, a feat no other rookie has ever accomplished in a season. In addition to the NFL rushing record in a single game, it took him past 1,000 yards rushing for the year after just 8 games. Adrian Peterson’s 1,036 rushing yards represents the best 8-game performance by a rookie in NFL history.

On 11 November, 2007, just a week after his record-breaking performance against the Chargers, Adrian Peterson injured the lateral collateral ligament in his right knee in a game against the Green Bay Packers. The injury occurred in the 3rd quarter of a 34-0 defeat at Lambeau Field on a low, yet clean tackle by Packers cornerback Al Harris. Almost a month after the injury, Adrian Peterson returned to action on 2 December, 2007 against the Detroit Lions scoring 2 touchdowns and rushing for 116 yards. On 17 December Adrian Peterson played in his 1st Monday Night Football game where he had 78 yards rushing, 17 yards receiving and 2 TDs. The next day Adrian Peterson was named as the starting running back for the 2008 NFC Pro Bowl team. On 2 January, he was named The Associated Press NFL Offensive Rookie of the Year.

On 10 February, 2008, Adrian Peterson won the 2008 NFL Pro Bowl MVP award with 16 carries for 129 yards rushing along with 2 touchdowns. The 129 yards rushing was the 2nd most in Pro Bowl history. Adrian Peterson was the 1st rookie since Marshall Faulk in 1995 to win the Pro Bowl MVP award.

Adrian Peterson finished in 2nd place in rushing yards (1341)in the 2007 season behind LaDainian Tomlinson, who finished with (1474) rushing yards.

Adrian Peterson and the Vikings entered the 2008 season with high expectations and as he did during his rookie season, Adrian Peterson set high goals for himself including a 2000-yard campaign and the NFL MVP award. Questions remained as to Adrian Peterson’s durability and the ability of the Vikings offense to take the focus of opposing defenses off of Adrian Peterson. In the 1st game of the season against the Packers, Adrian Peterson ran for 103 yards on 19 carries and a TD, including 1 reception for 11 yards. In week 2 against the Colts, Adrian Peterson had 29 carries for 160 yards and 4 receptions for 20 yards. Against Carolina in week 3 Adrian Peterson ran for 77 yards on 17 carries. In week 4 Adrianh Peterson ran the ball 18 times for 80 yards and 2 TDs against the Titans. Adrian Peterson also had 4 catches 21 yards. Against New Orleans he ran for a dismal 32 yards on 21 yards and 9 yards on a catch. Week 6 against Detroit Adrian ran for 111 yards on 25 carries and 1catch for -5 yards, but he had 2 vital fumbles that almost lost them the game. Adrian Peterson currently ranks 3rd in the NFL in rushing and 6th in yards from scrimmage.

Records

Most 200-yard rushing games for a rookie (2)
Most yards rushing in the first eight games (1,036)
Most yards rushing in a single game (296)

Awards

2008 NFL Pro Bowl MVP
2007 NFL AP Offensive Rookie of the Year
2007 Diet Pepsi NFL Rookie of the Year
Two 2007 Player of the Month awards
2008 Best Breakthrough Athlete ESPY Award

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Speech Differences And Stutter Series-Disabled Legend Samuel L Jackson

Samuel Leroy Jackson was born on 21 December 1948, in Washington, D.C. Samuel Jackson is an American Academy Award-nominated and BAFTA-winning actor. Samuel Jackson came to fame in the early 1990s, after a series of well-reviewed performances, and has since become a major film star and cultural icon, having appeared in a large number of high-grossing films.

Samuel Jackson is married to Latanya Richardson and has a daughter named Zoe. Samuel Jackson is a huge sports fan and an avid golfer. Samuel Jackson has won multiple awards for his film performances and has been portrayed in various forms of media including films, television series, and lyrics. Samuel Jackson is currently working on 5 films that will debut between 2008 and 2009.

Samuel Jackson has noted that he chooses roles that are “exciting to watch” and have an “interesting character inside of a story”, and that in his roles he wanted to “do things [he hasn’t] done, things he saw as a kid and wanted to do and now has an opportunity to do”.

Samuel Jackson grew up as an only child in Chattanooga, Tennessee with his mother, Elizabeth Jackson (née Montgomery), who was a factory worker and later a supplies buyer for a mental institution, and his maternal grandparents and extended family. Samuel Jackson’s father lived away from the family in Kansas City, Missouri and later died from alcoholism; Samuel Jackson had only met his father twice during his life. Samuel Jackson attended Riverside High (now Chattanooga School for the Arts and Sciences), a segregated school where, between the 3rd and 12th grades, he played the French horn and trumpet in the school orchestra. Samuel Jackson later attended Morehouse College in Atlanta, Georgia, where he co-founded the “Just Us Theater”. Samuel Jackson graduated in 1972.

After the 1968 assassination of Martin Luther King, Jr., Samuel Jackson attended the funeral in Atlanta as one of the ushers. Samuel Jackson then flew to Memphis to join an equal rights protest march. In a Parade interview Samuel Jackson revealed: “I was angry about the assassination, but I wasn’t shocked by it. I knew that change was going to take something different—not sit-ins, not peaceful coexistence.” In 1969, Samuel Jackson and several other students held members of the Morehouse College board of trustees (including a nearby Martin Luther King, Sr.) hostage on the campus, demanding reform in the school’s curriculum and governance. The college eventually agreed to change its ways, but Samuel Jackson was charged with and eventually convicted of a second degree felony (unlawful confinement). Samuel Jackson was then suspended for 2 years for his criminal record and his actions (although he would later return to the college to earn his Bachelor of Arts in Drama in 1972). Samuel Jackson decided to remain in Atlanta, where he met with Stokely Carmichael, H. Rap Brown, and others active in the Black Power movement. Samuel Jackson revealed in the same Parade interview that he began to feel empowered with his involvement in the movement, especially when the group began buying guns. However, before Samuel Jackson could become involved with any significant armed confrontation, his mother sent him to Los Angeles after the F.B.I. told her that he would die within a year if he remained with the Black Power movement.

Samuel Jackson initially decided to go to Morehouse College to major in Architecture, but decided to change his major to Drama after taking a public speaking class and appearing in a version of The Threepenny Opera. Samuel Jackson began acting in multiple plays including Home and A Soldier’s Play. Samuel Jackson also landed himself in several TV films, and his 1st feature film was in Together for Days (1972). After these initial roles, Samuel Jackson proceeded to move from Atlanta to New York City in 1976 and spent the next decade appearing in stage plays such as The Piano Lesson and 2 Trains Running which both premiered at the Yale Repertory Theater. At this point in his early career, Samuel Jackson developed an alcohol and cocaine addiction, resulting in him being unable to proceed with the 2 plays as they continued to Broadway (actors Charles S. Dutton and Anthony Chisholm took his place). Throughout his early film career, mainly in minimal roles in films such as Coming to America (as a criminal robbing a fast food joint) and various TV films, Samuel Jackson was mentored by Morgan Freeman. After a 1981 performance in the play A Soldier’s Play, Samuel Jackson was introduced to beginning director Spike Lee who would later include him in small roles for the films School Daze (1988) and Do the Right Thing (1989). Samuel Jackson also played a minor role in the 1990 Martin Scorsese film Goodfellas as real-life Mafia associate Stacks Edwards.

After completing these films, Samuel Jackson’s cocaine addiction continued to increase to the point where he overdosed, and his family entered him into a New York rehab clinic. When he successfully completed rehab, Samuel Jackson acted in Jungle Fever, as the crack cocaine addict brother to the relatively new actor Wesley Snipes, a role which Samuel Jackson called cathartic as he was recovering from his addiction. The film was so acclaimed that the 1991 Cannes Film Festival awarded a special “Supporting Actor” award just for him. After this role, Samuel Jackson became involved with multiple film requests, including Strictly Business, Juice, Patriot Games, and then moved on to 2 comedies: National Lampoon’s Loaded Weapon 1 and Amos & Andrew. After rapid involvement in these films, Samuel Jackson worked with director Steven Spielberg in Jurassic Park. Samuel Jackson played a major role in Quentin Tarantino’s Pulp Fiction. The film was Samuel Jackson’s most notable role, mainly for his monologues and one-liners along with co-star John Travolta. The film earned Samuel Jackson an Academy Award nomination for Best Supporting Actor as well as a Golden Globe nomination and a BAFTA Best Supporting Actor award win.

With a succession of unsuccessful films such as Kiss of Death, The Great White Hype, and Losing Isaiah, Samuel Jackson began to receive poor reviews from critics who had praised his performance in Pulp Fiction. This ended with his involvement in the 2 successful box office films A Time To Kill, where he depicted a father who is put on trial for killing 2 men who raped his daughter, and Die Hard with a Vengeance, co-starring along side Bruce Willis in the 3rd installment of the Die Hard series. For A Time to Kill, Samuel Jackson earned a NAACP Image for Best Supporting Actor in a Motion Picture and a Golden Globe nomination for a Best Supporting Actor.

Quickly becoming a box office star, Samuel Jackson continued with 3 starring roles in 1997. In 187 he played a teacher, dedicated to educating students in a Los Angeles high school but with a terrible secret. Samuel Jackson received an Independent Spirit award for Best 1st Feature alongside 1st-time writer/director Kasi Lemmons in the drama film Eve’s Bayou, for which he also served as executive producer. Samuel Jackson joined up again with director Quentin Tarantino and received a Berlin Film Festival Silver Bear for Best Actor and a 4th Golden Globe nomination for his portrayal of arms merchant Ordell Robbie in Jackie Brown. In 1998, he worked with other established actors such as Sharon Stone and Dustin Hoffman in Sphere and Kevin Spacey in The Negotiator, playing a hostage negotiator who resorts to taking hostages himself when he is falsely accused of murder and embezzlement. In 1999, Samuel Jackson starred in a shark horror film, Deep Blue Sea, and as Jedi Master Mace Windu in George Lucas’s Star Wars Episode I: The Phantom Menace. In an interview, Samuel Jackson claimed that he did not have a chance to read the script for the film and did not learn he was playing the character Mace Windu until he was fitted for his costume (it is said that he was eager to accept any role, just for the chance to be a part of the Star Wars saga).

On 13 June, 2000, Samuel Jackson was honoured with a star on the Hollywood Walk of Fame which can be found at 7018 Hollywood Blvd. Samuel Jackson began the next decade in his film career as a Marine colonel put on trial in Rules of Engagement, co-starred with Bruce Willis for a 3rd time in the supernatural thriller Unbreakable, and starred in the 2000 remake of the 1971 film Shaft. Samuel Jackson’s sole film in 2001 was The Caveman’s Valentine, where he plays a homeless musician in a murder thriller. The film was directed by Kasi Lemmons, who previously worked with Samuel Jackson in Eve’s Bayou. In 2002, he played a recovering alcoholic attempting to keep custody of his kids while dealing with a mishap with Ben Affleck’s character in Changing Lanes. Samuel Jackson returned for Star Wars Episode II: Attack of the Clones, increasing his role from a small role to a supporting role. Mace Windu’s purple lightsaber in the film was the result of Samuel Jackson’s suggestion; he wanted to be sure that his character would stand out in a crowded battle scene. Samuel Jackson then acted as a NSA agent alongside Vin Diesel in xXx and a drug dealer wearing a kilt in The 51st State. In 2003, Samuel Jackson portrayed another character in a military role, working with John Travolta again in Basic and then as a police sergeant alongside Colin Farrell in the television show remake S.W.A.T. In 2004, Samuel Jackson played a mentor to Ashley Judd in the thriller Twisted, and lent his voice to the computer-animated film The Incredibles as the superhero Frozone. Samuel Jackson once again appeared in a Tarantino film, by cameoing in Kill Bill, Vol. 2.

In 2005, he began with the sports drama, Coach Carter, where he played a coach (based on the actual coach Ken Carter) dedicated to teaching his players that education is more important than basketball. Samuel Jackson also returned for 2 sequels: XXX: State of the Union, this time commanding Ice Cube, and the final prequel George Lucas installment, Star Wars Episode III: Revenge of the Sith. Samuel Jackson’s last film for 2005 was The Man alongside comedian Eugene Levy. On 4 November, 2005, he was presented with the Hawaii International Film Festival Achievement in Acting Award.

On 30 January, 2006, Samuel Jackson was honoured with a hand and footprint ceremony at Grauman’s Chinese Theater; he is the 7th African American and 191st actor to be recognised in this manner. Samuel Jackson next starred opposite of actress Julianne Moore in the box office bomb Freedomland, where he depicted a police detective attempting to help a mother find her abducted child, while quelling a city racial riot. Samuel Jackson’s 2nd film of the year, Snakes on a Plane, gained cult interest months before the film was released based on its title and cast. Samuel Jackson’s decision to star in the film was solely based on the title. To build anticipation for the film, he also cameoed in the 2006 music video Snakes on a Plane (Bring It) by Cobra Starship. On 2 December, Samuel Jackson won the German Bambi Award for International Film, based on his many film contributions. On 15 December, 2006, Samuel Jackson starred in Home of the Brave, as a doctor returning home from the Iraq War, resorting to alcohol to cope with his feelings after the war.

On 30 January, 2007, Samuel Jackson was featured as narrator in Bob Saget’s direct-to-DVD Farce of the Penguins. The film was a spoof of the box office success March of the Penguins (which was narrated by Morgan Freeman). Samuel Jackson’s most recent films, released in 2007, were Black Snake Moan, where he portrays a blues player who imprisons a young woman (Christina Ricci) addicted to sex, and the horror film 1408, which casts him alongside John Cusack in an adaptation of the Stephen King short story. In Cleaner, Samuel Jackson portrayed an obsessive crime scene cleaner who discovers a covered-up murder.

In 2008, Samuel Jackson reprised his role of Mace Windu in the CGI film, Star Wars: The Clone Wars, followed by Lakeview Terrace where he played a racist cop who has problems with his married interracial neighbours.

Throughout Samuel Jackson’s career, he has appeared in many films alongside mainstream rappers. These include Tupac Shakur (Juice), Queen Latifah (Juice), Method Man (187), LL Cool J (Deep Blue Sea/S.W.A.T.), Busta Rhymes (Shaft), Eve (xXx), Ice Cube (xXx: State of the Union), Xzibit (xXx: State of the Union), David Banner (Black Snake Moan), and 50 Cent (Home of the Brave). Additionally, Samuel Jackson has appeared in 4 films with actor Bruce Willis (National Lampoon’s Loaded Weapon 1, Pulp Fiction, Die Hard with a Vengeance, and Unbreakable) and the actors were slated to work together in Black Water Transit before both dropped out.

Samuel Jackson has 5 upcoming film projects between 2008 and 2011, starting with 2 2008 films where he will first be reprising his role of Mace Windu in the CGI film, Star Wars: The Clone Wars. Samuel Jackson will then portray the villain, the Octopus, in the film The Spirit. Samuel Jackson will also star along with Bernie Mac and Isaac Hayes (who both died prior to the film’s release) in Soul Men in October. In 2009 he will provide his voice for the animated science fiction film, Quantum Quest: A Cassini Space Odyssey. Samuel Jackson’s uncredited appearance in the post-credit scene of Iron Man has given him the role of Nick Fury for Iron Man 2, (predicted to release in April 2010), and in The Avengers film set for release in July 2011.

In motion pictures that feature him as a leading actor or supporting co-star, his films have grossed a total of $2.31 to $4.34,000,000,000 at the North American box office, placing him as the 9th (as strictly lead) or the 2nd highest-grossing movie star (counting supporting roles) of all time; behind only that of voice actor, Frank Welker. In August 2007, Samuel Jackson stated in an interview that he wanted to play a small role in George Lucas’s Indiana Jones and the Kingdom of the Crystal Skull so that he could keep his box office position over Harrison Ford. The 2009 edition of The Guinness World Records stated that Samuel Jackson is the world’s highest grossing actor, having earned $7.42,000,000,000 in 68 films.

Samuel L. Jackson gave his consent for Marvel Comics to design their “Ultimate” version of the character Nick Fury after his likeness. Samuel Jackson had a cameo as the character in the 2008 Iron Man film. Samuel Jackson has also had a song named after him, entitled Sammy L. Jackson by Hot Action Cop. The song was featured on the soundtrack for the 2003 film S.W.A.T, in which Samuel Jackson appeared.

Samuel Jackson has been parodied multiple times in various television shows and films. Samuel Jackson was parodied twice on Chappelle’s Show where he was played by comedian Dave Chappelle in sketches involving Mace Windu and a fake commercial peddling “Samuel Jackson” beer (a parody of Samuel Adams). Samuel Jackson has also been spoofed in the film Team America: World Police, where he was portrayed as a villainous member of the Film Actors Guild, and the 2007 film Epic Movie, poking fun at his role in Snakes on a Plane.

Samuel Jackson also guest-starred as himself in an episode of the BBC/HBO sitcom Extras, voiced the main antagonist, Officer Frank Tenpenny, of Grand Theft Auto: San Andreas, the lead role in a current anime series, Afro Samurai, and has a recurring part as the voice of Gin Rummy in several episodes of the animated series The Boondocks. In 1 episode, he paid tribute to his Pulp Fiction character, Jules Winnfield, by reenacting the “What?” scene from the film.

Samuel Jackson also provided the voice of God for a New Testament audio book version of the Bible entitled The Bible Experience, which was released in November 2006. Samuel Jackson was given the lead role because producers felt his deep, authoritative voice was perfect for the role.

Samuel Jackson is also a sought after host. Thus far, he has hosted the MTV Movie Awards (1998), the ESPYs (1999, 2001, 2002), and the Spike TV Video Game Awards (2005, 2006, 2007).

Samuel Jackson is currently the voice of Virgin Media television adverts in the United Kingdom.

Samuel L. Jackson married actress Latanya Richardson in 1980, whom he met while attending Morehouse College. The couple, who live in Los Angeles, California, have a daughter, Zoe, born in 1982, who is in culinary school.

Samuel Jackson is a keen basketball fan, and especially favours the Toronto Raptors and the Harlem Globetrotters. Samuel Jackson also became a keen Liverpool F.C. fan after filming the movie The 51st State in Liverpool, England. Samuel Jackson enjoys playing golf, a game he has been reported to have become very proficient at. Samuel Jackson has stated that if he had to choose any other career, he would be “on the PGA [tour] playing golf” and that it is the only place where he “can go dressed as a pimp and fit in perfectly”. Samuel Jackson has also stated in an interview that he has a clause in his film contracts that allows him to play golf twice a week.

Samuel Jackson has revealed in an interview that he sees every one of his movies in theaters with paying customers claiming that “Even during my theater years, I wished I could watch the plays I was in—while I was in them! I dig watching myself work.” Samuel Jackson also enjoys collecting the action figures of the characters he portrays in his films including Jules Winnfield, Shaft, Mace Windu, and Frozone.

Samuel Jackson is bald in real life, but enjoys wearing unusual wigs in his films. For the film Black Snake Moan, he was allowed to choose the hairstyle he wanted for his character. Samuel Jackson is a comic book and anime fan.

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Speech Differences And Stutter Series-Disabled Legend Bill Withers

Bill Withers was born on 4 July, 1938. Bill Withers is an American singer-songwriter who performed and recorded from 1970 until 1985. Some of his best-known songs are “Ain’t No Sunshine,” “Use Me,” “Lovely Day,” “Lean on Me”, “Grandma’s Hands”, and “Just the Two of Us”.

Bill Withers was born William Harrison Withers, Jr., Bill Withers is the son of a coal miner who worked for the Slab Fork Coal Company from 1917 to 1951 and a domestic for the William Gaston Caperton family that owned the coal company. Bill Withers was born in a house owned by the company on land leased from Beaver Coal Corporation, predecessor to Beaver Coal Company, Ltd, the youngest of 6 children in the small coal-mining unincorporated community of Slab Fork, West Virginia in Raleigh County. Bill Withers’ father, William Harrison Withers Sr. was a Baptist deacon and the treasurer for the local chapter of the United Mine Workers (UMWA). Bill Withers’ mother, Mattie Rose (née Galloway), was a widow and the mother of 4 children when she married William Harrison Withers, Sr. Withers’ parents separated in October 1941 and officially divorced in May 1942, and Bill Withers grew up both in a company house of the Slab Fork Coal Company in Slab Fork. In October 1941, he moved in with his Aunt Carrella Galloway Briggs’. In August 1944, he finally settled with his mother in Beckley, West Virginia and attended public school at East Park Elementary School and Stratton Junior High School in Beckley, and the coloured schools in Slab Fork.

After his Aunt Carrella died in 1949, Bill Withers formed a special relationship with his maternal grandmother, Lula Carter Galloway who came to live with his family until her death in 1953. Bill Withers then lived with his father in Slab Fork from 1948 to 1951 and attended the local segregated school. Returning to Beckley from Slab Fork after his father became ill, Bill Withers left school in the 7th grade after his father died, and worked several jobs, including a shoe shine boy in Beckley. On 15 July, 1951, William, Sr. died of azotemia and chronic glomerulonephritis when Bill Withers was 13. After his father’s death, Bill Withers lived with the family of the widow of his deceased brother Earl, Elfreida Martin. Bill Withers suffered from chronic stuttering until the age of 28.

In May 1956, at the age of 17, Bill Withers joined the United States Navy and served for 9 years, during which time he became interested in singing and songwriting. Bill Withers began writing songs to fill a need for lyrics that expressed what he felt. Following his discharge from the Navy in July 1965, he worked in the San Jose, California area and then moved to Los Angeles in 1967 to pursue a career in music.

Bill Withers worked as an assembler for several different companies, including Douglas Aircraft Corporation, in the Los Angeles area, while recording demo tapes with his own money that he shopped around and performing with local musicians at the night. Although he kept his job as an assembler after he debuted on the music scene in February 1971 with the single “Ain’t No Sunshine” and the album “Just As I Am,” he was shortly thereafter laid off by Weber Aircraft Corporation.

In early 1970, Bill Withers’ demo tape was received favourably by former music manager and music executive and entrepreneur Clarence Avant of the newly created Sussex Records, Inc., distributed by Buddah Records and Interior Music Corp.. Avant signed Bill Withers to recording and publishing contracts on 8 May, 1970, and Booker T. Jones of Stax Records produced Bill Withers’ debut album. Bill Withers also signed with the business manager representing Avant, Sussex, and Interior, Paul Orland of Orland, Chase, and Mucci and the law firm representing the same, the legendary music lawyers Abraham Somer, David Berman, and Richard Leher of Mitchell, Silberberg & Knupp LLP. 4 3-hour studio sessions were planned to record the album, but problems with funding caused the album to be recorded in 3 sessions with a 6-month break between the 2nd and final sessions. Finally finished in January 1971, Just As I Am was released in February 1971 at the same time as the tracks “Harlem” and “Ain’t No Sunshine” were released as singles. The album was a hit, with “Ain’t No Sunshine” making it to number 3 pop and certified gold in the September 1971. Bill Withers made 1st appearance as a singer on 26 June, 1971 in Chicago at the Opera House.

At the 14th annual Grammy Awards on Tuesday, 14 March, 1972, Bill Withers won his 1st Grammy Award for Best Rhythm and Blues Song for “Ain’t No Sunshine.” Bill Withers began touring and recording with a band assembled from all Los Angeles-based members of The Watts 103rd Street Rhythm Band: drummer James Gadson, guitarist Bernoce Blackmon, keyboardist Ray Jackson, and bassist Melvin Dunlap. During a break in touring, Bill Withers wrote the songs for, recorded, and produced an album for the 1st time for his 2nd album, Still Bill Withers and Sussex/Buddah released it in May 1972. The single “Lean on Me” went to number 1 the week of 8 July, 1972. The album certified gold 7 September, 1972 and peaked at number 4 on the pop charts.

A Friday, 6 October, 1972 performance on a rainy night was recorded for the live album Bill Withers, Live at Carnegie Hall released 30 November, 1972. Bill Withers lost his mother, Mattie Withers to heart failure in New York in December 1972. Bill Withers married actress Donna Denise Nicholas on 17 January, 1973 in Van Nuys, CA and they divorced in October 1974 in Los Angeles, CA. This was followed by the 1974 album +’Justments.

After +’Justments, Bill Withers became involved in a legal dispute with the Sussex Records, Inc., Interior Music, and Clarence Avant beginning in January 1975 and ending in June 1975. After the lawsuit settled in June 1975, Bill Withers became free to sign with another label, but started his own independent music publishing companies, Golden Withers Music and Bleunig Music with the help of business manager Edgar Fleisher Gross of International Business Management in Century City and the noted music law firm of Hardee, Barovick, Konecky & Braun of New York and Beverly Hills. Sussex Records, Inc., went out of business, with the Internal Revenue Service auctioning off all the remaining assets in July 1975 because of unpaid federal and state taxes of $62,000. Bill Withers’ new label CBS Records received notice of the auction from Sussex Records, Inc. and Clarence Avant, CBS bought the Sussex masters in July 1975 for $50,500 at the auction. Just before this time, Bill Withers wrote and produced 2 songs on the Gladys Knight & the Pips record I Feel A Song released 1 January, 1974 and performed in concert on 23 September, 1974 at “The Zaire Music Festival” which preceded the historic Ali/Foreman fight in Zaire on 30 October, 1974. Footage of his musical performance appeared in the 1996 documentary film When We Were Kings and the accompanying soundtrack album was released in 1997.

Bill Withers signed with Columbia Records in 1975. Bill Withers’ 1st release with the label was Making Music, Making Friends, which had the single She’s Lonely and was featured in the movie Looking for Mr. Goodbar. The next 3 years saw an album released each year with Naked & Warm (1976), Menagerie (1977, containing the hit “Lovely Day”) and Bout Love (1978).

Due to problems with Columbia, he focused on joint projects for several years, including the Grammy-winning Just the Two of Us, which he performed with jazz saxophonist Grover Washington, Jr. released in June 1980 and winning a Grammy Award at the 24th Annual Grammy Awards on 24 February, 1982, Soul Shadows with The Crusaders, and In The Name Of Love with Ralph MacDonald, which was nominated for a vocal performance Grammy.

Bill Withers’ final new release was 1985’s Watching You, Watching Me, which featured the Top 40 R&B single “Oh Yeah”. Bill Withers hired noted music lawyer Bernard Fischbach of Fischbach and Fischbach, and got out of his contract with Columbia and retired from recording, although he continued performing live sporadically, but retired from constant touring in 1989, last performing live for the birthday party of billionaire Tom Gores of Platinum Equity Partners in Santa Monica in 2004. In 1988, a remixed version of “Lovely Day” from the 1977 “Menagerie” Album, titled “Lovely Day (Sunshine Mix)” and remixed by Ben Liebrand, reached the Top 10 in the UK, prompting Bill Withers to perform on the long running Top of the Pops that year. The original release, in 1977, had reached No. 7 in the UK, and the re-release climbed to No. 4.

After retiring, Bill Withers focused on parenting to his 2 children, Todd and Kori Withers, also a singer and songwriter, with his 2nd wife Marcia whom he married 31 December, 1976 in Van Nuys, CA, and who handles the day-to-day running of his Beverly Hills-based publishing companies. In 1987, he received his 9th Grammy nomination and on 2 March, 1988 his 3rd Grammy for Best Rhythm and Blues Song as a songwriter for the re-recording of Lean On Me by Club Nouveau on their debut album Life, Love and Pain released in 1986 on Warner Bros. Records.

Bill Withers contributed 2 songs to Jimmy Buffett’s 13 July, 2004 release “License To Chill.” Following the reissues of Still Bill on 28 January, 2003 and Just As I am on 8 March, 2005, there was speculation of previously unreleased material being issued as a new album. In 2006, Sony gave back to Bill Withers his previously unreleased tapes.

In 2008, a feature documentary is made about Bill Withers, called ‘Still Bill’. It is directed by Damani Baker and Alex Vlack. The movie shows Bill Withers at home jamming with members of his old band, and even brings him back on stage singing ‘Grandma’s Hands’ during a tribute concert organised for the documentary.

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Speech Differences And Stutter Series-Disabled Legend Tom Sizemore

Thomas Edward “Tom” Sizemore, Jr. was born on 29 September, 1964 in Detroit, Michigan. Tom Sizemore is a Golden Globe-nominated American film and television actor. Tom Sizemore is known for his supporting performances in several Hollywood films.

Tom Sizemore was born to a mother who was a member of an urban ombudsman staff and a lawyer/psychology professor father, Thomas Edward Sizemore, Sr. Tom Sizemore has a younger brother, Paul, who is also an actor and a niece Beverly who is a songwriter and former Pussycat Doll. Tom Sizemore attended Michigan State University for 1 year, as well as Wayne State University, and earned a Master’s Degree in theater from Temple University in 1986. Tom Sizemore subsequently moved to New York City to pursue an acting career.

One of Tom Sizemore’s early film roles was in Oliver Stone’s Born on the 4th of July in 1989. Tom Sizemore has appeared in films such as Lock Up (1989), Harley Davidson and the Marlboro Man (1991), True Romance (1993), Natural Born Killers (1994) and Strange Days (1995). A succession of well-received supporting parts followed, perhaps the most well known being his portrayal of Michael Cheritto in Heat (1995). Tom Sizemore’s major leading role was as Vincent D’Agosta in 1997’s The Relic.

Tom Sizemore had a recurring role on the television series China Beach (1988 to 1991)as an enlisted man named Charlie who was in love with Dana Delaney’s character.

Tom Sizemore continued to play leading and character parts in many films, notably Bringing out the Dead, Saving Private Ryan, HBO’s Witness Protection, Red Planet, Pearl Harbour, Devil in a Blue Dress, and Black Hawk Down. Tom Sizemore had a voice part as Sonny Forelli in the video game Grand Theft Auto: Vice City. Tom Sizemore had a supporting role in Kevin Costner’s Wyatt Earp as Bat Masterson. In 2001, Tom Sizemore starred in Ticker, an action film directed by Albert Pyun, with Steven Seagal and Dennis Hopper . In 2002, Tom Sizemore starred in the well-reviewed but short-lived television drama series Robbery Homicide Division. It was cancelled mid-way through its 1st season. Tom Sizemore also played an undercover cop in the film Swindle opposite Sherilyn Fenn.

Tom Sizemore fronted the Hollywood rock band Day 8. Formed in 2002, the band recorded a 4-song EP produced and recorded by former Snot/Soulfly guitarist Mikey Doling. The group included Rod Castro, Tyrone Tomke and Michael Taylor.

In 2004, he starred in the movie Paparazzi and in the 2006 film, The Genius Club, playing a terrorist who taunts 7 geniuses into solving the world’s problems in 1 night.

In 2007, the television network VH1 aired a 6 episode reality TV series called Shooting Sizemore, which depicted the life of the actor as he struggled to regain his career in the midst of a continuing battle with addiction. The series also covered an ongoing legal appeal on his conviction for an assault of former Hollywood madam Heidi Fleiss. In 2008, Tom Sizemore appeared in The Last Lullaby, playing a killer, and in the thriller film Red with Brian Cox.

Tom Sizemore, who had long battled drug addiction, was convicted in 2003 of assault and battery against his girlfriend, the former “Hollywood Madam” Heidi Fleiss. Tom Sizemore was then sentenced to 17 months in jail and 4 months in drug treatment for repeatedly failing drug tests while on probation on 25 March, 2005. On 3 June, 2005, Tom Sizemore filed a writ of habeas corpus to appeal his conviction of domestic violence against Heidi Fleiss, accusing Heidi Fleiss of faking a picture of her bruises submitted as evidence during the April 2003 trial. Heidi Fleiss testified the photo was taken by a friend named Tara Dabrizzi who left the next day to visit her ailing mother in another country. Tara Dabrizzi never took the stand and Tom Sizemore’s attorneys say they were unable to locate anyone with that name. Heidi Fleiss allegedly contradicted herself in a civil trial by saying she didn’t know who took the photo, according to the Superior Court petition.

On 18 August, 2005, approximately 8 hours of celebrity sex tape starring Tom Sizemore was published on the internet. The material has since become available on DVD.

On 8 May, 2007, while still on probation for a previous drug conviction, Tom Sizemore was again arrested outside the 4 Points Sheraton hotel in Bakersfield, California. Police found what appeared to be 2 bags of methamphetamine and 3 meth pipes in his 2004 Ford Mustang. Police were called after paroled dealer Jason Salcido challenged a hotel employee to a fight after being refused check-in. Police found a meth pipe on Salcido and found Tom Sizemore waiting in his car outside the hotel. On 25 June, Tom Sizemore was sentenced to 16 months, but the sentence was reduced to 9 months because he had already served 213 days behind bars.

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