Speech Differences And Stutter Series-Disabled Legend Tom Sizemore

Thomas Edward “Tom” Sizemore, Jr. was born on 29 September, 1964 in Detroit, Michigan. Tom Sizemore is a Golden Globe-nominated American film and television actor. Tom Sizemore is known for his supporting performances in several Hollywood films.

Tom Sizemore was born to a mother who was a member of an urban ombudsman staff and a lawyer/psychology professor father, Thomas Edward Sizemore, Sr. Tom Sizemore has a younger brother, Paul, who is also an actor and a niece Beverly who is a songwriter and former Pussycat Doll. Tom Sizemore attended Michigan State University for 1 year, as well as Wayne State University, and earned a Master’s Degree in theater from Temple University in 1986. Tom Sizemore subsequently moved to New York City to pursue an acting career.

One of Tom Sizemore’s early film roles was in Oliver Stone’s Born on the 4th of July in 1989. Tom Sizemore has appeared in films such as Lock Up (1989), Harley Davidson and the Marlboro Man (1991), True Romance (1993), Natural Born Killers (1994) and Strange Days (1995). A succession of well-received supporting parts followed, perhaps the most well known being his portrayal of Michael Cheritto in Heat (1995). Tom Sizemore’s major leading role was as Vincent D’Agosta in 1997’s The Relic.

Tom Sizemore had a recurring role on the television series China Beach (1988 to 1991)as an enlisted man named Charlie who was in love with Dana Delaney’s character.

Tom Sizemore continued to play leading and character parts in many films, notably Bringing out the Dead, Saving Private Ryan, HBO’s Witness Protection, Red Planet, Pearl Harbour, Devil in a Blue Dress, and Black Hawk Down. Tom Sizemore had a voice part as Sonny Forelli in the video game Grand Theft Auto: Vice City. Tom Sizemore had a supporting role in Kevin Costner’s Wyatt Earp as Bat Masterson. In 2001, Tom Sizemore starred in Ticker, an action film directed by Albert Pyun, with Steven Seagal and Dennis Hopper . In 2002, Tom Sizemore starred in the well-reviewed but short-lived television drama series Robbery Homicide Division. It was cancelled mid-way through its 1st season. Tom Sizemore also played an undercover cop in the film Swindle opposite Sherilyn Fenn.

Tom Sizemore fronted the Hollywood rock band Day 8. Formed in 2002, the band recorded a 4-song EP produced and recorded by former Snot/Soulfly guitarist Mikey Doling. The group included Rod Castro, Tyrone Tomke and Michael Taylor.

In 2004, he starred in the movie Paparazzi and in the 2006 film, The Genius Club, playing a terrorist who taunts 7 geniuses into solving the world’s problems in 1 night.

In 2007, the television network VH1 aired a 6 episode reality TV series called Shooting Sizemore, which depicted the life of the actor as he struggled to regain his career in the midst of a continuing battle with addiction. The series also covered an ongoing legal appeal on his conviction for an assault of former Hollywood madam Heidi Fleiss. In 2008, Tom Sizemore appeared in The Last Lullaby, playing a killer, and in the thriller film Red with Brian Cox.

Tom Sizemore, who had long battled drug addiction, was convicted in 2003 of assault and battery against his girlfriend, the former “Hollywood Madam” Heidi Fleiss. Tom Sizemore was then sentenced to 17 months in jail and 4 months in drug treatment for repeatedly failing drug tests while on probation on 25 March, 2005. On 3 June, 2005, Tom Sizemore filed a writ of habeas corpus to appeal his conviction of domestic violence against Heidi Fleiss, accusing Heidi Fleiss of faking a picture of her bruises submitted as evidence during the April 2003 trial. Heidi Fleiss testified the photo was taken by a friend named Tara Dabrizzi who left the next day to visit her ailing mother in another country. Tara Dabrizzi never took the stand and Tom Sizemore’s attorneys say they were unable to locate anyone with that name. Heidi Fleiss allegedly contradicted herself in a civil trial by saying she didn’t know who took the photo, according to the Superior Court petition.

On 18 August, 2005, approximately 8 hours of celebrity sex tape starring Tom Sizemore was published on the internet. The material has since become available on DVD.

On 8 May, 2007, while still on probation for a previous drug conviction, Tom Sizemore was again arrested outside the 4 Points Sheraton hotel in Bakersfield, California. Police found what appeared to be 2 bags of methamphetamine and 3 meth pipes in his 2004 Ford Mustang. Police were called after paroled dealer Jason Salcido challenged a hotel employee to a fight after being refused check-in. Police found a meth pipe on Salcido and found Tom Sizemore waiting in his car outside the hotel. On 25 June, Tom Sizemore was sentenced to 16 months, but the sentence was reduced to 9 months because he had already served 213 days behind bars.

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Speech Differences And Stutter Series-Disabled Legend Nicholas Brendon

Nicholas Brendon was born on 12 April, 1971, in Los Angeles, California, USA as Nicholas Brendon Schultz. Nicholas Brendon is an actor best known for his character Xander Harris in the television series Buffy the Vampire Slayer (1997–2003).

When he was younger he had aspirations to be a professional baseball player, but was forced to give up the dream after an arm injury. At the age of 20 he decided to try his hand at acting to help him overcome his stuttering problem, but gave it up after 2 years because, “I couldn’t stand the politics in Hollywood.” Nicholas Brendon decided instead to go back to school and study medicine, but this did not work out. also tried his hand at a variety of other jobs including being a plumber’s assistant, veterinary janitor, day care counselor, waiter, and a production assistant for the television show Dave’s World. Nicholas Brendon gave acting another try after these jobs. It only took 4 days of auditioning before he landed the role of Xander Harris on Buffy.

Nicholas Brendon’s role on Buffy the Vampire Slayer as Xander Harris, was initially that of the occasional comic relief and plucky sidekick to the lead female characters, but after the earlier seasons less comedic lines were given to the part. When the series ended in 2003, Nicholas Brendon joined the cast of a new Fox sitcom, Kitchen Confidential, based on the book by chef Anthony Bourdain. 13 episodes were made, but the series was cancelled on 9 December of the same year, after the 4th episode aired with low ratings.

In 2006, he played Huntsboy #89 for season 2 of the animated series American Dragon: Jake Long. The series ended on 1 September, 2007. Nicholas Brendon character’s final appearance was in the episode “Shaggy Frog”, which aired on 28 April, 2007.

From 26 July through 30 August, 2006, Nicholas Brendon co-starred in the play Lobster Alice with Noah Wyle in Los Angeles.

That same year, Nicholas Brendon reunited with his former Buffy on-screen sweetheart, Charisma Carpenter, in the ABC Family TV movie Relative Chaos.

At a pop culture expo in Sydney, October 2007, he mentioned that he would be joining the cast of the CBS crime drama Criminal Minds as Penelope Garcia’s love interest.

In 2001, Nicholas Brendon married actress Tressa DiFiglia. As of 2007, they are divorced.

On 25, April 2004, at a Buffy fan convention in Cleveland, Ohio, he announced that he had voluntarily entered rehab for alcoholism.

Nicholas Brendon has played a major part in the Stuttering Foundation of America. Nicholas Brendon was the 1st person to serve the role of honourary chairperson of the Stuttering Foundation of America’s Stuttering Awareness Week for 3 consecutive years, from 2000 to 2003.

Nicholas Brendon has an identical twin brother, Kelly Donovan, who is 3 minutes older than he, and served as his occasional stand-in on Buffy. Kelly Donovan also played the part of Xander’s double in the episode “The Replacement” when the 2 Xanders were on the screen at the same time, and when Nicholas Brendon fell sick with pneumonia, he played Xander in most of the fight scenes in the episode “Intervention”.

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Speech Differences And Stutter Series-Disabled Legend James Stewart

James Maitland Stewart was born on 20 May 1908 and died on 2 July 1997, at the age of 89, at his home in Beverly Hills, of cardiac arrest and a pulmonary embolism following a long illness from respiratory problems. James Stewart had also suffered from Alzheimer’s disease. James Stewart’s death came just 1 day after fellow screen legend and The Big Sleep co-star Robert Mitchum had died of lung cancer and emphysema. James Stewart is interred in Forest Lawn Memorial Park Cemetery in Glendale, California. James Stewart was 6’3″ (191 cm) tall.

James Stewart, is popularly known as Jimmy Stewart. James Stewart was an American film and stage actor best known for his self-effacing screen persona. Over the course of his career, he starred in many films widely considered classics and was nominated for 5 Academy Awards, winning 1 in competition and 1 Lifetime Achievement award. James Stewart also had a noted military career, rising to the rank of Brigadier General in the United States Air Force.

Throughout his 7 decades in Hollywood, James Stewart cultivated a versatile career and recognised screen image in such classics as Mr. Smith Goes to Washington, The Philadelphia Story, Harvey, It’s a Wonderful Life, Rear Window, Rope and Vertigo. James Stewart is the most represented leading actor on the AFI’s 100 Years… 100 Movies (10th Anniversary Edition) and AFI’s 10 Top 10 lists. James Stewart is also the most represented leading actor on the 100 Greatest Movies of All Time list presented by Entertainment Weekly. As of 2007, 10 of his films have been inducted into the United States National Film Registry.

James Stewart left his mark on a wide range of film genres, including screwball comedies, westerns, biographies, suspense thrillers and family films. James Stewart worked for a number of renowned directors later in his career, most notably Alfred Hitchcock, John Ford, Billy Wilder, Frank Capra and Anthony Mann. James Stewart won many of the industry’s highest honours and earned Lifetime Achievement awards from every major film organisation. James Stewart died in 1997, leaving behind a legacy of classic performances, and is considered 1 of the finest actors of the “Golden Age of Hollywood.” James Stewart was named the 3rd Greatest Male Star of All Time by the American Film Institute.

James Stewart is the son of Elizabeth Ruth (née Jackson) and Alexander Maitland Stewart, who owned a hardware store. James Stewart’s parents were Presbyterian and of Scottish origin. James Stewart’s Jackson ancestors served in the American Revolution, War of 1812 and the Civil War. The eldest of 3 children (he had 2 younger sisters, Virginia and Mary), he was expected to continue his father’s business, which had been in the family for 3 generations.

James Stewart’s mother was an excellent pianist but his father discouraged James Stewart’s request for lessons. But when his father accepted a gift of an accordion from a guest, young James Stewart quickly learned to play the instrument, which became a fixture off-stage during his acting career. As the family grew, music continued to be an important part of family life.

James Stewart attended Mercersburg Academy prep school, graduating in 1928. At Mercersburg, James Stewart was active in a variety of activities. James Stewart played on the football team and track team. James Stewart was art editor for the KARUX yearbook and member of the choir club, glee club, and John Marshall Literary Society. During his 1st summer break, James Stewart returned to Indiana Pennsylvania to work as a brick loader for a local construction company and on highway and road construction jobs where he painted lines on the roads. Over the following 2 summers, he took a job as an assistant with a professional magician. James Stewart also made his 1st appearance on the stage at Mercersburg, as Buquet in the play The Wolves.

A shy child, James Stewart spent much of his after school time in the basement working on model airplanes, mechanical drawing and chemistry — all with a dream of going into aviation. But he abandoned visions of being a pilot when his father insisted that instead of the Naval Academy he attend Princeton University.

James Stewart enrolled at Princeton in 1928 as a member of the Class of 1932. There, he excelled at studying architecture, so impressing his professors with his thesis on an airport design that he was awarded a scholarship for graduate studies, but he gradually became attracted to the school’s drama and music clubs, including the famous Princeton Triangle Club. James Stewart was a member of the Princeton Charter Club as well as a head cheerleader. In his spare time, he enjoyed going to the movies at the time when “talkies” were just displacing silent films.

James Stewart’s acting and accordion talents at Princeton led him to be invited to the University Players, an intercollegiate summer stock company in West Falmouth a town on Cape Cod, Massachusetts. This company had been organised in 1928 and would run until 1932, with Joshua Logan, Bretaigne Windust, and Charles Leatherbee as the directors. James Stewart performed in bit parts in the Players’ productions in Cape Cod during the Summer of 1932 after he graduated. The troupe had previously included Henry Fonda, who married Margaret Sullavan on Christmas Day 1931 while the University Players were located in Baltimore for an 18-week winter season. Margaret Sullavan, who had rejoined the University Players in Baltimore in November 1931 at the close of the post-Broadway tour of A Modern Virgin, left the Players for good at the end of The Trial of Mary Dugan in Baltimore in March 1932. By the time James Stewart joined the University Players on Cape Cod after his graduation from Princeton in 1932, Henry Fonda and Margaret Sullavan’s brief marriage had ended. James Stewart and Henry Fonda became great friends over the summer of 1932 when they shared an apartment with Joshua Logan and Myron McCormick. When he came to New York at the end of the summer stock season, which had included the Broadway try-out of Goodbye Again, he shared an apartment with Henry Fonda, who had by then finalised his divorce from Margaret Sullavan. Along with fellow University Players, Alfred Dalrymple and Myron McCormick, James Stewart had his Broadway debut as a chauffeur in the comedy Goodbye Again, in which he had 2 lines. The New Yorker noted, “Mr. James Stewart’s chauffeur… comes on for 3 minutes and walks off to a round of spontaneous applause.”

The play was a moderate success but times were hard. Many Broadway theaters had been converted to movie houses and the Depression was reaching bottom. “From 1932 through 1934”, James Stewart later recalled, “I’d only worked 3 months. Every play I got into folded.” By 1934, he got more substantial stage roles, including the hit, Page Miss Glory, and his 1st dramatic stage role in Sidney Howard’s Yellow Jack, which convinced him to continue his acting career. However, James Stewart and Henry Fonda, still roommates, were both struggling.

In the fall of 1934, Henry Fonda’s success in The Farmer Takes a Wife took him to Hollywood. Finally, James Stewart attracted the interest of MGM scout Bill Grady who saw James Stewart on the opening night of Divided by 3, a glittering première with many luminaries in attendance including Irving Berlin and Moss Hart and his buddy Henry Fonda who had returned to New York for the show. With Henry Fonda’s encouragement, James Stewart agreed to take the screen test and signed a contract with MGM in April 1935, as a contract player for up to 7 years at $350 a week.

On his arrival by train to Los Angeles, Henry Fonda greeted James Stewart at the station and took him to Henry Fonda’s studio-supplied lodging, right next door to Greta Garbo. James Stewart’s 1st job at the studio was as a participant in the screen tests done for newly arrived starlets. At first, he had trouble being cast in Hollywood films due to his gangling looks and shy, humble screen presence. James Stewart’s 1st film was the poorly received Spencer Tracy vehicle, The Murder Man, but Rose Marie, an adaptation of a popular operetta, was more successful. After mixed success in films, he received his 1st substantial part in 1936’s After the Thin Man.

On the romantic front, he found himself dating newly-divorced Ginger Rogers, whom he had revered while a student at Princeton only a few years earlier. The romance soon cooled, however, and by chance James Stewart encountered Margaret Sullavan again. James Stewart found his footing in Hollywood thanks largely to Margaret Sullavan who campaigned for James Stewart to be her leading man in the 1936 romantic comedy Next Time We Love. Margaret Sullavan rehearsed extensively with him, having a noticeable effect on his confidence. Margaret Sullavan encouraged James Stewart to feel comfortable with his unique mannerisms and boyish charm and use them naturally as his own style. In the meantime, roommate Henry Fonda continued to arrange parties with starlets, who found James Stewart different from the other young actors and irresistible in his own way. James Stewart was enjoying Hollywood life and had no regrets about giving up the stage, as he worked 6 days a week in the MGM factory. In 1936, he acquired big-time agent Leland Hayward, who would eventually marry Margaret Sullavan. Leland Hayward started to chart James Stewart’s career, deciding the best path for him was through loan-outs to other studios.

In 1938, James Stewart had a brief, tumultuous, and well-publicised romance with Hollywood queen Norma Shearer whose husband Irving Thalberg, head of production at MGM, had died 2 years earlier. James Stewart began a successful partnership with director Frank Capra in 1938, when he was loaned out to Columbia Pictures to star in You Can’t Take It With You. Frank Capra had been impressed by James Stewart’s minor role in Navy Blue and Gold (1937). The director had recently completed several popular movies including It Happened One Night and was looking for the right type of actor to suit his needs—which other recent actors in his films such as Clark Gable, Ronald Colman and Gary Cooper did not quite fit. Not only was James Stewart just what he was looking for, but Frank Capra also found James Stewart understood that prototype intuitively and required very little directing. Later Frank Capra commented, “I think he’s probably the best actor who’s ever hit the screen.”

This heart-warming Depression-era film (You Can’t Take It With You), starring Frank Capra’s “favorite actress”, comedienne Jean Arthur, went on to win the 1938 Best Picture Academy Award. The following year saw James Stewart team with Frank Capra and Jean Arthur again for the political comedy-drama Mr. Smith Goes to Washington. James Stewart replaced intended star Gary Cooper in the film about an idealistic man thrown into the political arena. Upon the film’s October release, it garnered critical praise and became a box office success. For his performance, James Stewart was nominated for the 1st of 5 Academy Awards for Best Actor. Even after this great success, James Stewart’s parents were still trying to talk him into leaving Hollywood and its sinful ways and to return to his home town to lead a decent life. Instead, he took a secret trip to Europe to take a break and returned home just as Germany invaded Poland.

Destry Rides Again, also released that year, became James Stewart’s 1st western film, a genre for which he would become famous later in his career. In this Western parody, James Stewart is a pacifist lawman and Marlene Dietrich the saloon dancing girl who comes to love him, but doesn’t get him. In it she sings her famous song The Boys In the Back Room. Off-screen, Marlene Dietrich did get her man, but the romance was short-lived. Made for Each Other (1939) had James Stewart sharing the screen with irrepressible Carole Lombard in a melodrama that garnered good reviews for both stars, but did less well with the public. Newsweek wrote that they were “perfectly cast in the leading roles.” Between movies, James Stewart began a radio career and became a distinctive voice on the “Lux Radio Hour,” the “Screen Guild Theater” and other radio shows. So well known had his slow drawl become that comedians started to impersonate him, a form of flattery which continued for most of his life.

from the film The Philadelphia Story (1940)In 1940, James Stewart and Margaret Sullavan teamed again for 2 films. The 1st, the Ernst Lubitsch romantic comedy, The Shop Around the Corner, starred James Stewart and Margaret Sullavan as co-workers unknowingly involved in a pen-pal romance who cannot stand each other in real life (this was later remade into the romantic comedy You’ve Got Mail with Tom Hanks and Meg Ryan). It was James Stewart’s 5th film of the year and that rare film shot in the story’s sequence; it was completed in only 27 days. The Mortal Storm, directed by Frank Borzage, was 1 of the 1st blatantly anti-Nazi films to be produced in Hollywood and featured the pair as a husband and wife caught in turmoil upon Hitler’s rise to power.

James Stewart also starred opposite Katharine Hepburn and Cary Grant in George Cukor’s classic The Philadelphia Story (1940). James Stewart’s performance as an intrusive, fast-talking reporter earned him his only Academy Award in a competitive category (Best Actor, 1941) and he beat out his good friend Henry Fonda (The Grapes of Wrath). James Stewart thought his performance “entertaining and slick and smooth” but lacking the “guts” of “Mr. Smith.” James Stewart gave the Oscar statuette to his father, who displayed it in a case just inside the front door of his hardware store for many years, alongside other family awards and military medals.

During the months before he began military service, James Stewart went on to appear in a series of screwball comedies with varying levels of success. James Stewart followed the mediocre No Time for Comedy (1940) and Come Live with Me (1941) with the Judy Garland musical Ziegfeld Girl and the George Marshall romantic comedy Pot o’ Gold. James Stewart was drafted in late 1940 and it coincided with the lapse in his MGM contract, marking a turning point in James Stewart’s career, with 28 movies to his credit at that point.

The Stewart family had deep military roots as both grandfathers had fought in the Civil War, and his father had served during both the Spanish-American War and World War I. Since James Stewart considered his father to be the biggest influence on his life, it was not surprising that when another war eventually came, he too served. Unlike his family’s previous infantry service, James Stewart chose to become a military flyer.

An early interest in flying led James Stewart to gain his Private Pilot License in 1935 and Commercial Pilot Certificate in 1938. James Stewart often flew cross country to visit his parents in Pennsylvania, navigating by the railroad tracks. Nearly 2 years before the December 1941 attack on Pearl Harbour, James Stewart had accumulated over 400 hours of flying time.

Considered a highly proficient pilot, he even entered a cross-country race as a co-pilot in 1939. Along with musician/composer Hoagy Carmichael, seeing the need for trained war pilots, James Stewart teamed with other Hollywood moguls and put their own money into creating a flying school in Glendale, Arizona, which they named Thunderbird Field. This airfield trained more than 200,000 pilots during the War, became the origin of the Flying Thunderbirds, and is now the home of Thunderbird School of Global Management.

Later in 1940, James Stewart was drafted into the United States Army Air Corps (USAAC) but was rejected due to a weight problem. The USAAC had strict height and weight requirements for new recruits and James Stewart was 5lb under the standard. To get up to 148lbs he sought out the help of Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer’s muscle man, Don Loomis, who was legendary for his ability to add or subtract pounds in his studio gymnasium. James Stewart subsequently attempted to enlist in the USAAC but still came in under the weight requirement although he persuaded the AAC enlistment officer to run new tests, this time passing the weigh-in, with the result that James Stewart successfully enlisted in the Army in March 1941. James Stewart became the 1st major American movie star to wear a military uniform in World War II.

James Stewart enlisted as a private and began pilot training in the renamed United States Army Air Forces (USAAF). During this time the Japanese attacked Pearl Harbour, bringing the US into direct involvement in the war. James Stewart continued his military training and earned a commission as a 2nd lieutenant in January, 1942. James Stewart was posted to Moffett Field and then Mather Field as an instructor pilot in single- and twin-engine aircraft.

Public appearances by James Stewart were limited engagements scheduled by the Army Air Forces. “Stewart appeared several times on network radio with Edgar Bergen and Charlie McCarthy. Shortly after Pearl Harbour, he performed with Orson Welles, Edward G. Robinson, Walter Huston and Lionel Barrymore in an all-network radio programme called We Hold These Truths, dedicated to the 150th anniversary of the Bill of Rights.” In early 1942, James Stewart was asked to appear in a propaganda film to help recruit the anticipated 100,000 airmen the USAAF would need to win the war. The USAAF’s 1st Motion Picture Unit shot scenes of Lieutenant Stewart in his pilot’s flight suit and recorded his voice for narration. The short film, Winning Your Wings, appeared nationwide beginning in late May and was very successful, resulting in 150,000 new recruits.

James Stewart was concerned that his expertise and celebrity status would relegate him to instructor duties “behind the lines.” James Stewart’s fears were confirmed when he was stationed for 6 months at Kirtland Air Force Base in Albuquerque, New Mexico to train bombardiers. James Stewart was transferred to Hobbs AAF to become an instructor pilot for the 4-engined B-17 Flying Fortress. James Stewart trained B-17 pilots for 9 months at Gowen Field.

“Still, the war was moving on. For the 36-year-old James Stewart, combat duty seemed far away and unreachable and he had no clear plans for the future. But then a rumour that James Stewart would be taken off flying status and assigned to making training films or selling bonds called for his immediate and decisive action, because what he dreaded most was the hope-shattering spectre of a dead end.” James Stewart appealed to his commander, a pre-war aviator, who understood the situation and reassigned him to a unit going overseas.

Col. Stewart being awarded the Croix de guerre with palm by Lt. Gen. Henri Valin, Chief of Staff of the French Air Force, for his role in the liberation of France. In August 1943 he was finally assigned to the 445th Bombardment Group at Sioux City AAB, Iowa, first as Operations Officer of the 703rd Bombardment Squadron and then as its commander, at the rank of Captain. In December, the 445th Bombardment Group flew its B-24 Liberator bombers to RAF Tibenham, England and immediately began combat operations. While flying missions over Germany, James Stewart was promoted to Major. In March 1944, he was transferred as group operations officer to the 453rd Bombardment Group, a new B-24 unit that had been experiencing difficulties. As a means to inspire his new group, James Stewart flew as command pilot in the lead B-24 on numerous missions deep into Nazi-occupied Europe. These missions went uncounted at James Stewart’s orders. James Stewart’s “official” total is listed as 20 and is limited to those with the 445th. In 1944, he twice received the Distinguished Flying Cross for actions in combat and was awarded the Croix de Guerre. James Stewart also received the Air Medal with 3 oak leaf clusters. In July 1944, after flying 20 combat missions, James Stewart was made Chief of Staff of the 2nd Combat Bombardment Wing of the Eighth Air Force. Before the war ended, he was promoted to colonel, one of very few Americans to rise from private to colonel in 4 years.

At the beginning of June 1945, James Stewart was the presiding officer of the court-martial of a pilot and navigator who were charged with dereliction of duty when they accidentally bombed the Swiss city of Zurich the previous March – the 1st instance of U.S. personnel being tried over an attack on a neutral country. The Court acquitted the accused.

James Stewart continued to play an active role in the United States Air Force Reserve after the war, achieving the rank of Brigadier General on 23 July 1959. James Stewart did not often talk of his wartime service, perhaps due to his desire to be seen as a regular soldier doing his duty instead of as a celebrity. James Stewart did appear on the TV series, The World At War to discuss the 14 October 1943, bombing mission to Schweinfurt, which was the center of the German ball bearing manufacturing industry. This mission is known in USAF history as Black Thursday due to the high casualties it sustained; in total, 60 aircraft were lost out of 291 dispatched, as the raid consisting entirely of B-17s was unescorted all the way to Schweinfurt and back due to the contemporary escort aircraft available lacking the range. Fittingly, he was identified only as “James Stewart, Squadron Commander” in the documentary.

James Stewart served as Air Force Reserve commander of Dobbins Air Reserve Base in the early 1950s. In 1966, Brigadier General James Stewart flew as a non-duty observer in a B-52 on a bombing mission during the Vietnam conflict. At the time of his B-52 flight, he refused the release of any publicity regarding his participation as he did not want it treated as a stunt, but as part of his job as an officer in the Air Force Reserve. After 27 years of service, James Stewart retired from the Air Force on 31 May 1968.

James Stewart, Karolyn Grimes and Donna Reed in It’s a Wonderful Life (1946).

Right after the war, James Stewart took some time to reassess his career and spent much time with friend Henry Fonda. James Stewart was an early investor in Southwest Airways, started by Leland Hayward, and he considered going into the aviation industry if his re-started film career didn’t pan out. Upon James Stewart’s return to Hollywood in fall 1945, he decided not to renew his MGM contract. James Stewart signed with an MCA talent agency. James Stewart’s former agent Leland Hayward got out of the talent business in 1944 after selling his A-list of stars, including James Stewart, to MCA. The move made James Stewart 1 of the 1st independently contracted actors, and gave him more freedom to choose the roles he wished to play. For the remainder of his career, James Stewart was able to work without limits to director and studio availability.

For his 1st film in 5 years, James Stewart appeared in his 3rd and final Frank Capra production, It’s a Wonderful Life. Frank Capra paid RKO the rights for the story and formed his own production company. The female lead went to Donna Reed, after Frank Capra’s perennial 1st choice, Jean Arthur was unavailable, and after turn downs by Ginger Rogers, Olivia de Havilland, Ann Dvorak and Martha Scott. James Stewart appeared as George Bailey, a small-town man and upstanding citizen, who becomes increasingly frustrated by his ordinary existence and financial troubles. Driven to suicide on Christmas Eve, he is led to reassess his life by Clarence Odbody AS2, an “angel, second class,” played by Henry Travers.

After viewing It’s a Wonderful Life, President Harry S. Truman concluded, “If Bess and I had a son, we’d want him to be just like Jimmy Stewart.”

Although the film was nominated for 5 Academy Awards, including James Stewart’s 3rd Best Actor nomination, it received mixed reviews and only moderate success at the box office, possibly due to its dark nature. However, in the decades since the film’s release, it grew to define James Stewart’s film persona and is widely considered as a sentimental Christmas film classic and, according to the American Film Institute, one of the best movies ever made.

In the aftermath of the film, Frank Capra’s production company went into bankruptcy and it effectively ended his movie career. James Stewart started to have doubts about his ability to act after his military hiatus. James Stewart’s father kept insisting he come home and marry a local girl. Meanwhile in Hollywood, his generation of actors were fading and a new wave of actors would soon remake the town, including Marlon Brando, Montgomery Clift and James Dean.

from the film Harvey (1950)After a poorly received Magic Town (1947) and after the completion of the shooting of Rope, James Stewart decided to return to the stage for the Mary Chase-penned comedy, Harvey, which had opened to nearly universal praise in November 1944. Elwood P. Dowd, the protagonist and James Stewart’s character, is a wealthy eccentric whose best friend is an invisible rabbit, living with his sister and niece. James Stewart’s eccentricity, especially the friendship with the rabbit, is ruining the niece’s hopes of finding a husband. While trying to have Dowd committed to a sanatorium, his sister is committed herself while the play follows Dowd on an ordinary day in his not-so-ordinary life. James Stewart took over the role from Frank Fay and gained an increased Broadway following in the unconventional play. The play, which ran for nearly 3 years with James Stewart as its star, was successfully adapted into a 1950 film, directed by Henry Koster, with James Stewart playing Dowd and Josephine Hull as his sister, Veta. Bing Crosby was the 1st choice for the movie but he declined. For his performance in the film, James Stewart received his 4th Best Actor nomination.

After Harvey, the comedic adventure film Malaya with Spencer Tracy and the conventional but highly successful biographical film The Stratton Story in 1949, his 1st pairing with “on-screen wife” June Allyson, his career took another turn. During the 1950s, he expanded into the western and suspense genres, thanks largely to collaborations with directors Anthony Mann and Alfred Hitchcock.

Other notable performances by James Stewart during this time include the critically acclaimed 1950 Delmer Daves western Broken Arrow, which featured James Stewart as an ex-soldier and Indian agent making peace with the Apache; a troubled clown in the 1952 Best Picture The Greatest Show on Earth; and James Stewart’s role as Charles Lindbergh in Billy Wilder’s 1957 film The Spirit of St. Louis. James Stewart also starred in the Western radio show The 6 Shooter for its 1 season run from 1953-1954.

James Stewart’s collaborations with director Anthony Mann expanded James Stewart’s popularity and expanded his career into the realm of the western. James Stewart’s 1st appearance in a film helmed by Anthony Mann came with the 1950 western classic, Winchester ’73. In choosing Anthony Mann (after 1st choice Fritz Lang declined), James Stewart cemented a powerful partnership. The film, which became a massive box office hit upon its release, set the pattern for their future collaborations. In it, James Stewart is a tough, revengeful sharpshooter, the winner of a prized rifle which is stolen and then passes through many hands, until the showdown between James Stewart and his brother (Stephen McNally).

Other James Stewart-Anthony Mann westerns, such as Bend of the River (1952), The Naked Spur (1953), The Far Country (1954) and The Man from Laramie (1955) were perennial favorites among young audiences entranced by the American West. Frequently, the films featured James Stewart as a troubled cowboy seeking redemption, while facing corrupt cattlemen, ranchers and outlaws—a man who knows violence first hand and struggles to control it. Their collaborations laid the foundation for many of the westerns of the 1950s and remain popular today for their grittier, more realistic depiction of the classic movie genre. Audiences saw James Stewart’s screen persona evolve into a more mature, more ambiguous, and edgier presence.

James Stewart and Anthony Mann also collaborated on other films outside the western genre. 1953’s The Glenn Miller Story was critically acclaimed, garnering James Stewart a BAFTA Award nomination, and (together with The Spirit of St. Louis) cemented the popularity of James Stewart’s portrayals of “American heroes.” Thunder Bay, released the same year, transplanted the plot arch of their western collaborations in the present day, with James Stewart as a Louisiana oil-driller facing corruption. Strategic Air Command, released in 1955, allowed James Stewart to use his experiences in the United States Air Force on film.

from the trailer for Rope (1948) James Stewart’s starring role in Winchester ’73 was also a turning point in Hollywood. Universal Studios, who wanted James Stewart to appear in both that film and Harvey, balked at his $200,000 asking price. James Stewart’s agent, Lew Wasserman, brokered an alternate deal, in which James Stewart would appear in both films for no pay, in exchange for a percentage of the profits and cast and director approval. It wasn’t the 1st such deal at Universal; Abbott and Costello also had a profit participation contract, but they were no longer top-flight moneymakers by 1950. James Stewart ended up earning about $600,000 for Winchester ’73 alone. Hollywood’s other stars quickly capitalised on this new way of doing business, which further undermined the decaying “studio system.”

The 2nd collaboration to define James Stewart’s career in the 1950s was with acclaimed mystery and suspense director Alfred Hitchcock. Like Anthony Mann, Alfred Hitchcock uncovered new depths to James Stewart’s acting, showing a protagonist confronting his fears and his repressed desires. James Stewart’s 1st movie with Alfred Hitchcock was the technologically innovative 1948 film Rope, shot in long “real time” takes.

The 2 collaborated for the 2nd of 4 times on the 1954 hit Rear Window, 1 of Alfred Hitchcock’s masterpieces. James Stewart portrays photographer L.B. “Jeff” Jeffries, loosely based on Life photographer Robert Capa, who projects his fantasies and fears onto the people he observes out his apartment window while on hiatus due to a broken leg. L.B. Jeff Jeffries gets into more than he can handle, however, when he believes he has witnessed a salesman (Raymond Burr) commit a murder, and when his glamorous girlfriend (Grace Kelly), at first disdainful of his voyeurism and skeptical about any crime, eventually is drawn in and tries to help solve the mystery. Limited by his wheelchair, James Stewart is masterfully led by Alfred Hitchcock to react to what his character sees with mostly facial responses. It was a landmark year for James Stewart, becoming the highest grossing actor of 1954 and the most popular Hollywood star in the world, displacing John Wayne.

from the trailer for Vertigo (1958)After starring in Alfred Hitchcock’s remake of the director’s own production, The Man Who Knew Too Much, with co-star Doris Day, James Stewart starred in what many consider Alfred Hitchcock’s most personal film, Vertigo. The movie starred James Stewart as “Scottie”, a former police investigator suffering from acrophobia, who develops an obsession with a woman he is shadowing. Scottie’s obsession inevitably leads to the destruction of everything he once had and believed in. Though the film is widely considered a classic today, and the pairing with Kim Novak, one of the screen’s most perfect, Vertigo met with negative reviews and poor box office receipts upon its release, and marked the last collaboration between James Stewart and Alfred Hitchcock. James Stewart was also disappointed. The director blamed the film’s failure on James Stewart looking too old to still attract audiences, and cast Cary Grant as Roger Thornhill in North by Northwest (1959), a role James Stewart had very much wanted. In reality, Cary Grant was actually 4 years older than James Stewart.

In 1960, James Stewart was awarded the New York Film Critics Circle Award for Best Actor and received his 5th and final Academy Award for Best Actor nomination, for his role in the 1959 Otto Preminger film Anatomy of a Murder. The early courtroom drama starred James Stewart as Paul Biegler, the lawyer of a hot-tempered soldier Ben Gazzara who claims temporary insanity after murdering a tavern owner who raped his wife Lee Remick. The film featured a career-making performance by George C. Scott as the prosecutor. The film was sexually frank for its time (some thought it sordid), and its provocative promotional campaign helped gain it box office success, though Ben-Hur outgrossed all movies by a huge margin and swept the Academy Awards that year. James Stewart’s nomination was 1 of 7 for the film (Charlton Heston was the winner), and saw his transition into the final decades of his career.

On 1 January 1960 James Stewart received the devastating news that Margaret Sullavan had committed suicide, most likely over despondency from her loss of hearing and its impact on her stage career. As a friend, mentor, and focus of his early romantic urges, she had a unique impact on James Stewart’s life.

from the trailer for How the West Was Won (1962)In the early 1960s James Stewart took leading roles in 3 John Ford films, his 1st work with the acclaimed director. The 1st, 2 Rode Together, paired him with Richard Widmark in a Western with thematic echoes of John Ford’s The Searchers. The next, 1962’s The Man Who Shot Liberty Valance (with John Wayne), is a classic “psychological” western, with James Stewart featured as an Eastern attorney who goes against his non-violent principles when he is forced to confront a psychopathic outlaw (played by Lee Marvin) in a small frontier town. At story’s end, James Stewart’s character — now a rising political figure — faces a difficult ethical choice as he attempts to reconcile his actions with his personal integrity. The film’s billing is unusual in that James Stewart was given top billing over John Wayne in the trailers and on the posters but John Wayne had top billing in the film itself, a system later repeated by Robert Redford and Dustin Hoffman in All the President’s Men. The film garnered so-so reviews and fared poorly at the box office, but is now considered a late John Ford classic.

How the West Was Won (which John Ford co-directed, though without directing James Stewart’s scenes) and Cheyenne Autumn were western epics released in 1962 and 1964 respectively. While the Cinerama production How the West Was Won went on to win 3 Oscars and reaped massive box office figures, Cheyenne Autumn, in which a white-suited James Stewart played Wyatt Earp in a long sequence in the middle of the movie, failed domestically and was quickly forgotten. It was John Ford’s final Western and James Stewart’s last feature film with John Ford.

Having played his last romantic lead in 1958’s Bell, Book and Candle, and silver-haired (although not all was his – he had begun wearing a hairpiece in the early 1950s), James Stewart transitioned into more family-related films in the 1960s when he signed a multi-movie deal with 20th Century Fox. These included the successful Henry Koster outing Mr. Hobbs Takes a Vacation (1962), and the less memorable films Take Her, She’s Mine (1963) and Dear Brigitte (1965), which featured French model Brigitte Bardot as the object of James Stewart’s son’s mash notes. The Civil War period film Shenandoah (1965) and the western family film The Rare Breed fared better at the box office; the Civil War movie was a smash hit in the South.

As an aviator, James Stewart was particularly interested in aviation films and had pushed to appear in several in the 1950s. James Stewart continued in this vein in the 1960s, most notably in a role as a hard-bitten pilot in Flight of the Phoenix (1965). Subbing for James Stewart, famed stunt pilot and air racer Paul Mantz was killed when he crashed the “Tallmantz Phoenix P-1”, the specially-made, single-engine movie model, in an abortive “touch-and-go”. It’s little known, but James Stewart was the narrator in the X-15 film (1961).

After a progression of lesser western films in the late ’60s and early ’70s, James Stewart transitioned from cinema to television. In the 1950s he had made guest appearances on the Jack Benny Programme (Benny was his real life neighbor and good friend). James Stewart 1st starred in the NBC comedy The Jimmy Stewart Show, which featured James Stewart as a college professor. James Stewart followed it with the CBS mystery Hawkins, in which he played a small town lawyer investigating his cases. The series garnered James Stewart a Golden Globe for Best Actor in a Dramatic TV Series, but failed to gain a wide audience and was cancelled after 1 season. (Andy Griffith fared much better later in Matlock, based on a similar formula.) During this time, James Stewart periodically appeared on Johnny Carson’s The Tonight Show, sharing poems he had written at different times in his life. James Stewart’s poems were later compiled into a short collection titled Jimmy Stewart and His Poems
(1989).

James Stewart returned to films after an absence of 5 years with a major role in John Wayne’s final film, The Shootist (1976) where James Stewart played a doctor giving John Wayne’s gunfighter a terminal cancer diagnosis. At one point, both John Wayne and James Stewart were flubbing their lines repeatedly and James Stewart turned to director Don Siegel and said, “You’d better get 2 better actors.” James Stewart also appeared in supporting roles in Airport ’77, the 1978 remake of The Big Sleep with Robert Mitchum and The Magic of Lassie (1978). The latter film received poor reviews and flopped at the box office. Some critics expressed their dismay at seeing the 70-year-old veteran singing as the grandfather. James Stewart responded it was the only script he had been offered without any sex, profanity and graphic violence.

James Stewart was presented an Academy Honourary Award in 1985, “for his 50 years of memorable performances, for his high ideals both on and off the screen, with respect and affection of his colleagues.”

James Stewart’s best friend Henry Fonda died in 1982 and his long-time friend Grace Kelly, his favourite female co-star, died shortly afterwards. A few months later, James Stewart starred with Bette Davis in Right of Way, which had the distinction of being the 1st made-for-cable movie. After filming several television movies in the 1980s, including Mr. Krueger’s Christmas, James Stewart, still receiving considerable offers to play “grandfather” roles, retired from acting to spend time with his family. James Stewart made frequent visits to the Reagan White House and traveled on the lecture circuit. The re-release of his Alfred Hitchcock films gained James Stewart renewed recognition. Rear Window and Vertigo were particularly praised by film critics, which helped bring these films to the attention of younger movie-goers.

James Stewart became a real life “Mr. Smith Goes to Washington” in 1988, when he made an impassioned plea in Congressional hearings, along with aging superstars Burt Lancaster and Katharine Hepburn, and film purist Martin Scorsese, against Ted Turner’s decision to “colourise” classic black and white films, including It’s a Wonderful Life. James Stewart stated, “the colouring of black-and-white films is wrong. It’s morally and artistically wrong and these profiteers should leave our film industry alone”. The traditionalists eventually prevailed.

1 of Hollywood’s most shrewd businessmen, James Stewart had diversified investments including real estate, oil wells, a charter-plane company and membership on major corporate boards. James Stewart became a multimillionaire. In the 1980s and 1990s, he did voiceovers for commercials for Campbell’s Soups.

In 1989, James Stewart joined Peter F. Paul in founding the American Spirit Foundation to apply entertainment industry resources to developing innovative approaches to public education and to assist the emerging democracy movements in the former Iron Curtain countries and Russia. Peter F. Paul arranged for James Stewart, through the offices of President Boris Yeltsin, to send a special print of It’s a Wonderful Life, translated by Moscow University, to Russia as the 1st American programme ever to be broadcast on Russian television. On 5 January 1992, coinciding with the 1st day of the existence of the democratic Commonwealth of Independent States and Russia, and the 1st free Russian Orthodox Christmas Day, Russian TV Channel 2 broadcast It’s a Wonderful Life to 200,000,000 Russians who celebrated an American holiday tradition with the American people for the 1st time in Russian history.

In association with politicians and celebrities that included President Ronald Reagan, Supreme Court Chief Justice Warren Burger, California Governor George Deukmejian, Bob Hope and Charlton Heston, James Stewart worked from 1987 to 1993 on projects that enhanced the public appreciation and understanding of the U.S. Constitution and Bill of Rights.

In 1991, James Stewart voiced the character of Sheriff Wylie Burp in the movie “An American Tail: Fievel Goes West”, which was his final role in a film before his death.

Right before his 80th birthday, he was asked how he wanted to be remembered. “As someone who ‘believed in hard work and love of country, love of family and love of community.'”

“America lost a national treasure today,” President Bill Clinton said on the day James Stewart died. “Jimmy Stewart was a great actor, a gentleman and a patriot.”

James Stewart was almost universally described by his collaborators as a kind, soft spoken man and a true professional.

Joan Crawford, James Stewart’s co-star in early period, praised him as an “endearing perfectionist” with “a droll sense of humour and a shy way of watching you to see if you react to that humour.”

When Henry Fonda moved to Hollywood in 1934, he was again a roommate with James Stewart in an apartment in Brentwood and the 2 gained a reputation as playboys. Once married, both men’s children noted that their favourite activity when not working seemed to be quietly sharing time together while building and painting model airplanes, a hobby they had taken up in New York, years earlier.

After World War II, James Stewart settled down, at the age of 41, marrying former model Gloria Hatrick McLean (1918-1994) on 9 August 1949. As James Stewart loved to recount in self-mockery, “I, I, I pitched the big question to her last night and to my surprise she, she, she said yes!”.

James Stewart adopted her 2 sons, Michael and Ronald, and together they had twin daughters, Judy and Kelly, on 7 May 1951. They remained devotedly married until her death on 16 February 1994, due to lung cancer. Ronald McLean was killed in action on 8 June 1969, at the age of 24, while serving as a Marine Corps Lieutenant in Vietnam. Dr. Kelly Stewart is an anthropologist at the University of California, Davis.

A plaque in honour of James Stewart’s spirit of humanitarianism in Griffith Park, Los Angeles, California. While visiting India in 1959, James Stewart reportedly smuggled the remains of a supposed yeti, the so-called Pangboche Hand, by hiding them in his luggage (specifically, in his wife, Gloria’s underwear) when he flew from India to London, as a favour to Tom Slick.

James Stewart was active in philanthropic affairs over the years. James Stewart’s signature charity event, “The Jimmy Stewart Relay Marathon Race”, held each year since 1982, has raised millions of dollars for the Child and Family Development Center at St. John’s Health Center in Santa Monica, California.

James Stewart was a lifelong supporter of Scouting. James Stewart was a 2nd Class Scout when he was a youth, an adult Scout leader, and a recipient of the prestigious Silver Buffalo Award from the Boy Scouts of America (BSA). In later years, he made advertisements for BSA, which led to him sometimes incorrectly being identified as an Eagle Scout. (Jefferson Smith in Mr. Smith Goes to Washington, was also the leader of the “Boy Rangers”, a fictional organisation patterned after cub scouts.) An award for Boy Scouts, “The James M. Stewart Good Citizenship Award” has been presented since 17 May 2003.

1 little-known talent of James Stewart’s was his homespun poetry. Once on The Tonight Show with Johnny Carson, James Stewart read from his poem, “My Dog, Beau.” By the end of his reading, Johnny Carson’s eyes were welling with tears. This was later parodied on a late 1980s episode of the NBC sketch show Saturday Night Live, with Dana Carvey as James Stewart reciting the poem on Weekend Update and bringing then anchor Dennis Miller to tears.

In addition to poetry, James Stewart would talk during Tonight Show appearances about his avid gardening. James Stewart purchased the house next door to his own home at 918 North Roxbury Drive, razed the house, and installed his garden in the lot.

Politically, James Stewart was a staunch supporter of the Republican Party and actively campaigned for Richard Nixon and Ronald Reagan.

1 of his best friends was Henry Fonda, despite the fact that the 2 men had very different political ideologies. A political argument in 1947 resulted in a fist fight between them, but the 2 apparently maintained their friendship by never discussing politics again. There is brief reference to their political differences in character in their movie The Cheyenne Social Club.

James Stewart’s star on the Hollywood Walk of Fame. It was once stolen but was subsequently replaced.

Awards & Honours

James Stewart was presented various kinds of film industry awards, military and civilian medals, honourary degrees, memorials and tributes over the years for his contribution to performing arts, humanitarianism, and military service.

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Schizophrenia Series-Disabled Legend John Nash

John Forbes Nash, Jr. was born on 13 June, 1928. John Nash is an American mathematician and economist who works in game theory, differential geometry, and partial differential equations, serving as a Senior Research Mathematician at Princeton University. John Nash shared the 1994 Nobel Memorial Prize in Economic Sciences with game theorists Reinhard Selten and John Harsanyi.

John Nash is also the subject of the Hollywood movie, A Beautiful Mind, which was nominated for 8 Oscars (winning 4), and was based on the biography of the same name about him, his mathematical genius and his struggle with schizophrenia.

John Nash was born and raised in Bluefield, West Virginia. John Nash was born to electrical engineer John Forbes Nash and his wife Margaret Virginia Martin, an English and Latin teacher. On 16 November, 1930 his sister Martha Nash was born. John Nash was an avid reader of Compton’s Pictured Encyclopedia, Life Magazine, and Time Magazine. Later he had a job at the Bluefield Daily Telegraph.

At the age of 12, he carried out scientific experiments in his room. At a young age, he already preferred to work alone. John Nash returned the social rejection of his classmates with practical jokes and intellectual superiority, believing their dances and sports to be a distraction from his experiments and studies.

Martha, his younger sister, wrote about him that “Johnny was always different. [My parents] knew he was different. And they knew he was bright. John Nash always wanted to do things his way. Mother insisted I do things for him, that I include him in my friendships… but I wasn’t too keen on showing off my somewhat odd brother.”

In his autobiography, John Nash notes that it was E.T. Bell’s book, Men of Mathematics—in particular, the essay on Fermat—that first sparked his interest in mathematics. John Nash attended classes at Bluefield College while still in high school at Bluefield High School. John Nash later attended the Carnegie Institute of Technology (now Carnegie Mellon University) in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania on a Westinghouse scholarship, where he studied 1st chemical engineering and later chemistry before switching to mathematics. John Nash received both his bachelor’s degree and his master’s degree in 1948 while at the Carnegie Institute.

John Nash also created 2 popular games: Hex in 1947 (independently created 1st in 1942 by Piet Hein), and So Long Sucker in 1950 with M. Hausner and Lloyd S. Shapley.

After graduation, John Nash took a summer job in White Oak, Maryland, working on a Navy research project being run by Clifford Truesdell.

In 1948, while applying to Princeton’s mathematics department, John Nash’s advisor and former Carnegie Tech professor, R.J. Duffin, wrote a letter of recommendation consisting of a single sentence: “This man is a genius.” Though accepted by Harvard University, which had been his first choice because of what he perceived to be the institution’s greater prestige and superior mathematics faculty, he was aggressively pursued by then chairman of the mathematics department at Princeton University, Solomon Lefschetz, whose offer of the John S. Kennedy fellowship was enough to convince him that Harvard valued him less. Thus, from White Oak he went to Princeton University, where he worked on his equilibrium theory (Nash equilibrium). John Nash earned a doctorate in 1950 with a dissertation on non-cooperative games. The thesis, which was written under the supervision of Albert W. Tucker, contained the definition and properties of what would later be called the “Nash Equilibrium”.

These studies led to 3 articles:

“Equilibrium Points in N-person Games”, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 36 (1950), 48–49. MR0031701

“The Bargaining Problem”, Econometrica 18 (1950), 155–162. MR0035977

“Two-person Cooperative Games”, Econometrica 21 (1953), 128–140. MR0053471
Nash also did important work in the area of algebraic geometry:

“Real algebraic manifolds”, Annals of Mathematics 56 (1952), 405–421. MR0050928.

John Nash’s most famous work in pure mathematics was the Nash embedding theorem, which showed that any abstract Riemannian manifold can be isometrically realised as a submanifold of Euclidean space. John Nash also made contributions to the theory of nonlinear parabolic partial differential equations.

In 1951, John Nash went to the Massachusetts Institute of Technology as a C. L. E. Moore Instructor in the mathematics faculty. There, he met Alicia López-Harrison de Lardé (born 1 January, 1933), a physics student from El Salvador, whom he married in February 1957. Alicia admitted John Nash to a mental hospital in 1959 for schizophrenia; their son, John Charles Martin Nash, was born soon afterwards, but remained nameless for a year because his mother felt that her husband should have a say in the name.

John Nash and Lopez-Harrison de Lardé divorced in 1963, but reunited in 1970, in a nonromantic relationship that resembled that of 2 unrelated housemates. Alicia referred to him as her “boarder” and said they lived “like two distantly related individuals under one roof,” according to Sylvia Nasar’s 1998 biography of John Nash, A Beautiful Mind. The couple renewed their relationship after John Nash won the Nobel Prize in Economics in 1994. They remarried 1 June, 2001.

John Nash had another son, John David born on 19 June, 1953, with Eleanor Stier, but allegedly had little to do with the child or his mother. However, in a CBS 60 Minutes interview aired in March 2002, the mathematician denied that his relationship with his son from a previous relationship was “non-existent”, that in fact he and John Stier are in contact and that Eleanor Stier even received a share of the film (A Beautiful Mind) royalties.

John Nash began to show signs of schizophrenia in 1958. John Nash began to show signs of extreme paranoia and his wife later described his behavior as becoming increasingly erratic, stating that he began speaking of characters who were putting him in danger. John Nash was admitted into the McLean Hospital, April–May 1959, where he was diagnosed with paranoid schizophrenia and mild clinical depression. After a problematic stay in Paris and Geneva, John Nash returned to Princeton in 1960. John Nash was in and out of mental hospitals until 1970, being given insulin shock therapy and antipsychotic medications, usually as a result of being involuntarily committed.

Although prescribed antipsychotic medication, John Nash has said he never really took it. On some occasions he was forced to, but after 1970 he was never committed to hospital again and never took antipsychotic medication again. The film “A Beautiful Mind” fabricated him later taking the then new atypical antipsychotics, which John Nash attributes to the screenwriter (whose mother, he notes, was a psychiatrist)not wanting to incite people to stop taking their medication. Others, however, have questioned whether the fabrication obscured a key question as to whether recovery from problems like John Nash’s can actually be hindered by such drugs and John Nash has said they are over-rated and the adverse effects are not given enough consideration. According to his biographer Nasar, John Nash recovered gradually with the passage of time. Encouraged by his then former wife, Alicia, John Nash worked in a communitarian setting where his eccentricities were accepted. Alicia also said that for John Nash “it’s just a question of living a quiet life”.

John Nash dates the start of what he terms “mental disturbances” to the early months of 1959 when his wife was pregnant. John Nash has described a process of change “from scientific rationality of thinking into the delusional thinking characteristic of persons who are psychiatrically diagnosed as “schizophrenic” or “paranoid schizophrenic” including seeing himself as a messenger or having a special function in some way, and with supporters and opponents and hidden schemers, and a feeling of being persecuted, and looking for signs representing divine revelation. John Nash has suggested his delusional thinking was related to his unhappiness,and his striving to feel important and be recognised, and to his characteristic way of thinking such that “I wouldn’t have had good scientific ideas if I had thought more normally.” John Nash has said that “If I felt completely pressureless I don’t think I would have gone in this pattern”. John Nash does not see a categorical distinction between terms such as schizophrenia and bipolar disorder. John Nash reports that he did not hear voices at first, only some years later around 1964, until later engaging in a process of rejecting them. John Nash reports that he was always taken to hospital against his will, and only temporarily renounced his “dream-like delusional hypotheses” after being in hospital long enough to decide to superficially conform and behave normally or experience “enforced rationality”. Only gradually on his own did he “intellectually reject” some of the “delusionally influenced” and “politically-oriented” thinking as a waste of effort. However, by 1995 he felt that although “thinking rationally again in the style that is characteristic of scientists”, it was not entirely a matter of joy as he felt more limited.

In Princeton campus legend, John Nash became “The Phantom of Fine Hall” (Fine Hall is Princeton’s mathematics center), a shadowy figure who would scribble arcane equations on blackboards in the middle of the night. The legend appears in a work of fiction based on Princeton life, The Mind-Body Problem, by Rebecca Goldstein.

In 1978, John Nash was awarded the John von Neumann Theory Prize for his discovery of non-cooperative equilibria, now called Nash equilibria. John Nash won the Leroy P. Steele Prize in 1999.

In 1994, he received the Nobel Memorial Prize in Economic Sciences (along with 2 others), as a result of his game theory work as a Princeton graduate student. In the late 1980s, John Nash had begun to use electronic mail to gradually link with working mathematicians who realised that he was “the” John Nash and that his new work had value. They formed part of the nucleus of a group that contacted the Bank of Sweden’s Nobel award committee, and were able to vouch for John Nash’s mental health ability to receive the award in recognition of his early work.

John Nash’s recent work involves ventures in advanced game theory, including partial agency, that show that, as in his early career, he prefers to select his own path and problems. Between 1945 and 1996, he published 23 scientific studies.

John Nash has suggested hypotheses on mental disorder. John Nash has compared not thinking in an acceptable manner, or being “insane” and not fitting into a usual social function, to being “on strike” from an economic point of view. John Nash has advanced evolutionary psychology views about the value of human diversity and the potential benefits of apparently non-standard behaviours or roles.

John Nash has also developed work on the role of money in society. In the context that people can be so controlled and motivated by money that they may not be able to reason rationally about it, he has criticized interest groups that promote quasi-doctrines based on Keynesian economics that permit manipulative short-term inflation and debt tactics that ultimately undermine currencies. John Nash has suggested a global “industrial consumption price index” system that would support the development of more “ideal money” that people could trust, rather than more unstable “bad money”. John Nash notes that some of his thinking parallels economist and political philosopher Friedrich Hayek’s thinking regarding money and a nontypical viewpoint of the function of the authorities.

In 2002 aspects of John Nash’s personal life were brought to international attention when “mudslinging” ensued over screenwriter Akiva Goldsman’s semifictional interpretation of Sylvia Nasar’s biography of John Nash’s life in A Beautiful Mind in relation to the film of the same name. The movie A Beautiful Mind, nominated for 8Oscars,credits Goldsman under “written by” rather than “screenplay by” from the Writer’s Guild as Goldsman’s “omissions are glaring and peculiar, specifically John Nash’s homosexual experiences, his extramarital sexual activities, his racial attitudes and anti-Semitic remarks.” John Nash later claimed any anti-Semitic remarks must have been made while he was delirious.

In the mid-1950s John Nash was arrested in a Santa Monica restroom on a morals charge related to a homosexual encounter and “subsequently lost his post at the RAND Corporation along with his security clearance.” According to Nasar, “After this traumatic series of career-threatening events, he decided to marry.”

Nasar stated about the film that the filmmakers had “invented a narrative that, while far from a literal telling, is true to the spirit of John Nash’s story.” Others suggested that the material was “conveniently left out of the movie in order to make John Nash more sympathetic,” possibly in an effort to more fully focus on the “debilitating longevity” of living with paranoid-schizophrenia on a day-to-day basis.

New York Times critic A. O. Scott pointed to a different perspective. Scott wrote of the Oscar scandal and the artistic choices made in the omissions as well as choices, such as casting actors, that have to be made that “the cold war in A Beautiful Mind in which the paranoia and uncertainty of McCarthy-era academic life is reduced to spy-movie clichés” smoothed over “and made palatable and familiar” a “difficult passage in American history.” Thus the cold war’s effects on John Nash’s life and career were left unexplored. Akiva Goldsman won the Oscar for “Best Adapted Screenplay”.

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Club Feet or Foot Series-Disabled Legend Dudley Moore

Dudley Stuart John Moore, CBE was born on 19 April, 1935 in Dagenham, Essex, England, UK and died on 27 March, 2002 aged 66, as a result of pneumonia, secondary to immobility caused by the palsy, in Plainfield, New Jersey, USA. Rena Fruchter was holding his hand when he died, and she reported his final words were “I can hear the music all around me”. Dudley Moore was interred in Hillside Cemetery in Scotch Plains, New Jersey. Rena Fruchter later wrote a memoir of their relationship (Dudley Moore, Ebury Press, 2004).

Dudley Moore was an English Golden Globe-winning actor, comedian and musician.

Dudley Moore first came to prominence as 1 of the 4 writer-performers in Beyond the Fringe in the early 1960s and became famous as half of the hugely popular television double-act he formed with Peter Cook. Dudley Moore’s fame as a comedic actor was later heightened by his success in Hollywood movies such as 10 with Bo Derek and Arthur in the late 1970s and early 1980s, respectively. Dudley Moore was often known as “Cuddly Dudley” or “The Sex Thimble”, a reference to his short stature and popularity with women.

Dudley Moore was born the son of a railway electrician in Dagenham, Essex, England. Dudley Moore’s working-class parents showed little affection to their offspring (as his older sister publicly revealed). Dudley Moore was notably short: 5′ 2½” (1.59 m) and was born with a club foot that required extensive hospital treatment and which, coupled with his diminutive stature, made him the butt of jokes from other children. Seeking refuge from his problems he became a choirboy at the age of 6 and took up piano and violin. Dudley Moore rapidly developed into a very talented pianist and organist and was playing the pipe organ at church weddings by the age of 14. Dudley Moore attended Dagenham County High School where he received musical tuition from a dedicated teacher, Peter Cork. Peter Cork became a friend and confidant to Dudley Moore, corresponding with him until 1994.

Dudley Moore’s musical talent won him a scholarship to Magdalen College, Oxford and whilst studying music and composition there, he performed with Alan Bennett in the Oxford Revue. Alan Bennett then recommended him to the producer putting together Beyond the Fringe, a comedy revue, where he was to first meet Peter Cook. Beyond the Fringe was at the forefront of the 1960s satire boom and after enormous success in Britain, it transferred to the USA where it was also a major hit.

During his university years, Dudley Moore took a great interest in jazz and soon became an accomplished jazz pianist and composer, as well as working with such leading musicians as John Dankworth and Cleo Laine. In 1960, he left Dankworth’s band to work on Beyond the Fringe. During the 1960s he formed the acclaimed “Dudley Moore Trio” (with drummer Chris Karan and bassists Pete McGurk and later Peter Morgan). Dudley Moore’s admitted principal musical influences were Oscar Peterson and Errol Garner. In a later interview he recalled the day he finally mastered Errol Garner’s unique left hand strum, and he was so excited he walked around for several days with his left hand constantly playing that extraordinary cadence. Dudley Moore’s early recordings included “My Blue Heaven”, “Lysie Does It”, “Poova Nova”, “Take Your Time”, “Indiana”, “Sooz Blooz”, “Bauble, Bangles and Beads”, “Sad One for George” and “Autumn Leaves”. The trio performed regularly on British television, made numerous recordings and had a long-running residency at Peter Cook’s club, The Establishment.

Dudley Moore composed the soundtracks for the films Bedazzled, Inadmissible Evidence, Staircase, and 6 Weeks, among others.

In the early 1970s, he had a brief relationship with British singer-songwriter Lynsey De Paul, whom he met at a party.

After following the Establishment to New York City, Dudley Moore returned to the UK and was offered his own series on the BBC. Not Only… But Also (1965) was commissioned as a vehicle for Dudley Moore, but when he invited Peter Cook on as a guest, their comedy partnership was so notable that it became a fixture of the series. Peter Cook and Dudley Moore are most remembered for their sketches as 2 working-class men, Pete and Dud, in macs and cloth caps, commenting on politics and the arts, but they fashioned a series of character one-offs, usually with Dudley Moore in the role of interviewer to one of Peter Cook’s upper-class eccentrics. The pair developed an unorthodox method for scripting the material by using a tape recorder to tape an adlibbed routine that they would then have transcribed and edited. This would not leave enough time to fully rehearse the script so they often had a set of cue cards. Dudley Moore was famous for “corpsing”—the programmes often went on live, and Peter Cook would deliberately make him laugh in order to get an even bigger reaction from the studio audience. Regrettably, many of the videotapes and film reels of these seminal TV shows were later erased by the BBC (an affliction which wiped out large portions of other British television productions as well, such as Doctor Who), although some of the soundtracks (which were issued on record) have survived. Dudley Moore and Peter Cook co-starred in the film Bedazzled (1967) with Eleanor Bron, and also had tours called Behind the Fridge and Good Evening.

Their 3 albums of the late 1970s as Derek and Clive, were widely condemned for their use of obscene language and shocking, ad-libbed content. Shortly following the last of these, Ad Nauseam, Dudley Moore made a break with Peter Cook, whose alcoholism was affecting his work, to concentrate on his film career. When Dudley Moore began to manifest the symptoms of a disease that eventually killed him (progressive supranuclear palsy), it was at first suspected that he too had a drinking problem. 2 of Moore’s early starring roles, were the titular drunken playboy Arthur, and to a lesser extent the heavy drinker George Webber in 10.

In the late 1970s, Dudley Moore moved to Hollywood, where he appeared in Foul Play (1978) with Goldie Hawn and Chevy Chase. The following year saw his breakout role in Blake Edwards’s 10, which he followed up with the movie Wholly Moses. Soon thereafter Arthur (film), an even bigger hit than 10, which also starred Liza Minnelli and Sir John Gielgud (who won an Oscar for his role as Arthur’s stern but loving man servant) and Geraldine Fitzgerald.

Dudley Moore was nominated for a Best Actor Academy Award but lost to Henry Fonda (for On Golden Pond). Dudley Moore did, however, win a Golden Globe award for Best Actor in a Musical/Comedy. In 1984, Dudley Moore had another hit, starring in the Blake Edwards directed Micki + Maude, co-starring Amy Irving. This won him another Golden Globe for Best Actor in a Musical/Comedy.

Dudley Moore’s subsequent films, including an Arthur sequel and an animated adaptation of King Kong, were inconsistent in terms of both critical and commercial reception. In later years Peter Cook would wind-up Dudley Moore by claiming he preferred Arthur 2: On the Rocks to Arthur.

In addition to acting, Dudley Moore continued to work as a composer and pianist, writing scores for a number of films and giving piano concerts, which were highlighted by his popular parodies of classical favourites. In addition, Dudley Moore collaborated with the conductor Sir Georg Solti to create a 1991 television series, Orchestra!, which was designed to introduce audiences to the symphony orchestra. Dudley Moore later worked with the American conductor Michael Tilson Thomas on a similar television series from 1993, Concerto!, likewise designed to introduce audiences to classical music concertos.

In 1987, he was interviewed for the New York Times by the music critic Rena Fruchter, herself an accomplished pianist. They became close friends. At that time Dudley Moore’s film career was already on the wane. Dudley Moore was having trouble remembering his lines, a problem he had never previously encountered. Dudley Moore opted to concentrate on the piano, and enlisted Rena Fruchter as an artistic partner. They performed as a duo in the U.S. and Australia. However, his disease soon started to make itself apparent there as well, as his fingers would not always do what he wanted them to do. Symptoms such as slurred speech and loss of balance were interpreted by the public and the media as a sign of drunkenness. Dudley Moore himself was at a loss to explain this. Dudley Moore moved into Rena Fruchter’s family home in New Jersey and stayed there for 5 years, but this, however, placed a great strain on both her marriage and her friendship with Dudley Moore, and she later set him up in the house next door.

Dudley Moore was deeply affected by the untimely death of Peter Cook in 1995, and for weeks would regularly telephone Peter Cook’s home in London just to get the answerphone and hear his friend’s voice. Dudley Moore attended Peter Cook’s memorial service in London and at the time many people who knew him noted that Dudley Moore was behaving strangely and attributed it to grief or drinking. In November 199, Dudley Moore teamed up with friend and humorist Martin Lewis in organising a 2 day salute to Peter Cook in Los Angeles which Dudley Moore co-hosted with Martin Lewis.

Dudley Moore was married and divorced 4 times: to actresses Suzy Kendall and Tuesday Weld (by whom he had a son, Patrick, in 1976); Brogan Lane and Nicole Rothschild (1 son, Nicholas, born in 1995).

Dudley Moore maintained good relationships with Suzy Kendall particularly, and also Tuesday Weld and Brogan Lane. However, he expressly forbade Nicole Rothschild to attend his funeral. At the time his illness became apparent, he was going through a difficult divorce from Nicole Rothschild, despite sharing a household in Los Angeles with not only her but also her previous husband.

Dudley Moore dated and was a favorite of some of Hollywood’s most attractive women, including the statuesque Susan Anton.

In June 1998, Nicole Rothschild was reported to have told an American television show that Dudley Moore was “waiting to die” due to a serious illness, but these reports were denied by Suzy Kendall.

On 30 September 1999, Dudley Moore announced that he was suffering from the terminal degenerative brain disorder Progressive Supranuclear Palsy, and the illness had been diagnosed earlier in the year.

In December 2004, the UK’s Channel 4 television network broadcast Not Only But Always, a television movie dramatising the relationship between Dudley Moore and Peter Cook, although the focus of the production was on Peter Cook. Around the same time, the relationship between the 2 was also the subject of a stage play called Pete and Dud: Come Again.

Honours and awards

In June 2001, Dudley Moore was appointed a Commander of the Order of The British Empire (CBE). Despite his deteriorating condition, he attended the ceremony, mute and wheelchair-bound, at Buckingham Palace to collect his honour.

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Hearing Impairment Series-Disabled Legend Luis Bunuel

Luis Bunuel Portolés was born on 22 February, 1900 in Calanda, province of Teruel in the autonomous community of Aragón, Spain and died on 29 July, 1983 In Mexico City, Mexico. Luis was a Spanish-born filmmaker and naturalized Mexican who worked mainly in Mexico and France, but also in his native Spain and in the United States. Luis is considered one of Mexico’s finest directors, and one of the most important directors in the history of cinema.

Luis was born to Leonardo Buñuel and María Portolés; he had 2 brothers, Alfonso and Leonardo, and 4 sisters, Alicia, Concepción, Margarita and María. Luis had a strict Jesuit education at the Colegio del Salvador in Zaragoza from which he was expelled. Later he went to university in Madrid. While studying at the University of Madrid (current-day Universidad Complutense de Madrid) he became a very close friend of painter Salvador Dalí and poet Federico García Lorca, among other important Spanish artists living in the Residencia de Estudiantes. Luis first studied the natural sciences and agronomy, then engineering, but later switched to philosophy. In 1925, he moved to Paris where he began work as a secretary in an organisation called the International Society of Intellectual Cooperation. Luis later found work in France as a director’s assistant to Jean Epstein on Mauprat and Mario Nalpas on La Sirène des Tropiques and he co-wrote and then filmed a 16 minute short film Un chien andalou (1929) with Dalí. This film, featuring a series of startling and sometimes horrifying images of Freudian nature (such as what appears to be the slow slicing of a woman’s eyeball with a razor blade) was enthusiastically received by French surrealists of the time, and continues to be shown regularly in film societies to this day.

Luis followed this with L’Âge d’or (1930), partly based on the Marquis de Sade’s 120 Days of Sodom. The film was begun as a 2nd collaboration with Dalí but became Luis’ solo project after a falling-out they had before filming began. During this film he worked around his technical ignorance by filming mostly in sequence and using nearly every foot of film that he shot. L’Âge d’or was read to be an attack on Catholicism, and thus, precipitated an even larger scandal than Un chien andalou. The right-wing press criticized the film and the police placed a ban on it that lasted 50 years.

Following L’Âge d’or, Luis returned to Spain and directed Las Hurdes: Tierra Sin Pan (Land Without Bread, 1933), a documentary on peasant life. This was a convulse period which led, in 1936, to the Spanish Civil War. The times were changing quickly and Luis could see that someone with his political and artistic sensibilities would have no place in a fascist Spain. Luis co-wrote and produced a documentary short about the changing political climes in Spain entitled España 1936.

After the Spanish Civil War, Luis was exiled and moved to the United States. Luis moved to Hollywood to capitalise on the short-lived fad of producing completely new foreign-language versions of hit films for sales abroad. After Luis worked on a few Spanish-language remakes, the industry eventually turned instead to re-dubbing of dialogue. Luis then left Hollywood for New York, getting a job at the Museum of Modern Art (where he re-edited a shorter version of Leni Riefenstahl’s documentary on Hitler, Triumph of the Will).

In his autobiography, The Secret Life of Salvador Dalí (1942), Dalí suggested that he had split with Luis because the latter was a Communist and an atheist. Luis was fired (or resigned) from MOMA, supposedly after Cardinal Spellman of New York went to see Iris Barry, head of the film department at MOMA. Luis then went back to Hollywood where he worked in the dubbing department of Warner Brothers from 1942 to 1946. In his 1982 autobiography [My Last Breath], Luis wrote that he submitted a treatment to Warners about a disembodied hand which was later adapted into The Beast with Five Fingers (1946) with Peter Lorre. Luis also wrote that, over the years, he rejected Dalí’s attempts at reconciliation.

In 1972, Luis, along with his screenwriter Jean-Claude Carrière and producer Serge Silberman, was invited by George Cukor to his house. This gathering was particularly memorable and other invitees included Alfred Hitchcock, Rouben Mamoulian, Robert Mulligan, George Stevens, Billy Wilder, Robert Wise and William Wyler.

Luis arrived in Mexico in 1946 and got the Mexican citizenship in 1949. The first film he directed there was the Gran Casino (1946), produced by Oscar Dancigers. Luis found the plot boring and it was not hugely successful. Luis later again collaborated with Dancigers in creating El Gran Calavera (1949), a successful film starring Fernando Soler. As Luis himself has stated, he learned the techniques of directing and editing while shooting El Gran Calavera. Its success at the box office encouraged Oscar Dancigers to accept the production of a more ambitious film for which Luis, apart from writing the script, had complete freedom to direct. The result was his critically acclaimed Los Olvidados (1950), which was recently considered by UNESCO as part of the world’s cultural heritage. Los Olvidados (and its triumph at Cannes) made Luis an instant world celebrity and the most important Spanish-speaking film director in the world.

Luis spent most of his later life in Mexico, where he directed 21 films. Those films included:

Él (1953)

Ensayo de un crimen (The Criminal Life of Archibaldo de la Cruz) (1955)

Nazarín (1959) (based on a novel by Spain’s Benito Pérez Galdós, and adapted by Luis to a Mexican context)

Viridiana (1961) (coproduction Mexico-Spain and winner at Cannes)

El Ángel Exterminador (The Exterminating Angel) (1962)

Simón del desierto (Simon of the Desert) (1965).

After the golden age of the Mexican film industry ended, Luis started to work in France along with Silberman and Carrière. During this “French Period”, Luis directed some of his best-known works: Le Journal d’une femme de chambre (Diary of a Chambermaid), free adaptation of the famous Octave Mirbeau’s novel Le journal d’une femme de chambre ; Belle de Jour ; Cet obscur objet du désir (That Obscure Object of Desire) ; and Le Charme discret de la bourgeoisie (The Discreet Charm of the Bourgeoisie) – as well as some lesser-known films such as The Phantom of Liberty and La Voie lactée (The Milky Way).

After the release of Cet obscur objet du désir (1977) he retired from film making, and wrote (with Carrière) an autobiography, Mon Dernier Soupir (My Last Sigh), published in 1982, which provides an account of Luis’s life, friends, and family as well as a representation of his eccentric personality. In it he recounts dreams, encounters with many well known writers, actors, and artists such as Pablo Picasso and Charlie Chaplin, and antics such as dressing up as a nun and walking around town. As one might deduce from these antics, Luis was famous for his atheism. In a 1960 interview with Michele Manceaux in L’Express, Luis famously declared: “I am still, thank God, an atheist.”

Luis almost seemed to repudiate this statement in a 1977 article in The New Yorker. “I’m not a Christian, but I’m not an atheist, either”, he said. “I’m weary of hearing that accidental old aphorism of mine, ‘I’m an atheist, thank God.’ It’s outworn. Dead leaves. In 1951, I made a small film called Mexican Bus Ride, about a village too poor to support a church and a priest. The place was serene, because no one suffered from guilt. It’s guilt we must escape from, not God.”

Luis married Jeanne Rucar in a town hall in Paris in 1934 and they remained married throughout his life. Luis’s sons are Rafael and Juan Luis Buñuel. Diego Buñuel, filmmaker and host of the National Geographic Channel’s Don’t Tell my Mother I am in… series, is his grandson.

Luis Buñuel’s films were famous for their surreal imagery; they include scenes in which chickens populate nightmares, women grow beards, and aspiring saints are desired by luscious women. Even in the many movies he made for hire (rather than for his own creative reasons), such as Susana, Robinson Crusoe, and The Great Madcap, he always added his trademark of disturbing and surreal images. Running through his own films is a backbone of surrealism; Luis’s world is one in which an entire dinner party suddenly finds themselves inexplicably unable to leave the room and go home, a bad dream hands a man a letter which he brings to the doctor the next day, and where the devil, if unable to tempt a saint with a pretty girl, will fly him to a disco. An example of a more Dada influence can be found in Cet obscur objet du désir, when Mathieu closes his eyes and has his valet spin him around and direct him to a map on the wall.

Luis never explained or promoted his work. On one occasion, when his son was interviewed about The Exterminating Angel, Luis instructed him to give facetious answers; for example, when asked about the presence of a bear in the socialites’ house, Luis fils claimed it was because his father liked bears. Similarly, the several repeated scenes in the film were explained as having been put there to increase the running time.

Many of his films were openly critical of middle class morals and organised religion, mocking the Roman Catholic Church for hypocrisy. Many of his most famous films demonstrate this:

Un chien andalou (An Andalusian Dog, 1929) — A man drags pianos, upon which are piled 2 dead donkeys, 2 priests, and the tablets of The Ten Commandments.

L’Âge d’or (The Golden Age, 1930) — A bishop is thrown out a window, and in the final scene one of the culprits of the 120 days of Sodom is portrayed by an actor dressed in a way that he would be recognised as Jesus.

Ensayo de un crimen (The Criminal Life of Archibald de la Cruz, 1955) — A man dreams of murdering his wife while she’s praying in bed dressed all in white.

Simón del desierto (Simon of the Desert , 1965) — The devil tempts a saint by taking the form of a bare-breasted girl singing and showing off her legs. At the end of the film, the saint abandons his ascetic life to hang out in a jazz club.

Nazarin (1959) — The pious lead character wreaks ruin through his attempts at charity.

Viridiana (1961) — A well-meaning young nun tries unsuccessfully to help the poor. Also there is is a scene in the film as The Last Supper (of Leonardo Da Vinci).

La Voie Lactée (1969) — Two men travel the ancient pilgrimage road to Santiago de Compostela and meet embodiments of various heresies along the way. One dreams of anarchists shooting the Pope.
The story of the making of Viridiana is illustrative. Luis’s earlier Spanish and French films from the 1930s were regarded as cinema landmarks — Un Chien Andalou, L’Âge d’or, and Las Hurdes (also known as Tierra sin Pan or Land Without Bread) (1933). The advent of the Spanish Civil War in 1936, however, caused the expatriation of many artists and intellectuals from the fascist dictatorship of Franco, whose military revolt and rise to power had had the strong backing of the Spanish Catholic hierarchy.

Had Luis stayed in Spain, his fate might have been the same as that of his friend, poet Federico García Lorca, who was assassinated at the outset of Franco’s military revolt. After some years of artistic silence forced by the difficult circumstances of his expatriation, Luis, then residing in Mexico, returned in full force to writing and directing with some of his best films, which once more won him international acclaim.

In 1960, for political propaganda reasons, Franco instructed his minister of culture to invite the country’s most famous filmmaker to return to Spain to direct a film of his choice. Luis accepted and proceeded to make Viridiana, promptly departing from the country after finishing the film, but leaving a few official copies. After viewing them, the copies were burned by the dictator’s authorities. The minister of culture was reprimanded for having passed the screenplay in the first place. A copy of Viridiana, however, had been smuggled to France, where it proceeded to win the Palme D’Or of the Cannes International Film Festival. The film was banned in Spain, but got international attention and praise (with some exceptions). The Vatican’s official press organ, l’Osservatore Romano, published an article calling Viridiana an insult not only to Catholicism, but to Christianity itself.

Luis’s style of directing was extremely economical. Luis shot films in a few weeks, never deviating from his script and shooting in order as much as possible to minimize editing time. Luis told actors as little as possible, and limited his directions mostly to physical movements (“move to the right”, “walk down the hall and go through that door”, etc.). Luis often refused to answer actors’ questions and was known to simply turn off his hearing aid on the set; though they found it difficult at the time, many actors who worked with him acknowledged later that his approach made for fresh and excellent performances.

Luis preferred scenes which could simply be pieced together end-to-end in the editing room, resulting in long, mobile, wide shots which followed the action of the scene. Examples are especially present in his French films. For example, at the restaurant / ski resort in Belle de jour, Séverin, Pierre, and Henri are conversing at a table. Luis cuts away from their conversation to 2 young women who walk down a few steps and proceed through the restaurant, passing behind Séverin, Pierre, and Henri, at which point the camera stops and the young women walk out of frame. Henri then comments on the women and the conversation at the table progresses from there.

Luis disliked non-diegetic music, and avoided it in his films, though traditional drums from Calanda sound in most of his films. The films of his French era were not scored and some (Belle de jour, Diary of a Chambermaid) contain absolutely no music whatsoever. Belle de Jour does, however, feature (potentially) non-diegetic sound effects, believed by some to be clues as to whether or not the current scene is a dream.

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Hearing Impairment Series-Disabled Legend Lon Chaney Snr.

Lon Chaney Snr. was born on 1 April, 1883 in Colorado Springs, Colorado, USA and died on 26 August, 1930, nicknamed “The Man of a Thousand Faces,” was an American actor during the age of silent films. Lon Chaney Snr. was one of the most versatile and powerful actors of early cinema. Lon Chaney Snr. is best remembered for his characterisations of tortured, often grotesque and afflicted characters, and his groundbreaking artistry with film makeup.

Lon Chaney Snr. was born Leonidas Frank Chaney  to Frank H. Chaney and Emma Alice Kennedy; his father had mostly English and some French ancestry, and his mother was of Irish descent. Both of Lon Chaney Snr.’s parents were deaf, and as a child of deaf adults Lon Chaney Snr. became skilled in pantomime. Lon Chaney Snr. entered a stage career in 1902, and began traveling with popular Vaudeville and theater acts. In 1905, he met and married 16 year old singer Cleva Creighton and in 1906, their 1st child and only son, Creighton Chaney (a.k.a. Lon Chaney, Jr.) was born. The Chaneys continued touring, settling in California in 1910.

Unfortunately, marital troubles developed and in April 1913, Cleva went to the Majestic Theater in downtown Los Angeles, where Lon Chaney Snr. was managing the Kolb and Dill show, and attempted suicide by swallowing mercury bichloride. The suicide attempt failed and ruined her singing career; the ensuing scandal and divorce forced Lon Chaney Snr. out of the theater and into film.

The time spent there is not clearly known, but between the years 1912 and 1917, Lon Chaney Snr. worked under contract for Universal Studios doing bit or character parts. Lon Chaney Snr’s outstanding skill with makeup gained him many parts in the highly competitive casting atmosphere. During this time, Lon Chaney Snr. befriended the husband-wife director team of Joe De Grasse and Ida May Parke, who gave him substantial roles in their pictures, and further encouraged him to play macabre characters.

Lon Chaney Snr. also married one of his former colleagues in the Kolb and Dill company tour, a chorus girl named Hazel Hastings. Little is known of Hazel, except that her marriage to Lon Chaney Snr. was solid. Upon marrying, the new couple gained custody of Lon Chaney Snr’s 10 year-old son Creighton, who had resided in various homes and boarding schools since Lon Chaney Snr’s divorce in 1913.

By 1917 Lon Chaney Snr. was a prominent actor in the studio, but his salary did not reflect this status. When Lon Chaney Snr. asked for a raise, studio executive William Sistrom replied, “You’ll never be worth more than $100 a week.”

After leaving the studio, Lon Chaney Snr. struggled for the 1st year as a character actor. It was not until 1918 when playing a substantial role in William S. Hart’s picture, Riddle Gawne, that Lon Chaney Snr’s talents as a character actor were truly recognised by the industry.

In 1919, Lon Chaney Snr. had a breakthrough performance as, “The Frog,” in George Loane Tucker’s The Miracle Man. The film not only displayed Lon Chaney Snr.’s acting ability, but his talent as a master of makeup. Critical praise and a gross of over $2 000,000 put Lon Chaney Snr. on the map as America’s foremost character actor.

Lon Chaney Snr. is chiefly remembered as a pioneer in such silent horror films as, The Hunchback of Notre Dame, and most notably, The Phantom of the Opera. Lon Chaney Snr.’s ability to transform himself using self-invented makeup techniques earned him the nickname of “Man of a Thousand Faces”. In an autobiographical 1925 article published in Movie magazine that gave a rare glimpse into his life, Lon Chaney Snr referred to his specialty as “extreme characterisation”.

Lon Chaney Snr also exhibited this adaptability with makeup in more conventional crime and adventure films, such as, The Penalty, where he played an amputee gangster. Lon Chaney Snr. appeared in a total of 10 films by director Tod Browning, often playing disguised and/or mutilated characters, including carnival knife thrower Alonzo the Armless in, The Unknown (1927), with Joan Crawford. In 1927, Lon Chaney Snr. co-starred with Conrad Nagel, Marceline Day, Henry B. Walthall and Polly Moran in the now lost Tod Browning directed horror classic, London After Midnight, quite possibly the most famous lost film ever. Lon Chaney Snr.’s last film was a remake with sound of his silent classic, The Unholy Three (1930), his only “talkie” and the only film in which he displayed his versatile voice. In fact, Lon Chaney Snr. signed a sworn statement declaring that 5 of the key voices in the film (the ventriloquist, old woman, parrot, dummy and girl) were in fact his own.

Although Lon Chaney Snr. created, in Quasimodo, the bell ringer of Notre Dame, and Erik, the “phantom” of the Paris Opera House, two of the most grotesquely deformed characters in film history, the portrayals sought to elicit a degree of sympathy and pathos among viewers not overwhelmingly terrified or repulsed by the monstrous disfigurements of the characters, who were merely victims of fate.

“I wanted to remind people that the lowest types of humanity may have within them the capacity for supreme self-sacrifice,” Lon Chaney Snr. wrote in Movie magazine. “The dwarfed, misshapen beggar of the streets may have the noblest ideals. Most of my roles since The Hunchback, such as The Phantom of the Opera, He Who Gets Slapped, The Unholy Three, etc., have carried the theme of self-sacrifice or renunciation. These are the stories which I wish to do.”

“He was someone who acted out our psyches. He somehow got into the shadows inside our bodies; he was able to nail down some of our secret fears and put them on-screen,” the writer Ray Bradbury once explained. “The history of Lon Chaney Snr. is the history of unrequited loves. Lon Chaney Snr. brings that part of you out into the open, because you fear that you are not loved, you fear that you never will be loved, you fear there is some part of you that’s grotesque, that the world will turn away from.”

Lon Chaney Snr.’s talents extended far beyond the horror genre, and stage makeup. Lon Chaney Snr. was also a highly skilled dancer, singer and comedian. In fact, many people who did not know Lon Chaney Snr. were surprised by his rich baritone voice and his sharp comedic skills.

Lon Chaney Snr. and his 2nd wife Hazel led a discreet private life distant from the Hollywood social scene. Lon Chaney Snr did minimal promotional work for his films and MGM studios, purposefully fostering a mysterious image, and he reportedly avoided the social scene in Hollywood on purpose.

In the final 5 years of his film career (1925-1930), Lon Chaney Snr. worked exclusively under contract to MGM, giving some of his most memorable performances. Lon Chaney Snr’.s portrayal of a tough-as-nails marine drill instructor in Tell It to the Marines (1926), one of his favorite films, earned him the affection of the US Marine Corps, who made him their first honorary member from the motion picture industry. Lon Chaney Snr. also earned the respect and admiration of numerous up and coming actors, as Lon Chaney Snr. was considered helpful towards new actors, showing them the ropes, and was always willing to talk to the cast and crew about his experiences between takes on films.

During the filming of Thunder in the winter of 1929, Lon Chaney Snr. developed pneumonia. In late 1929 he was diagnosed with bronchial lung cancer. Despite aggressive treatment, his condition gradually worsened, and 7 weeks after the release of the remake of The Unholy Three, he died of a throat hemorrhage. Lon Chaney Snr.’s death was deeply mourned by his family, the film industry and by his fans. The US Marine Corps provided a chaplain and Honor Guard for his funeral. Lon Chaney Snr. was interred in the Forest Lawn Memorial Park Cemetery, in Glendale, California, USA next to the crypt of his father. Lon Chaney Snr.’s wife Hazel was also interred there upon her death in 1933. For unknown reasons, Lon Chaney Snr.’s crypt has remained unmarked.

Lon Chaney Snr. as “Mr. Wu,” conducting an orchestra of women.In 1957, Lon Chaney Snr. was the subject of a biopic titled Man of a Thousand Faces, and was portrayed by James Cagney. Though much of the plot was fictional, the film was a moving tribute to Lon Chaney Snr. and helped boost his posthumous fame. During his lifetime, Lon Chaney Snr. had boasted he would make it difficult for biographers to portray his life, saying that “between pictures, there is no Lon Chaney Snr.” This was in line with the air of mystery he purposefully fostered around his makeup and performances.

Lon Chaney Snr. has a star on the Hollywood Walk of Fame. In 1994, he was honored by having his image designed by caricaturist Al Hirschfeld, placed on a United States postage stamp.

The stage theater at the Colorado Springs Civic Auditorium is named after Lon Chaney Snr.

In 1929, Lon Chaney Snr. built an impressive stone cabin in the remote wilderness of the eastern Sierra Nevada, near Big Pine, California, as a retreat. The cabin (designed by architect Paul Williams) still stands, and is preserved by the Inyo National Forest Service.

Lon Chaney Snr.’s son, Lon Chaney, Jr., became a film actor after his father’s death, and is best remembered for roles in horror films, especially The Wolf Man. The Chaneys appeared on US postage stamps as their signature characters, the Phantom of the Opera and the Wolf Man, with the set completed by Bela Lugosi as Dracula and Boris Karloff as Frankenstein’s monster and The Mummy.

Lon Chaney Snr. and his son Lon Chaney Jnr. are mentioned in the Warren Zevon song “Werewolves of London”.

Many of Lon Chaney Snr.’s colleagues held him in high regard and he would often give advice and help actors who were just beginning their careers. Lon Chaney Snr. was also greatly respected by the film crews and studio employees with whom he worked.

Following his death, Lon Chaney Snr.’s famous makeup case was donated by his wife Hazel to the Los Angeles County Museum, where it is sometimes displayed for the public. Makeup artist and Lon Chaney Snr.’s biographer Michael Blake considers Lon Chaney Snr.’s case the central artifact in the history of film makeup.

In 1978, Gene Simmons of the rock band KISS wrote a song about Lon Chaney Snr. called “The Man of A Thousand Faces” for his first solo album. Simmons had been influenced by the old black and white classic horror movies growing up in New York City.

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