Speech Differences And Stutter Series-Disabled Legend Alan Turing

Alan Mathison Turing, OBE, FRS (pronounced /ˈt(j)ʊ(ə)rɪŋ/)was born on 23 June 1912 and died On 8 June 1954, his cleaner found him dead; the previous day, he had died of cyanide poisoning, apparently from a cyanide-laced apple he left half-eaten beside his bed. The apple itself was never tested for contamination with cyanide, but a post-mortem established that the cause of death was cyanide poisoning. Most believe that his death was intentional, and the death was ruled a suicide. Alan Turing’s mother, however, strenuously argued that the ingestion was accidental due to his careless storage of laboratory chemicals. Biographer Andrew Hodges suggests that Alan Turing may have killed himself in this ambiguous way quite deliberately, to give his mother some plausible deniability. Others suggest that Alan Turing was re-enacting a scene from ‘Snow White’, his favourite fairy tale. Because Alan Turing’s homosexuality would have been perceived as a security risk, the possibility of assassination has also been suggested. Alan Turing’s remains were cremated at Woking crematorium on 12 June 1954.

Alan Turing was an English mathematician, logician and cryptographer.

Alan Turing is often considered to be the father of modern computer science. Alan Turing provided an influential formalisation of the concept of the algorithm and computation with the Turing machine. With the Turing test, meanwhile, he made a significant and characteristically provocative contribution to the debate regarding artificial intelligence: whether it will ever be possible to say that a machine is conscious and can think. Alan Turing later worked at the National Physical Laboratory, creating 1 of the 1st designs for a stored-program computer, the ACE, although it was never actually built in its full form. In 1948, he moved to the University of Manchester to work on the Manchester Mark I, then emerging as one of the world’s earliest true computers.

During the Second World War Turing worked at Bletchley Park, the UK’s codebreaking centre, and was for a time head of Hut 8, the section responsible for German naval cryptanalysis. Alan Turing devised a number of techniques for breaking German ciphers, including the method of the bombe, an electromechanical machine that could find settings for the Enigma machine.

Alan Turing was homosexual, living in an era when homosexuality was still both illegal and officially considered a mental illness. Subsequent to his being outed, he was criminally prosecuted, which essentially ended his career. Alan Turing died not long after, under what some believe were ambiguous circumstances.

Alan Turing was conceived in Chhatrapur, Orissa, India. Alan Turing’s father, Julius Mathison Turing, was a member of the Indian Civil Service. Julius and wife Sara 1881 – 1976, daughter of Edward Waller Stoney, chief engineer of the Madras Railways wanted Alan Turing to be brought up in England, so they returned to Maida Vale, London, where Alan Turing was born 23 June 1912, as recorded by a blue plaque on the outside of the building, now the Colonnade Hotel. Alan Turing had an elder brother, John. Alan Turing’s father’s civil service commission was still active, and during Alan Turing’s childhood years his parents travelled between Guildford, England and India, leaving their 2 sons to stay with friends in Hastings in England. Very early in life, Alan Turing showed signs of the genius he was to display more prominently later.

Alan Turing’s parents enrolled him at St Michael’s, a day school, at the age of 6. The headmistress recognised his genius early on, as did many of his subsequent educators. In 1926, at the age of 14, he went on to Sherborne School, a famous and expensive public school in Dorset. Alan Turing’s 1st day of term coincided with the General Strike in England, but so determined was he to attend his 1st day that he rode his bicycle unaccompanied more than 60 miles (97 km) from Southampton to school, stopping overnight at an inn.

Alan Turing’s natural inclination toward mathematics and science did not earn him respect with some of the teachers at Sherborne, whose definition of education placed more emphasis on the classics. Alan Turing’s headmaster wrote to his parents: “I hope he will not fall between 2 schools. If he is to stay at public school, he must aim at becoming educated. If he is to be solely a Scientific Specialist, he is wasting his time at a public school”.

Despite this, Alan Turing continued to show remarkable ability in the studies he loved, solving advanced problems in 1927 without having even studied elementary calculus. In 1928, aged 16, Alan Turing encountered Albert Einstein’s work; not only did he grasp it, but he extrapolated Albert Einstein’s questioning of Sir Isaac Newton’s laws of motion from a text in which this was never made explicit.

Alan Turing’s hopes and ambitions at school were raised by the close friendship he developed with a slightly older fellow student, Christopher Morcom, who was Alan Turing’s 1st love interest. Christopher Morcom died suddenly only a few weeks into their last term at Sherborne, from complications of bovine tuberculosis, contracted after drinking infected cow’s milk as a boy. Alan Turing’s religious faith was shattered and he became an atheist. Alan Turing adopted the conviction that all phenomena, including the workings of the human brain, must be materialistic.

Alan Turing’s unwillingness to work as hard on his classical studies as on science and mathematics meant he failed to win a scholarship to Trinity College, Cambridge, and went on to the college of his 2nd choice, King’s College, Cambridge. Alan Turing was an undergraduate there from 1931 to 1934, graduating with a distinguished degree, and in 1935 was elected a fellow at King’s on the strength of a dissertation on the central limit theorem.

In his momentous paper “On Computable Numbers, with an Application to the Entscheidungsproblem”(submitted on 28 May 1936), Alan Turing reformulated Kurt Gödel’s 1931 results on the limits of proof and computation, replacing Kurt Gödel’s universal arithmetic-based formal language with what are now called Turing machines, formal and simple devices. Alan Turing proved that some such machine would be capable of performing any conceivable mathematical problem if it were representable as an algorithm, even if no actual Turing machine would be likely to have practical applications, being much slower than practically realisable alternatives.

Turing machines are to this day the central object of study in theory of computation. Alan Turing went on to prove that there was no solution to the Entscheidungs problem by 1st showing that the halting problem for Turing machines is undecidable: it is not possible to decide, in general, algorithmically whether a given Turing machine will ever halt. While his proof was published subsequent to Alonzo Church’s equivalent proof in respect to his lambda calculus, Alan Turing’s work is considerably more accessible and intuitive. It was also novel in its notion of a ‘Universal (Turing) Machine’, the idea that such a machine could perform the tasks of any other machine. The paper also introduces the notion of definable numbers.

Most of 1937 and 1938 he spent at Princeton University, studying under Alonzo Church. In 1938 he obtained his Ph.D. from Princeton; his dissertation introduced the notion of relative computing where Turing machines are augmented with so-called oracles, allowing a study of problems that cannot be solved by a Turing machine.

Back in Cambridge in 1939, he attended lectures by Ludwig Wittgenstein about the foundations of mathematics. The 2 argued and disagreed, with Alan Turing defending formalism and Ludwig Wittgenstein arguing that mathematics does not discover any absolute truths but rather invents them.

During the Second World War, Alan Turing was a main participant in the efforts at Bletchley Park to break German ciphers. Building on cryptanalysis work carried out in Poland by Marian Rejewski, Jerzy Różycki and Henryk Zygalski from Cipher Bureau before the war, he contributed several insights into breaking both the Enigma machine and the Lorenz SZ 40/42 (a Teletype cipher attachment codenamed “Tunny” by the British), and was, for a time, head of Hut 8, the section responsible for reading German naval signals.

Since September 1938, Alan Turing had been working part-time for the Government Code and Cypher School (GCCS), the British code breaking organisation. Alan Turing worked on the problem of the German Enigma machine, and collaborated with Dilly Knox, a senior GCCS codebreaker. On 4 September 1939, the day after the UK declared war on Germany, Alan Turing reported to Bletchley Park, the wartime station of GCCS.

Within weeks of arriving at Bletchley Park, Alan Turing had designed an electromechanical machine which could help break Enigma faster than bomba from 1932, the bombe, named after and building upon the original Polish-designed bomba. The bombe, with an enhancement suggested by mathematician Gordon Welchman, became one of the primary tools, and the major automated one, used to attack Enigma-protected message traffic.

Professor Jack Good, cryptanalyst working at the time with Alan Turing at Bletchley Park, later said: “Turing’s most important contribution, I think, was of part of the design of the bombe, the cryptanalytic machine. He had the idea that you could use, in effect, a theorem in logic which sounds to the untrained ear rather absurd; namely that from a contradiction, you can deduce everything.”

The bomb searched for possibly correct settings used for an Enigma message (i.e., rotor order, rotor settings, etc.), and used a suitable “crib”: a fragment of probable plaintext. For each possible setting of the rotors (which had of the order of 1019 states, or 1022 for the U-boat Enigmas which eventually had 4 rotors, compared to the usual Enigma variant’s 3), the bomb performed a chain of logical deductions based on the crib, implemented electrically. The bomb detected when a contradiction had occurred, and ruled out that setting, moving onto the next. Most of the possible settings would cause contradictions and be discarded, leaving only a few to be investigated in detail. Alan Turing’s bomb was 1st installed on 18 March 1940. Over 200 bombs were in operation by the end of the war.

In December 1940, Alan Turing solved the naval Enigma indicator system, which was more mathematically complex than the indicator systems used by the other services. Alan Turing also invented a Bayesian statistical technique termed “Banburismus” to assist in breaking Naval Enigma. Banburismus could rule out certain orders of the Enigma rotors, reducing time needed to test settings on the bombs.

In the spring of 1941, Alan Turing proposed marriage to Hut 8 co-worker Joan Clarke, although the engagement was broken off by mutual agreement in the summer.

In July 1942, Alan Turing devised a technique termed Turingismus or Turingery for use against the Lorenz cipher used in the Germans’ new Geheimschreiber machine (“secret writer”) which was one of those codenamed “Fish”. Alan Turing also introduced the Fish team to Tommy Flowers who under the guidance of Max Newman, went on to build the Colossus computer, the world’s 1st programmable digital electronic computer, which replaced simpler prior machines (including the “Heath Robinson”) and whose superior speed allowed the brute-force decryption techniques to be applied usefully to the daily-changing cyphers. A frequent misconception is that Alan Turing was a key figure in the design of Colossus; this was not the case.

Alan Turing travelled to the United States in November 1942 and worked with U.S. Navy cryptanalysts on Naval Enigma and bombe construction in Washington, and assisted at Bell Labs with the development of secure speech devices. Alan Turing returned to Bletchley Park in March 1943. During his absence, Hugh Alexander had officially assumed the position of head of Hut 8, although Hugh Alexander had been de facto head for some time — Alan Turing having little interest in the day-to-day running of the section. Alan Turing became a general consultant for cryptanalysis at Bletchley Park.

In the latter part of the war, while teaching himself electronics at the same time, and assisted by engineer Donald Bayley, Alan Turing undertook the design of a portable machine codenamed Delilah to allow secure voice communications. It was intended for different applications, lacking capability for use with long-distance radio transmissions, and in any case, Delilah was completed too late to be used during the war. Though Alan Turing demonstrated it to officials by encrypting/decrypting a recording of a Winston Churchill speech, Delilah was not adopted for use.

In 1945, Alan Turing was awarded the OBE for his wartime services, but his work remained secret for many years. A biography published by the Royal Society shortly after his death recorded:

“3 remarkable papers written just before the war, on 3 diverse mathematical subjects, show the quality of the work that might have been produced if he had settled down to work on some big problem at that critical time. For his work at the Foreign Office he was awarded the OBE.”

From 1945 to 1947 he was at the National Physical Laboratory, where he worked on the design of the ACE (Automatic Computing Engine). Alan Turing presented a paper on 19 February 1946, which was the 1st detailed design of a stored-program computer. Although ACE was a feasible design, the secrecy surrounding the wartime work at Bletchley Park led to delays in starting the project and he became disillusioned. In late 1947 he returned to Cambridge for a sabbatical year. While he was at Cambridge, the Pilot ACE was built in his absence. It executed its 1st program on 10 May 1950.

In 1948 he was appointed Reader in the Mathematics Department at Manchester and in 1949 became deputy director of the computing laboratory at the University of Manchester, and worked on software for one of the earliest true computers — the Manchester Mark I. During this time he continued to do more abstract work, and in “Computing machinery and intelligence” (Mind, October 1950), Alan Turing addressed the problem of artificial intelligence, and proposed an experiment now known as the Turing test, an attempt to define a standard for a machine to be called “intelligent”. The idea was that a computer could be said to “think” if it could fool an interrogator into thinking that the conversation was with a human.

In 1948, Alan Turing, working with his former undergraduate colleague, D.G. Champernowne, began writing a chess program for a computer that did not yet exist. In 1952, lacking a computer powerful enough to execute the program, Alan Turing played a game in which he simulated the computer, taking about half an hour per move. The game was recorded; the program lost to Alan Turing’s colleague Alick Glennie, although it is said that it won a game against Champernowne’s wife.

Alan Turing worked from 1952 until his death in 1954 on mathematical biology, specifically morphogenesis. Alan Turing published one paper on the subject called “The Chemical Basis of Morphogenesis” in 1952, putting forth the Turing hypothesis of pattern formation. Alan Turing’s central interest in the field was understanding Fibonacci phyllotaxis, the existence of Fibonacci numbers in plant structures. Alan Turing used reaction-diffusion equations which are now central to the field of pattern formation. Later papers went unpublished until 1992 when Collected Works of A.M. Turing was published.

Homosexuality was illegal in the United Kingdom and regarded as a mental illness and subject to criminal sanctions. In 1952, Arnold Murray, a 19-year-old recent acquaintance of Alan Turing’s, helped an accomplice to break into Alan Turing’s house, and Alan Turing reported the crime to the police. As a result of the police investigation, Alan Turing acknowledged a sexual relationship with Arnold Murray, and a crime having been identified and settled, Alan Turing and Arnold Murray were charged with gross indecency under Section 11 of the Criminal Law Amendment Act of 1885. Alan Turing was unrepentant and was convicted of the same crime Oscar Wilde had been convicted of more than 50 years before.

Alan Turing was given a choice between imprisonment and probation, conditional on his undergoing hormonal treatment designed to reduce libido. Alan Turing accepted the estrogen hormone injections, which lasted for a year, to avoid jail. Side effects included gynecomastia (breast enlargement). Alan Turing’s conviction led to a removal of his security clearance and prevented him from continuing consultancy for GCHQ on cryptographic matters. At the time, there was acute public anxiety about spies and homosexual entrapment by Soviet agents, possibly due to the recent exposure of the Cambridge 5 as KGB double agents. ( Alan Turing was never accused of espionage.)

Since 1966, the Turing Award has been given annually by the Association for Computing Machinery to a person for technical contributions to the computing community. It is widely considered to be the computing world’s equivalent to the Nobel Prize.

Various tributes to Alan Turing have been made in Manchester, the city where he worked towards the end of his life. In 1994 a stretch of the A6010 road (the Manchester city intermediate ring road) was named Alan Turing Way. A bridge carrying this road was widened, and carries the name ‘Alan Turing Bridge’.

A statue of Alan Turing was unveiled in Manchester on 23 June 2001. It is in Sackville Park, between the University of Manchester building on Whitworth Street and the Canal Street ‘gay village’. A celebration of Alan Turing’s life and achievements arranged by the British Logic Colloquium and the British Society for the History of Mathematics was held on 5 June 2004 at the University of Manchester; the Alan Turing Institute was initiated in the university that summer. The building housing the School of Mathematics, the Photon Sciences Institute and the Jodrell Bank Centre for Astrophysics is named the Alan Turing Building and was opened in July 2007.

On 23 June 1998, on what would have been Alan Turing’s 86th birthday, Andrew Hodges, his biographer, unveiled an official English Heritage Blue Plaque on his childhood home in Warrington Crescent, London, now the Colonnade hotel. To mark the 50th anniversary of his death, a memorial plaque was unveiled on 7 June 2004 at his former residence, Hollymeade, in Wilmslow.

For his achievements in computing, various universities have honoured him. On 28 October 2004 a bronze statue of Alan Turing sculpted by John W Mills was unveiled at the University of Surrey in Guildford. The statue marks the 50th anniversary of Alan Turing’s death. It portrays him carrying his books across the campus. Turing Road in the University’s Research Park predates this.

The Polytechnic University of Puerto Rico and Los Andes University in Bogotá, Colombia, both have computer laboratories named after Alan Turing. The University of Texas at Austin has an honours computer science programme named the Turing Scholars. Istanbul Bilgi University organises an annual conference on the theory of computation called Turing Days. The computer room in King’s College, Cambridge is named the “Turing Room” after him. Carnegie Mellon University has a granite bench, situated in The Hornbostel Mall, with the name “A. M. Turing” carved across the top, “Read” down the left leg, and “Write” down the other. The Boston GLBT pride organisation named Alan Turing their 2006 Honourary Grand Marshal.

On 13 March 2000, St Vincent & The Grenadines issued a set of stamps to celebrate the greatest achievements of the 20th century, one of which carries a recognisable portrait of Alan Turing against a background of repeated 0s and 1s, and is captioned ‘1937: Alan Turing’s theory of digital computing’.

A 1.5-ton, life-size statue of Alan Turing was unveiled on 19 June 2007 at Bletchley Park. Built from approximately 500,000 pieces of Welsh slate, it was sculpted by Stephen Kettle, having been commissioned by the late American billionaire Sidney Frank.

The Turing Relay is a 6-stage relay race on riverside footpaths from Ely to Cambridge and back. These paths were used for running by Alan Turing while at Cambridge; his marathon best time was 2 hours, 46 minutes.

Experimental music duo Matmos, whose members are a homosexual couple, released a limited edition EP in 2006 entitled For Alan Turing.

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Speech Differences And Stutter Series-Disabled Legend Sir Isaac Newton

Sir Isaac Newton, FRS (pronounced /ˈnjuːtən/; was born on 4 January 1643 at Woolsthorpe Manor in Woolsthorpe-by-Colsterworth, a hamlet in the county of Lincolnshire. At the time of Sir Isaac Newton’s birth, England had not adopted the latest papal calendar and therefore his date of birth was recorded as Christmas Day, 25 December 1642. Sir Isaac Newton was born 3 months after the death of his father. Born prematurely, he was a small child; his mother Hannah Ayscough reportedly said that he could have fit inside a quart mug. Sir Isaac Newton died on 31 March 1727 in London and was buried in Westminster Abbey.

After Isaac Newton’s death, his body was discovered to have had massive amounts of mercury in it, probably resulting from his alchemical pursuits. Mercury poisoning could explain Sir Isaac Newton’s eccentricity in late life.

Sir Isaac Newton was an English physicist, mathematician, astronomer, natural philosopher, alchemist and theologian. Sir Isaac Newton’s Philosophiæ Naturalis Principia Mathematica, published in 1687, is considered to be the most influential book in the history of science. In this work, Sir Isaac Newton described universal gravitation and the 3 laws of motion, laying the groundwork for classical mechanics, which dominated the scientific view of the physical universe for the next 3 centuries and is the basis for modern engineering. Sir Isaac Newton showed that the motions of objects on Earth and of celestial bodies are governed by the same set of natural laws by demonstrating the consistency between Kepler’s laws of planetary motion and his theory of gravitation, thus removing the last doubts about heliocentrism and advancing the scientific revolution.

In mechanics, Sir Isaac Newton enunciated the principles of conservation of momentum and angular momentum. In optics, he invented the reflecting telescope and developed a theory of colour based on the observation that a prism decomposes white light into a visible spectrum. Sir Isaac Newton also formulated an empirical law of cooling and studied the speed of sound.

In mathematics, Sir Isaac Newton shares the credit with Gottfried Leibniz for the development of the differential and integral calculus. Sir Isaac Newton also demonstrated the generalised binomial theorem, developed the so-called “Newton’s method” for approximating the 0’s of a function, and contributed to the study of power series.

Sir Isaac Newton was also highly religious (though unorthodox), producing more work on Biblical hermeneutics than the natural science he is remembered for today.

In a 2005 poll of the Royal Society asking who had the greater effect on the history of science, Sir Isaac Newton was deemed much more influential than Albert Einstein.

Sir Isaac Newton was 3, when his mother remarried and went to live with her new husband, the Reverend Barnabus Smith, leaving her son in the care of his maternal grandmother, Margery Ayscough. The young Isaac disliked his stepfather and held some enmity towards his mother for marrying him, as revealed by this entry in a list of sins committed up to the age of 19: Threatening my father and mother Smith to burn them and the house over them.

According to E.T. Bell and H. Eves:

Sir Isaac Newton began his schooling in the village schools and was later sent to The King’s School, Grantham, where he became the top student in the school. At The King’s School, he lodged with the local apothecary, William Clarke and eventually became engaged to the apothecary’s stepdaughter, Anne Storer, before he went off to the University of Cambridge at the age of 19. As Sir Isaac Newton became engrossed in his studies, the romance cooled and Miss Storer married someone else. It is said he kept a warm memory of this love, but Sir Isaac Newton had no other recorded “sweet-hearts” and never married.

There are rumours that he remained a confirmed celibate. However, Bell and Eves’ sources for this claim, William Stukeley and Mrs. Vincent (the former Miss Storer – actually named Katherine, not Anne), merely say that Sir Isaac Newton entertained “a passion” for Storer while he lodged at the William Clarke house.

From the age of about 12 until he was 17, Sir Isaac Newton was educated at The King’s School, Grantham (where his signature can still be seen upon a library window sill). Sir Isaac Newton was removed from school, and by October 1659, he was to be found at Woolsthorpe-by-Colsterworth, where his mother, widowed by now for a 2nd time, attempted to make a farmer of him. Sir Isaac Newton hated farming. Henry Stokes, master at the King’s School, who persuaded his mother to send him back to school so that he might complete his education. This he did at the age of 18, achieving an admirable final report.

In June 1661, he was admitted to Trinity College, Cambridge. According to John Stillwell, he entered Trinity as a sizar. At that time, the college’s teachings were based on those of Aristotle, but Sir Isaac Newton preferred to read the more advanced ideas of modern philosophers such as Descartes and astronomers such as Copernicus, Galileo, and Kepler. In 1665, he discovered the generalised binomial theorem and began to develop a mathematical theory that would later become infinitesimal calculus. Soon after Sir Isaac Newton had obtained his degree in August of 1665, the University closed down as a precaution against the Great Plague. Although he had been undistinguished as a Cambridge student, Sir Isaac Newton’s private studies at his home in Woolsthorpe over the subsequent 2 years saw the development of his theories on calculus, optics and the law of gravitation.

Most modern historians believe that Sir Isaac Newton and Leibniz had developed infinitesimal calculus independently, using their own unique notations. According to Sir Isaac Newton’s inner circle, Sir Isaac Newton had worked out his method years before Leibniz, yet he published almost nothing about it until 1693, and did not give a full account until 1704. Meanwhile, Leibniz began publishing a full account of his methods in 1684. Moreover, Leibniz’s notation and “differential Method” were universally adopted on the Continent, and after 1820 or so, in the British Empire. Whereas Leibniz’s notebooks show the advancement of the ideas from early stages until maturity, there is only the end product in Sir Isaac Newton’s known notes. Sir Isaac Newton claimed that he had been reluctant to publish his calculus because he feared being mocked for it. Sir Isaac Newton had a very close relationship with Swiss mathematician Nicolas Fatio de Duillier, who from the beginning was impressed by Sir Isaac Newton’s gravitational theory. In 1691 Nicolas Fatio de Duillier planned to prepare a new version of Sir Isaac Newton’s Philosophiae Naturalis Principia Mathematica, but never finished it. However, in 1694 the relationship between the 2 men changed. At the time, Nicolas Fatio de Duillier had also exchanged several letters with Leibniz.

Starting in 1699, other members of the Royal Society (of which Sir Isaac Newton was a member) accused Leibniz of plagiarism, and the dispute broke out in full force in 1711. Sir Isaac Newton’s Royal Society proclaimed in a study that it was Sir Isaac Newton who was the true discoverer and labeled Leibniz a fraud. This study was cast into doubt when it was later found that Sir Isaac Newton himself wrote the study’s concluding remarks on Leibniz. Thus began the bitter Newton v. Leibniz calculus controversy, which marred the lives of both Sir Isaac Newton and Leibniz until the latter’s death in 1716.

Sir Isaac Newton is generally credited with the generalised binomial theorem, valid for any exponent. Sir Isaac Newton discovered Newton’s identities, Newton’s method, classified cubic plane curves (polynomials of degree 3 in 2 variables), made substantial contributions to the theory of finite differences, and was the 1st to use fractional indices and to employ coordinate geometry to derive solutions to Diophantine equations. Sir Isaac Newton approximated partial sums of the harmonic series by logarithms (a precursor to Euler’s summation formula), and was the 1st to use power series with confidence and to revert power series. Sir Isaac Newton also discovered a new formula for calculating pi.

Sir Isaac Newton was elected Lucasian Professor of Mathematics in 1669. In that day, any fellow of Cambridge or Oxford had to be an ordained Anglican priest. However, the terms of the Lucasian professorship required that the holder not be active in the church (presumably so as to have more time for science). Sir Isaac Newton argued that this should exempt him from the ordination requirement, and Charles II, whose permission was needed, accepted this argument. Thus a conflict between Sir Isaac Newton’s religious views and Anglican orthodoxy was averted.

From 1670 to 1672, Sir Isaac Newton lectured on optics. During this period he investigated the refraction of light, demonstrating that a prism could decompose white light into a spectrum of colours, and that a lens and a 2nd prism could recompose the multicoloured spectrum into white light.

Sir Isaac Newton also showed that the coloured light does not change its properties by separating out a coloured beam and shining it on various objects. Sir Isaac Newton noted that regardless of whether it was reflected or scattered or transmitted, it stayed the same colour. Thus, he observed that colour is the result of objects interacting with already-coloured light rather than objects generating the colour themselves. This is known as Newton’s theory of colour.

From this work he concluded that any refracting telescope would suffer from the dispersion of light into colours, and invented a reflecting telescope (today known as a Newtonian telescope) to bypass that problem. By grinding his own mirrors, using Sir Isaac Newton’s rings to judge the quality of the optics for his telescopes, he was able to produce a superior instrument to the refracting telescope, due primarily to the wider diameter of the mirror. In 1671 the Royal Society asked for a demonstration of his reflecting telescope. Their interest encouraged him to publish his notes On Colour, which he later expanded into his Opticks. When Robert Hooke criticised some of Sir Isaac Newton’s ideas, Sir Isaac Newton was so offended that he withdrew from public debate. The 2 men remained enemies until Hooke’s death.

Sir Isaac Newton argued that light is composed of particles or corpuscles, which were refracted by accelerating toward the denser medium, but he had to associate them with waves to explain the diffraction of light (Opticks Bk. II, Props. XII-L). Later physicists instead favoured a purely wavelike explanation of light to account for diffraction. Today’s quantum mechanics, photons and the idea of wave–particle duality bear only a minor resemblance to Sir Isaac Newton’s understanding of light.

In his Hypothesis of Light of 1675, Sir Isaac Newton posited the existence of the ether to transmit forces between particles. The contact with the theosophist Henry More, revived his interest in alchemy. Sir Isaac Newton replaced the ether with occult forces based on Hermetic ideas of attraction and repulsion between particles. John Maynard Keynes, who acquired many of Sir Isaac Newton’s writings on alchemy, stated that “Newton was not the first of the age of reason: he was the last of the magicians.” Sir Isaac Newton’s interest in alchemy cannot be isolated from his contributions to science.(This was at a time when there was no clear distinction between alchemy and science.) Had Sir Isaac Newton not relied on the occult idea of action at a distance, across a vacuum, he might not have developed his theory of gravity.

In 1704 Sir Isaac Newton published Opticks, in which he expounded his corpuscular theory of light. Sir Isaac Newton considered light to be made up of extremely subtle corpuscles, that ordinary matter was made of grosser corpuscles and speculated that through a kind of alchemical transmutation “Are not gross Bodies and Light convertible into one another, …and may not Bodies receive much of their Activity from the Particles of Light which enter their Composition?” Sir Isaac Newton also constructed a primitive form of a frictional electrostatic generator, using a glass globe.

In 1677, Sir Isaac Newton returned to his work on mechanics, i.e., gravitation and its effect on the orbits of planets, with reference to Kepler’s laws of planetary motion, and consulting with Hooke and Flamsteed on the subject. Sir Isaac Newton published his results in De motu corporum in gyrum (1684). This contained the beginnings of the laws of motion that would inform the Principia.

The Philosophiae Naturalis Principia Mathematica (now known as the Principia) was published on 5 July 1687 with encouragement and financial help from Edmond Halley. In this work Sir Isaac Newton stated the 3 universal laws of motion that were not to be improved upon for more than 200 years. Sir Isaac Newton used the Latin word gravitas (weight) for the effect that would become known as gravity, and defined the law of universal gravitation. In the same work he presented the 1st analytical determination, based on Boyle’s law, of the speed of sound in air. Sir Isaac Newton’s postulate of an invisible force able to act over vast distances led to him being criticised for introducing “occult agencies” into science.

With the Principia, Sir Isaac Newton became internationally recognised. Sir Isaac Newton acquired a circle of admirers, including the Swiss-born mathematician Nicolas Fatio de Duillier, with whom he formed an intense relationship that lasted until 1693. The end of this friendship led Sir Isaac Newton to a nervous breakdown.

In the 1690s, Sir Isaac Newton wrote a number of religious tracts dealing with the literal interpretation of the Bible. Henry More’s belief in the universe and rejection of Cartesian dualism may have influenced Sir Isaac Newton’s religious ideas. A manuscript he sent to John Locke in which he disputed the existence of the Trinity was never published. Later works – The Chronology of Ancient Kingdoms Amended (1728) and Observations Upon the Prophecies of Daniel and the Apocalypse of St. John (1733) – were published after his death. Sir Isaac Newton also devoted a great deal of time to alchemy.

Sir Isaac Newton was also a member of the Parliament of England from 1689 to 1690 and in 1701, but his only recorded comments were to complain about a cold draft in the chamber and request that the window be closed.

Sir Isaac Newton moved to London to take up the post of warden of the Royal Mint in 1696, a position that he had obtained through the patronage of Charles Montagu, 1st Earl of Halifax, then Chancellor of the Exchequer. Sir Isaac Newton took charge of England’s great recoining, somewhat treading on the toes of Master Lucas (and securing the job of deputy comptroller of the temporary Chester branch for Edmond Halley). Sir Isaac Newton became perhaps the best-known Master of the Mint upon Lucas’ death in 1699, a position Sir Isaac Newton held until his death. These appointments were intended as sinecures, but Sir Isaac Newton took them seriously, retiring from his Cambridge duties in 1701, and exercising his power to reform the currency and punish clippers and counterfeiters. As Master of the Mint in 1717 Sir Isaac Newton unofficially moved the Pound Sterling from the silver standard to the gold standard by creating a relationship between gold coins and the silver penny in the “Law of Queen Anne”; these were all great reforms at the time, adding considerably to the wealth and stability of England. It was his work at the Mint, rather than his earlier contributions to science, that earned him a knighthood from Queen Anne in 1705.

Sir Isaac Newton was made President of the Royal Society in 1703 and an associate of the French Académie des Sciences. In his position at the Royal Society, Sir Isaac Newton made an enemy of John Flamsteed, the Astronomer Royal, by prematurely publishing Flamsteed’s star catalogue, which Sir Isaac Newton had used in his studies.

Sir Isaac Newton’s half-niece, Catherine Barton Conduitt, served as his hostess in social affairs at his house on Jermyn Street in London; he was her “very loving Uncle,” according to his letter to her when she was recovering from smallpox.

Although Sir Isaac Newton, who had no children, had divested much of his estate onto relatives in his last years, he actually died intestate.

Historian Stephen D. Snobelen says of Newton, “Isaac Newton was a heretic. But like Nicodemus, the secret disciple of Jesus, he never made a public declaration of his private faith – which the orthodox would have deemed extremely radical. Sir Isaac Newton hid his faith so well that scholars are still unravelling his personal beliefs.” Stephen D. Snobelen concludes that Sir Isaac Newton was at least a Socinian sympathiser (he owned and had thoroughly read at least 8 Socinian books), possibly an Arian and almost certainly an antitrinitarian. In an age notable for its religious intolerance there are few public expressions of Sir Isaac Newton’s radical views, most notably his refusal to take holy orders and his refusal, on his death bed, to take the sacrament when it was offered to him.

In a view disputed by Snobelen, T.C. Pfizenmaier argues that Sir Isaac Newton held the Eastern Orthodox view of the Trinity rather than the Western one held by Roman Catholics, Anglicans, and most Protestants. In his own day, he was also accused of being a Rosicrucian (as were many in the Royal Society and in the court of Charles II).

Although the laws of motion and universal gravitation became Sir Isaac Newton’s best-known discoveries, he warned against using them to view the universe as a mere machine, as if akin to a great clock. Sir Isaac Newton said, “Gravity explains the motions of the planets, but it cannot explain who set the planets in motion. God governs all things and knows all that is or can be done.”

Sir Isaac Newton’s scientific fame notwithstanding, Sir Isaac Newton’s studies of the Bible and of the early Church Fathers were also noteworthy. Sir Isaac Newton wrote works on textual criticism, most notably An Historical Account of Two Notable Corruptions of Scripture. Sir Isaac Newton also placed the crucifixion of Jesus Christ at 3 April, AD 33, which agrees with one traditionally accepted date. Sir Isaac Newton also attempted, unsuccessfully, to find hidden messages within the Bible.

In his own lifetime, Sir Isaac Newton wrote more on religion than he did on natural science. Sir Isaac Newton believed in a rationally immanent world, but he rejected the hylozoism implicit in Leibniz and Baruch Spinoza. Thus, the ordered and dynamically informed universe could be understood, and must be understood, by an active reason, but this universe, to be perfect and ordained, had to be regular.

“Newton,” by William Blake; here, Newton is depicted as a “divine geometer” Sir Isaac Newton and Robert Boyle’s mechanical philosophy was promoted by rationalist pamphleteers as a viable alternative to the pantheists and enthusiasts, and was accepted hesitantly by orthodox preachers as well as dissident preachers like the latitudinarians. Thus, the clarity and simplicity of science was seen as a way to combat the emotional and metaphysical superlatives of both superstitious enthusiasm and the threat of atheism, and, at the same time, the 2nd wave of English deists used Sir Isaac Newton’s discoveries to demonstrate the possibility of a “Natural Religion.”

The attacks made against pre-Enlightenment “magical thinking,” and the mystical elements of Christianity, were given their foundation with Robert Boyle’s mechanical conception of the universe. Sir Isaac Newton gave Robert Boyle’s ideas their completion through mathematical proofs and, perhaps more importantly, was very successful in popularising them. Sir Isaac Newton refashioned the world governed by an interventionist God into a world crafted by a God that designs along rational and universal principles. These principles were available for all people to discover, allowed people to pursue their own aims fruitfully in this life, not the next, and to perfect themselves with their own rational powers.

Sir Isaac Newton saw God as the master creator whose existence could not be denied in the face of the grandeur of all creation. But the unforeseen theological consequence of his conception of God, as Leibniz pointed out, was that God was now entirely removed from the world’s affairs, since the need for intervention would only evidence some imperfection in God’s creation, something impossible for a perfect and omnipotent creator. Leibniz’s theodicy cleared God from the responsibility for “l’origine du mal” by making God removed from participation in his creation. The understanding of the world was now brought down to the level of simple human reason, and humans, as Odo Marquard argued, became responsible for the correction and elimination of evil.

On the other hand, latitudinarian and Sir Isaac Newtonian ideas taken too far resulted in the millenarians, a religious faction dedicated to the concept of a mechanical universe, but finding in it the same enthusiasm and mysticism that the Enlightenment had fought so hard to extinguish.

In a manuscript he wrote in 1704 in which he describes his attempts to extract scientific information from the Bible, he estimated that the world would end no earlier than 2060. In predicting this he said, “This I mention not to assert when the time of the end shall be, but to put a stop to the rash conjectures of fanciful men who are frequently predicting the time of the end, and by doing so bring the sacred prophesies into discredit as often as their predictions fail.”

As warden of the Royal Mint, Sir Isaac Newton estimated that 20% of the coins taken in during The Great Recoinage were counterfeit. Counterfeiting was high treason, punishable by being hanged, drawn and quartered. Despite this, convictions of the most flagrant criminals could be extremely difficult to achieve; however, Sir Isaac Newton proved to be equal to the task.

Disguised as an habitué of bars and taverns, he gathered much of that evidence himself. For all the barriers placed to prosecution, and separating the branches of government, English law still had ancient and formidable customs of authority. Sir Isaac Newton was made a justice of the peace and between June 1698 and Christmas 1699conducted some 200 cross-examinations of witnesses, informers and suspects. Sir Isaac Newton won his convictions and in February 1699, he had 10 prisoners waiting to be executed.

Possibly Sir Isaac Newton’s greatest triumph as the king’s attorney was against William Chaloner. One of William Chaloner’s schemes was to set up phony conspiracies of Catholics and then turn in the hapless conspirators whom he entrapped. William Chaloner made himself rich enough to posture as a gentleman. Petitioning Parliament, William Chaloner accused the Mint of providing tools to counterfeiters (a charge also made by others). Sir Isaac Newton proposed that he be allowed to inspect the Mint’s processes in order to improve them. Sir Isaac Newton petitioned Parliament to adopt his plans for a coinage that could not be counterfeited, while at the same time striking false coins. Sir Isaac Newton was outraged, and went about the work to uncover anything about William Chaloner. During his studies, he found that William Chaloner was engaged in counterfeiting. Sir Isaac Newton immediately put William Chaloner on trial, but William Chaloner had friends in high places and, to Sir Isaac Newton’s horror, William Chaloner walked free. Sir Isaac Newton put him on trial a 2nd time with conclusive evidence. William Chaloner was convicted of high treason and hanged, drawn and quartered on 23 March 1699 at Tyburn gallows.

Enlightenment philosophers chose a short history of scientific predecessors—Galileo, Roger Boyle,and Sir Isaac Newton principally—as the guides and guarantors of their applications of the singular concept of Nature and Natural Law to every physical and social field of the day. In this respect, the lessons of history and the social structures built upon it could be discarded.

It was Sir Isaac Newton’s conception of the universe based upon Natural and rationally understandable laws that became the seed for Enlightenment ideology. Locke and Voltaire applied concepts of Natural Law to political systems advocating intrinsic rights; the physiocrats and Adam Smith applied Natural conceptions of psychology and self-interest to economic systems and the sociologists criticised the current social order for trying to fit history into Natural models of progress. Monboddo and Samuel Clarke resisted elements of Sir Isaac Newton’s work, but eventually rationalised it to conform with their strong religious views of nature.

The famous three laws of motion:

Newton’s 1st Law (also known as the Law of Inertia) states that an object at rest tends to stay at rest and that an object in uniform motion tends to stay in uniform motion unless acted upon by a net external force.

Newton’s 2nd Law states that an applied force, on an object equals the rate of change of its momentum, with time. Mathematically, this is expressed as

Because this relation only holds when the mass is constant, that is, when, the 1st term vanishes, and the equation can be written in the iconic form

This equation states that a force applied to an object of mass m causes it to accelerate at a rate.

This equality requires a consistent set of units for measuring mass, length, and time. One such set is the SI system, where mass is in kilograms, length in metres, and time in seconds. This leads to force being in newtons, named in his honour, and acceleration in metres per second per second. The English analogous system is slugs, feet, and seconds.

Sir Isaac Newton’s 3rd Law states that for every action there is an equal and opposite reaction. This means that any force exerted onto an object has a counterpart force that is exerted in the opposite direction back onto the 1st object. The most common example is of 2 ice skaters pushing against each other and sliding apart in opposite directions. Another example is the recoil of a firearm, in which the force propelling the bullet is exerted equally back onto the gun and is felt by the shooter. Since the objects in question do not necessarily have the same mass, the resulting acceleration of the 2 objects can be different (as in the case of firearm recoil).

Newton’s apple

Reputed descendants of Newton’s apple tree, at the Botanic Gardens in Cambridge and the Instituto Balseiro library garden“ When Newton saw an apple fall, he found

In that slight startle from his contemplation –
‘Tis said (for I’ll not answer above ground
For any sage’s creed or calculation) –
A mode of proving that the earth turn’d round
In a most natural whirl, called “gravitation;”
And this is the sole mortal who could grapple,
Since Adam, with a fall or with an apple.

Newton himself often told that story that he was inspired to formulate his theory of gravitation by watching the fall of an apple from a tree. It fell straight down–why was that, he asked?

Cartoons have gone further to suggest the apple actually hit Sir Isaac Newton’s head, and that its impact somehow made him aware of the force of gravity. John Conduitt, Sir Isaac Newton’s assistant at the Royal Mint and husband of Sir Isaac Newton’s niece, described the event when he wrote about Sir Isaac Newton’s life:

“In the year 1666 he retired again from Cambridge to his mother in Lincolnshire. Whilst he was pensively meandering in a garden it came into his thought that the power of gravity (which brought an apple from a tree to the ground) was not limited to a certain distance from earth, but that this power must extend much further than was usually thought. Why not as high as the Moon said he to himself and if so, that must influence her motion and perhaps retain her in her orbit, where upon he fell a calculating what would be the effect of that supposition.”

The question was not whether gravity existed, but whether it extended so far from Earth that it could also be the force holding the moon to its orbit. Sir Isaac Newton showed that if the force decreased as the inverse square of the distance, one could indeed calculate the Moon’s orbital period, and get good agreement. Sir Isaac Newton guessed the same force was responsible for other orbital motions, and hence named it “universal gravitation”.

A contemporary writer, William Stukeley, recorded in his Memoirs of Sir Isaac Newton’s Life a conversation with Newton in Kensington on 15 April 1726, in which Sir Isaac Newton recalled “when formerly, the notion of gravitation came into his mind. It was occasioned by the fall of an apple, as he sat in contemplative mood. Why should that apple always descend perpendicularly to the ground, thought he to himself. Why should it not go sideways or upwards, but constantly to the earth’s centre.” In similar terms, Voltaire wrote in his Essay on Epic Poetry (1727), “Sir Isaac Newton walking in his gardens, had the first thought of his system of gravitation, upon seeing an apple falling from a tree.” These accounts are probably exaggerations of Sir Isaac Newton’s own tale about sitting by a window in his home (Woolsthorpe Manor) and watching an apple fall from a tree.

Various trees are claimed to be “the” apple tree which Sir Isaac Newton describes. The King’s School, Grantham, claims that the tree was purchased by the school, uprooted and transported to the headmaster’s garden some years later, the staff of the [now] National Trust-owned Woolsthorpe Manor dispute this, and claim that a tree present in their gardens is the one described by Sir Isaac Newton. A descendant of the original tree can be seen growing outside the main gate of Trinity College, Cambridge, below the room Sir Isaac Newton lived in when he studied there. The National Fruit Collection at Brogdale can supply grafts from their tree, which appears identical to Flower of Kent, a coarse-fleshed cooking variety.

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Schizophrenia Series-Disabled Legend John Nash

John Forbes Nash, Jr. was born on 13 June, 1928. John Nash is an American mathematician and economist who works in game theory, differential geometry, and partial differential equations, serving as a Senior Research Mathematician at Princeton University. John Nash shared the 1994 Nobel Memorial Prize in Economic Sciences with game theorists Reinhard Selten and John Harsanyi.

John Nash is also the subject of the Hollywood movie, A Beautiful Mind, which was nominated for 8 Oscars (winning 4), and was based on the biography of the same name about him, his mathematical genius and his struggle with schizophrenia.

John Nash was born and raised in Bluefield, West Virginia. John Nash was born to electrical engineer John Forbes Nash and his wife Margaret Virginia Martin, an English and Latin teacher. On 16 November, 1930 his sister Martha Nash was born. John Nash was an avid reader of Compton’s Pictured Encyclopedia, Life Magazine, and Time Magazine. Later he had a job at the Bluefield Daily Telegraph.

At the age of 12, he carried out scientific experiments in his room. At a young age, he already preferred to work alone. John Nash returned the social rejection of his classmates with practical jokes and intellectual superiority, believing their dances and sports to be a distraction from his experiments and studies.

Martha, his younger sister, wrote about him that “Johnny was always different. [My parents] knew he was different. And they knew he was bright. John Nash always wanted to do things his way. Mother insisted I do things for him, that I include him in my friendships… but I wasn’t too keen on showing off my somewhat odd brother.”

In his autobiography, John Nash notes that it was E.T. Bell’s book, Men of Mathematics—in particular, the essay on Fermat—that first sparked his interest in mathematics. John Nash attended classes at Bluefield College while still in high school at Bluefield High School. John Nash later attended the Carnegie Institute of Technology (now Carnegie Mellon University) in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania on a Westinghouse scholarship, where he studied 1st chemical engineering and later chemistry before switching to mathematics. John Nash received both his bachelor’s degree and his master’s degree in 1948 while at the Carnegie Institute.

John Nash also created 2 popular games: Hex in 1947 (independently created 1st in 1942 by Piet Hein), and So Long Sucker in 1950 with M. Hausner and Lloyd S. Shapley.

After graduation, John Nash took a summer job in White Oak, Maryland, working on a Navy research project being run by Clifford Truesdell.

In 1948, while applying to Princeton’s mathematics department, John Nash’s advisor and former Carnegie Tech professor, R.J. Duffin, wrote a letter of recommendation consisting of a single sentence: “This man is a genius.” Though accepted by Harvard University, which had been his first choice because of what he perceived to be the institution’s greater prestige and superior mathematics faculty, he was aggressively pursued by then chairman of the mathematics department at Princeton University, Solomon Lefschetz, whose offer of the John S. Kennedy fellowship was enough to convince him that Harvard valued him less. Thus, from White Oak he went to Princeton University, where he worked on his equilibrium theory (Nash equilibrium). John Nash earned a doctorate in 1950 with a dissertation on non-cooperative games. The thesis, which was written under the supervision of Albert W. Tucker, contained the definition and properties of what would later be called the “Nash Equilibrium”.

These studies led to 3 articles:

“Equilibrium Points in N-person Games”, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 36 (1950), 48–49. MR0031701

“The Bargaining Problem”, Econometrica 18 (1950), 155–162. MR0035977

“Two-person Cooperative Games”, Econometrica 21 (1953), 128–140. MR0053471
Nash also did important work in the area of algebraic geometry:

“Real algebraic manifolds”, Annals of Mathematics 56 (1952), 405–421. MR0050928.

John Nash’s most famous work in pure mathematics was the Nash embedding theorem, which showed that any abstract Riemannian manifold can be isometrically realised as a submanifold of Euclidean space. John Nash also made contributions to the theory of nonlinear parabolic partial differential equations.

In 1951, John Nash went to the Massachusetts Institute of Technology as a C. L. E. Moore Instructor in the mathematics faculty. There, he met Alicia López-Harrison de Lardé (born 1 January, 1933), a physics student from El Salvador, whom he married in February 1957. Alicia admitted John Nash to a mental hospital in 1959 for schizophrenia; their son, John Charles Martin Nash, was born soon afterwards, but remained nameless for a year because his mother felt that her husband should have a say in the name.

John Nash and Lopez-Harrison de Lardé divorced in 1963, but reunited in 1970, in a nonromantic relationship that resembled that of 2 unrelated housemates. Alicia referred to him as her “boarder” and said they lived “like two distantly related individuals under one roof,” according to Sylvia Nasar’s 1998 biography of John Nash, A Beautiful Mind. The couple renewed their relationship after John Nash won the Nobel Prize in Economics in 1994. They remarried 1 June, 2001.

John Nash had another son, John David born on 19 June, 1953, with Eleanor Stier, but allegedly had little to do with the child or his mother. However, in a CBS 60 Minutes interview aired in March 2002, the mathematician denied that his relationship with his son from a previous relationship was “non-existent”, that in fact he and John Stier are in contact and that Eleanor Stier even received a share of the film (A Beautiful Mind) royalties.

John Nash began to show signs of schizophrenia in 1958. John Nash began to show signs of extreme paranoia and his wife later described his behavior as becoming increasingly erratic, stating that he began speaking of characters who were putting him in danger. John Nash was admitted into the McLean Hospital, April–May 1959, where he was diagnosed with paranoid schizophrenia and mild clinical depression. After a problematic stay in Paris and Geneva, John Nash returned to Princeton in 1960. John Nash was in and out of mental hospitals until 1970, being given insulin shock therapy and antipsychotic medications, usually as a result of being involuntarily committed.

Although prescribed antipsychotic medication, John Nash has said he never really took it. On some occasions he was forced to, but after 1970 he was never committed to hospital again and never took antipsychotic medication again. The film “A Beautiful Mind” fabricated him later taking the then new atypical antipsychotics, which John Nash attributes to the screenwriter (whose mother, he notes, was a psychiatrist)not wanting to incite people to stop taking their medication. Others, however, have questioned whether the fabrication obscured a key question as to whether recovery from problems like John Nash’s can actually be hindered by such drugs and John Nash has said they are over-rated and the adverse effects are not given enough consideration. According to his biographer Nasar, John Nash recovered gradually with the passage of time. Encouraged by his then former wife, Alicia, John Nash worked in a communitarian setting where his eccentricities were accepted. Alicia also said that for John Nash “it’s just a question of living a quiet life”.

John Nash dates the start of what he terms “mental disturbances” to the early months of 1959 when his wife was pregnant. John Nash has described a process of change “from scientific rationality of thinking into the delusional thinking characteristic of persons who are psychiatrically diagnosed as “schizophrenic” or “paranoid schizophrenic” including seeing himself as a messenger or having a special function in some way, and with supporters and opponents and hidden schemers, and a feeling of being persecuted, and looking for signs representing divine revelation. John Nash has suggested his delusional thinking was related to his unhappiness,and his striving to feel important and be recognised, and to his characteristic way of thinking such that “I wouldn’t have had good scientific ideas if I had thought more normally.” John Nash has said that “If I felt completely pressureless I don’t think I would have gone in this pattern”. John Nash does not see a categorical distinction between terms such as schizophrenia and bipolar disorder. John Nash reports that he did not hear voices at first, only some years later around 1964, until later engaging in a process of rejecting them. John Nash reports that he was always taken to hospital against his will, and only temporarily renounced his “dream-like delusional hypotheses” after being in hospital long enough to decide to superficially conform and behave normally or experience “enforced rationality”. Only gradually on his own did he “intellectually reject” some of the “delusionally influenced” and “politically-oriented” thinking as a waste of effort. However, by 1995 he felt that although “thinking rationally again in the style that is characteristic of scientists”, it was not entirely a matter of joy as he felt more limited.

In Princeton campus legend, John Nash became “The Phantom of Fine Hall” (Fine Hall is Princeton’s mathematics center), a shadowy figure who would scribble arcane equations on blackboards in the middle of the night. The legend appears in a work of fiction based on Princeton life, The Mind-Body Problem, by Rebecca Goldstein.

In 1978, John Nash was awarded the John von Neumann Theory Prize for his discovery of non-cooperative equilibria, now called Nash equilibria. John Nash won the Leroy P. Steele Prize in 1999.

In 1994, he received the Nobel Memorial Prize in Economic Sciences (along with 2 others), as a result of his game theory work as a Princeton graduate student. In the late 1980s, John Nash had begun to use electronic mail to gradually link with working mathematicians who realised that he was “the” John Nash and that his new work had value. They formed part of the nucleus of a group that contacted the Bank of Sweden’s Nobel award committee, and were able to vouch for John Nash’s mental health ability to receive the award in recognition of his early work.

John Nash’s recent work involves ventures in advanced game theory, including partial agency, that show that, as in his early career, he prefers to select his own path and problems. Between 1945 and 1996, he published 23 scientific studies.

John Nash has suggested hypotheses on mental disorder. John Nash has compared not thinking in an acceptable manner, or being “insane” and not fitting into a usual social function, to being “on strike” from an economic point of view. John Nash has advanced evolutionary psychology views about the value of human diversity and the potential benefits of apparently non-standard behaviours or roles.

John Nash has also developed work on the role of money in society. In the context that people can be so controlled and motivated by money that they may not be able to reason rationally about it, he has criticized interest groups that promote quasi-doctrines based on Keynesian economics that permit manipulative short-term inflation and debt tactics that ultimately undermine currencies. John Nash has suggested a global “industrial consumption price index” system that would support the development of more “ideal money” that people could trust, rather than more unstable “bad money”. John Nash notes that some of his thinking parallels economist and political philosopher Friedrich Hayek’s thinking regarding money and a nontypical viewpoint of the function of the authorities.

In 2002 aspects of John Nash’s personal life were brought to international attention when “mudslinging” ensued over screenwriter Akiva Goldsman’s semifictional interpretation of Sylvia Nasar’s biography of John Nash’s life in A Beautiful Mind in relation to the film of the same name. The movie A Beautiful Mind, nominated for 8Oscars,credits Goldsman under “written by” rather than “screenplay by” from the Writer’s Guild as Goldsman’s “omissions are glaring and peculiar, specifically John Nash’s homosexual experiences, his extramarital sexual activities, his racial attitudes and anti-Semitic remarks.” John Nash later claimed any anti-Semitic remarks must have been made while he was delirious.

In the mid-1950s John Nash was arrested in a Santa Monica restroom on a morals charge related to a homosexual encounter and “subsequently lost his post at the RAND Corporation along with his security clearance.” According to Nasar, “After this traumatic series of career-threatening events, he decided to marry.”

Nasar stated about the film that the filmmakers had “invented a narrative that, while far from a literal telling, is true to the spirit of John Nash’s story.” Others suggested that the material was “conveniently left out of the movie in order to make John Nash more sympathetic,” possibly in an effort to more fully focus on the “debilitating longevity” of living with paranoid-schizophrenia on a day-to-day basis.

New York Times critic A. O. Scott pointed to a different perspective. Scott wrote of the Oscar scandal and the artistic choices made in the omissions as well as choices, such as casting actors, that have to be made that “the cold war in A Beautiful Mind in which the paranoia and uncertainty of McCarthy-era academic life is reduced to spy-movie clichés” smoothed over “and made palatable and familiar” a “difficult passage in American history.” Thus the cold war’s effects on John Nash’s life and career were left unexplored. Akiva Goldsman won the Oscar for “Best Adapted Screenplay”.

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Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS) Series-Disabled Legend Fokko du Cloux

Fokko du Cloux was born on 20 December, 1954 and died on 10 November, 2006. Fokko du Cloux was a mathematician and computer scientist who worked on the Atlas of Lie groups and representations until his death. One of the founding members of the project, he was responsible for building the Atlas software which was instrumental in the mapping of the E8 Lie Group. The Project successfully managed to map the structure of the E8 group in 2007. Fokko du Cloux was diagnosed with Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) in 2005, but he continued to actively participate in the project until his death.

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Hearing Impairment Series-Disabled Legend Oliver Heaviside

Oliver Heaviside was born on 18 May, 1850 in London’s Camden Town and died on 3 February, 1925 at Torquay in Devon, and is buried in Paignton cemetery. Most of his recognition was gained posthumously.

Oliver Heaviside was a self-taught English electrical engineer, mathematician and physicist who adapted complex numbers to the study of electrical circuits, invented mathematical techniques to the solution of differential equations (later found to be equivalent to Laplace transforms), reformulated Maxwell’s field equations in terms of electric and magnetic forces and energy flux, and independently co-formulated vector analysis. Although at odds with the scientific establishment for most of his life, Oliver Heaviside changed the face of mathematics and science for years to come.

Oliver Heaviside was short and red-headed, and suffered from scarlet fever during his youth. The illness had a lasting impact on him, and Oliver Heaviside was left partially deaf. Oliver Heaviside was a good scholar (placed 5th out of 500 students in 1865). Oliver Heaviside left school at the age of 16 and to study at home in the subjects of telegraphy and electromagnetism. Oliver Heaviside’s uncle Sir Charles Wheatstone (1802-1875) was the original co-inventor of the telegraph back in the mid 1830s. Sir Charles Wheatstone was married to Oliver Heaviside’s mother’s sister in London. During the early decades of Oliver Heaviside’s life his uncle was an internationally celebrated expert in telegraphy and electromagnetism.

Between the age of 16 and 18 he studied at home. Then—in the only paid employment he ever had—he took a job as a telegraph operator with the Great Northern Telegraph Company, working in Denmark and then in Newcastle upon Tyne, and was soon made a chief operator. Oliver Heaviside’s uncle’s connections probably helped him get this job. Oliver Heaviside continued to study and at the age of 21 and 22 he published some research related to electric circuits and telegraphy. In 1874 at the age of 24 Oliver Heaviside quit his job to study full-time on his own at his parents’ home in London.

Subsequently, Oliver Heaviside did not have a regular job. Oliver Heaviside remained single throughout his life.

In 1873 Oliver Heaviside had encountered James Clerk Maxwell’s just published, and today famous, 2-volume Treatise on Electricity and Magnetism. In his old age Oliver Heaviside recalled:

“I remember my first look at the great treatise of Maxwell’s when I was a young man… I saw that it was great, greater and greatest, with prodigious possibilities in its power… I was determined to master the book and set to work. I was very ignorant. I had no knowledge of mathematical analysis (having learned only school algebra and trigonometry which I had largely forgotten) and thus my work was laid out for me. It took me several years before I could understand as much as I possibly could. Then I set Maxwell aside and followed my own course. And I progressed much more quickly… It will be understood that I preach the gospel according to my interpretation of Maxwell.”

Doing full-time research from home, he helped develop transmission line theory (also known as the “telegrapher’s equations”). Oliver Heaviside showed mathematically that uniformly distributed inductance in a telegraph line would diminish both attenuation and distortion, and that, if the inductance were great enough and the insulation resistance not too high, the circuit would be distortionless while currents of all frequencies would be equally attenuated. Oliver Heaviside’s equations helped further the implementation of the telegraph.

In 1880, Oliver Heaviside researched the skin effect in telegraph transmission lines. In 1884 he recast Maxwell’s mathematical analysis from its original cumbersome form (they had already been recast as quaternions) to its modern vector terminology, thereby reducing the original 20 equations in 20 unknowns down to the 4 differential equations in 2 unknowns we now know as Maxwell’s equations. The 4 re-formulated Maxwell’s equations describe the nature of static and moving electric charges and magnetic dipoles, and the relationship between the 2, namely electromagnetic induction. In 1880 he patented, in England, the co-axial Cable.

Between 1880 and 1887, Oliver Heaviside developed the operational calculus (involving the D notation for the differential operator, which he is credited with creating), a method of solving differential equations by transforming them into ordinary algebraic equations which caused a great deal of controversy when first introduced, owing to the lack of rigor in his derivation of it. Oliver Heaviside famously said, “Mathematics is an experimental science, and definitions do not come first, but later on.” Oliver Heaviside was replying to criticism over his use of operators that were not clearly defined. On another occasion he stated somewhat more defensively, “I do not refuse my dinner simply because I do not understand the process of digestion.”

In 1887, Oliver Heaviside proposed that induction coils (inductors) should be added to telephone and telegraph lines to increase their self-induction in and correct the distortion from which they suffered. For political reasons, this was not done. The importance of Oliver Heaviside’s work remained undiscovered for some time after publication in The Electrician, and so its rights lay in the public domain. AT&T later employed one of its own scientists, George A. Campbell, and an external investigator Michael I. Pupin to determine whether Oliver Heaviside’s work was incomplete or incorrect in any way. Campbell and Pupin extended Oliver Heaviside’s work, and AT&T filed for patents covering not only their research, but also the technical method of constructing the coils previously invented by Oliver Heaviside. AT&T later offered Oliver Heaviside money in exchange for his rights; it is possible that the Bell engineers’ respect for Oliver Heaviside influenced this offer. However, Oliver Heaviside refused the offer, declining to accept any money unless the company were to give him full recognition. Oliver Heaviside was chronically poor, making his refusal of the offer even more striking.

In 2 papers of 1888 and 1889, Oliver Heaviside calculated the deformations of electric and magnetic fields surrounding a moving charge, as well as the effects of it entering a denser medium. This included a prediction of what is now known as Cherenkov radiation, and inspired Fitzgerald to suggest what now is known as the Lorentz-Fitzgerald contraction.

In the late 1880s and early 1890s, Oliver Heaviside worked on the concept of electromagnetic mass. Oliver Heaviside treated this as “real” as material mass, capable of producing the same effects. Wilhelm Wien later verified Oliver Heaviside’s expression (for low velocities).

In 1891 the British Royal Society recognized Oliver Heaviside’s contributions to the mathematical description of electromagnetic phenomena by naming him a Fellow of the Royal Society. In 1905 Oliver Heaviside was given an honorary doctorate by the University of Göttingen.

In 1902, Oliver Heaviside proposed the existence of the Kennelly-Heaviside Layer of the ionosphere which bears his name. Oliver Heaviside’s proposal included means by which radio signals are transmitted around the earth’s curvature. The existence of the ionosphere was confirmed in 1923. The predictions by Oliver Heaviside, combined with Planck’s radiation theory, probably discouraged further attempts to detect radio waves from the Sun and other astronomical objects. For whatever reason, there seem to have been no attempts for 30 years, until Jansky’s development of radio astronomy in 1932.

In later years his behavior became quite eccentric. Though he had been an active cyclist in his youth, his health seriously declined in his 6th decade. During this time Oliver Heaviside would sign letters with the initials “W.O.R.M.” after his name though the letters did not stand for anything. Oliver Heaviside also reportedly started painting his fingernails pink and had granite blocks moved into his house for furniture.

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Dyslexia Series-Disabled Legend Leonardo Da Vinci

Leonardo Da Vinci – Leonardo di ser Piero da Vinci, was born on 15, April, 1452 and died on 2, May, 1519. Leonardo was a Tuscan polymath: scientist, mathematician, engineer, inventor, anatomist, painter, sculptor, architect, botanist, musician and writer. As an engineer, Leonardo conceived ideas vastly ahead of his own time, conceptualising a helicopter, a tank, concentrated solar power, a calculator, and the double hull, and outlining a rudimentary theory of plate tectonics. He also had the gift of dyslexia. Most of the time, he wrote his notes backwards. Although unusual, this is a trait shared by many left-handed dyslexic people. Most of the time, dyslexic writers are not even consciously aware that they are writing this way.

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Epilepsy Series-Disabled Legend Lewis Carrol

Lewis Carrol was born on 27 January 1832 and died on 14 January 1898. Lewis was an English author, photographer, mathematician, Anglican clergyman and logician. He has written several renowned books and his work has inspired many modern artists. His facility in wordplay would attract not only children but also some of the elite readers. He has written books describing minor epilepsy attacks and the dream worlds that some of them may bring a person to. Like the sensation of falling in a hole and everything around getting smaller or bigger. Not hearing or seeing the same and feeling as if your entire body is changing in a fraction of a second.

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