Speech Differences And Stutter Series-Disabled Legend Aesop

Aesop (also spelled Æsop or Esop, from the Greek Αἴσωπος—Aisōpos) (620-560 BC), known only for the genre of fables ascribed to him, was by tradition a slave (δούλος) who was a contemporary of Croesus and Peisistratus in the mid-sixth century BC in Acient Greek.

The various collections that go under the rubric “Aesop’s Fables” are still taught as moral lessons and used as subjects for various entertainments, especially children’s plays and cartoons.

Most of what are known as Aesopic fables is a compilation of tales from various sources, many of which originated with authors who lived long before Aesop.

Aesop himself is said to have composed many fables, which were passed down by oral tradition. Socrates was said by Plato in the Phaedo to have spent his time turning Aesop’s fables into verse while he was in prison. Demetrius Phalereus, another Greek philosopher, made the first collection of these fables around 300 BC. This was later translated into Latin by Phaedrus, a slave himself, around 25 BC. The fables from these 2 collections were soon brought together and were eventually retranslated into Greek by Babrius around A.D. 230. Many additional fables were included, and the collection was in turn translated to Arabic and Hebrew, further enriched by additional fables from these cultures.

Most of Aesop’s fables had animals as main characters, such as the Tortoise and the Hare, or the Ant and the Grasshopper.

The place of Aesop’s birth was and still is disputed: Amorium, Phrygia, Egypt, Ethiopia, Samos, Athens, Sardis and Thrace all claimed the honour. It has been argued by modern writers that he may have been of African origin: the scholar Richard Lobban has argued that his name is likely derived from “Aethiopian”, a word used by the Greeks to refer mostly to dark-skinned people of the African interior. Aesop continues by pointing out that the stories are populated by animals present in Africa, many of the creatures being quite foreign to Greece and Europe.

The 31st Sura of the Qu’ran refers to a man named Lokman. Often confused with Aesop, and having lived several centuries earlier, Aesop’s fables may be derived from the works of Lokman.

The life of Aesop himself is shrouded in obscurity. Aesop is said to have lived as a slave in Samos around 550 B.C. An ancient account of his life is found in The Book of Xanthus the Philosopher and His Slave Aesop.According to the sparse information gathered about him from references to him in several Greek works (he was mentioned by Aristophanes, Plato, Xenophon and Aristotle), Aesop was a slave for someone called Xanthus (Ξανθος), who resided on the island of Samos. Aesop must have been freed, for he conducted the public defense of a certain Samian demagogue (Aristotle, Rhetoric, ii. 20). Aesop subsequently lived at the court of Croesus, where he met Solon, and dined in the company of the 7 Sages of Greece with Periander at Corinth. During the reign of Peisistratus he was said to have visited Athens, where he told the fable of The Frogs Who Desired a King to dissuade the citizens from attempting to depose Peisistratus for another ruler. A contrary story, however, said that Aesop spoke up for the common people against tyranny through his fables, which incensed Peisistratus, who was against free speech.

According to the historian Herodotus, Aesop met with a violent death at the hands of the inhabitants of Delphi, though the cause was not stated. Various suggestions were made by later writers, such as his insulting sarcasms, the embezzlement of money entrusted to him by Croesus for distribution at Delphi, and his alleged sacrilege of a silver cup. A pestilence that ensued was blamed on his execution, and the Delphians declared their willingness to make compensation, which, in default of a nearer connection, was claimed by Iadmon (Ιάδμων), grandson of Aesop’s former master.

Popular stories surrounding Aesop were assembled in a vita prefixed to a collection of fables under his name, compiled by Maximus Planudes, a 14th-century monk. Aesop was by tradition extremely ugly and deformed, which is the sole basis for making a grotesque marble figure in the Villa Albani, Rome, a “portrait of Aesop”. This biography had actually existed a century before Planudes. It appeared in a 13th-century manuscript found in Florence. However, according to another Greek historian Plutarch’s account of the symposium of the 7 Sages, at which Aesop was a guest, there were many jests on his former servile status, but nothing derogatory was said about his personal appearance. Aesop’s deformity was further disputed by the Athenians, who erected in his honour a noble statue by the sculptor Lysippus.

Aesop must have received his freedom from Iadmon, or he could not have conducted the public defence of a certain Samian demagogue (Aristotle, Rhetoric, ii. 20). According to the story, he subsequently lived at the court of Croesus, where he met Solon, and dined in the company of the Seven Sages of Greece with Periander at Corinth. During the reign of Peisistratus he is said to have visited Athens, on which occasion he related the fable of The Frogs asking for a King, to dissuade the citizens from attempting to exchange Peisistratus for another ruler. The popular stories current regarding him are derived from a life, or rather romance, prefixed to a book of fables, purporting to be his, collected by Maximus Planudes, a monk of the 14th century. In this he is described as a monster of ugliness and deformity, as he is also represented in a well-known marble figure in the Villa Albani at Rome. That this life, however, was in existence a century before Planudes, appears from a 13th-century MS. of it found at Florence. The obscurity in which the history of Aesop is involved has induced some scholars to deny his existence altogether.

It is probable that Aesop did not commit his fables to writing; Aristophanes (Wasps, 1259) represents Philocleon as having learnt the “absurdities” of Aesop from conversation at banquets, and Socrates whiled away his time in prison by turning some of Aesop’s fables “which he knew” into verse (Plato, Phaedo, 61 b). Demetrius of Phalerum (345-283 B.C.) made a collection in ten books, probably in prose (Lopson Aisopeion sunagogai) for the use of orators, which has been lost. Next appeared an edition in elegiac verse, often cited by Suidas, but the author’s name is unknown. Babrius, according to Crusius, a Roman and tutor to the son of Alexander Severus, turned the fables into choliambics in the earlier part of the 3rd century A.D. The most celebrated of the Latin adapters is Phaedrus, a freedman of Augustus. Avianus (of uncertain date, perhaps the 4th century) translated 42 of the fables into Latin elegiacs. The collections which we possess under the name of Aesop’s Fables are late renderings of Babrius’s Version or Progumnasmata, rhetorical exercises of varying age and merit. Syntipas translated Babrius into Syriac, and Andreopulos put the Syriac back again into Greek. Ignatius Diaconus, in the 9th century, made a version of 55 fables in choliambic tetrameters. Stories from Oriental sources were added, and from these collections Maximus Planudes made and edited the collection which has come down to us under the name of Aesop, and from which the popular fables of modern Europe have been derived.

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Speech Differences And Stutter Series-Disabled Legend Henry Rogers

henry-rogers1Henry Huttleston Rogers was born on 29 January, 1840 and died on 19 May, 1909 in Mattapoisett, Massachusetts, USA. Henry Rogers was a United States capitalist, businessman, industrialist, financier, and philanthropist.

Henry Huttleston Rogers was born into a working-class family , he was the son of Rowland Rogers, a former ship captain, bookkeeper, and grocer, and Mary Eldredge Huttleston Rogers. Both parents had roots back to the pilgrims, who arrived in the 17th century aboard the Mayflower. Henry Rogers mother’s family earlier had used the spelling “Huddleston” rather than “Huttleston,” and Henry Rogers’ name is often misspelled using this earlier version.

The family moved to nearby Fairhaven, Massachusetts, a fishing village just over the bridge from the great whaling port, New Bedford. Fairhaven is a small seaside town on the south coast of Massachusetts. It borders the Acushnet River to the west and Buzzards Bay to the south. Fairhaven was incorporated in 1812 and was already steeped in history when “Hen” Rogers was just a boy. Fort Phoenix is in Fairhaven. There, during the American Revolution, British troops once stormed the area. Also within sight of the fort, the first naval battle of the American Revolution took place on 14 May, 1775.

In the mid 1850s, whaling was already an industry in decline in New England. The emergence of petroleum and later natural gas as a replacement fuel for lighting in the second half of the 19th century caused a much further decline.

Henry Rogers’ father was one of the many men of New England who changed from a life on the sea to other work to provide for their families. As a teenager, “Hen” Rogers carried newspapers and he worked in his father’s grocery store, making deliveries by wagon. Henry Rogers was only an average student, and was in the 1st graduating class of the local high school in 1857. Continuing to live with his parents, he hired on with the Fairhaven Branch Railroad, an early precursor of the Old Colony Railroad, as an expressman and brakeman, working for 3-4 years while carefully saving his earnings.

In 1861, 21-year-old Henry Rogers pooled his savings of approximately US$600 with a friend, Charles P. Ellis. They set out to western Pennsylvania and its newly discovered oil fields. Borrowing another US$600, the young partners began a small refinery at McClintocksville near Oil City. They named their new enterprise Wamsutta Oil Refinery.

The old Native American name “Wamsutta” was apparently selected in honour of their hometown area of New England, where Wamsutta Company in nearby New Bedford had opened in 1846, and was a major employer. The Wamsutta Company was the 1st of many textile mills that gradually came to supplant whaling as the principal employer in New Bedford.

Henry Rogers and Charles P. Ellis and their tiny refinery made US$30,000 their 1st year. This amount was more than 3 entire whaling ship trips from back home could hope to earn during an average voyage of more than a year’s duration. Of course, he was regarded as very successful when Henry Rogers returned home to Fairhaven for a short vacation the next year.

While vacationing in Fairhaven in 1862, Henry Rogers married his childhood sweetheart, Abbie Palmer Gifford, who was also of Mayflower lineage. Abbie Palmer Gifford returned with him to the oil fields where they lived in a one-room shack along Oil Creek where her young husband and Charles P. Ellis worked the Wamsutta Oil Refinery. While they lived in Pennsylvania, their 1st daughter, Anne, was born in 1865.

In Pennsylvania, Henry Rogers was introduced to Charles Pratt (1830–91). Born in Watertown, Massachusetts, Charles Pratt had been 1 of 11 children. Henry Rogers’ father, Asa Pratt, was a carpenter. Of modest means, he spent 3 winters as a student at Wesleyan Academy, and is said to have lived on $1 a week at times. In nearby Boston, Massachusetts, Charles Pratt joined a company specialising in paints and whale oil products. In 1850 or 1851, he came to New York City, where he worked for a similar company handling paint and oil.

Charles Pratt was also a pioneer of the natural oil industry, and established his kerosene refinery Astral Oil Works in the Greenpoint section of Brooklyn, New York. Charles Pratt’s product later gave rise to the slogan, “The holy lamps of Tibet are primed with Astral Oil”. Charles Pratt also later founded the Pratt Institute.

When Charles Pratt met Henry Rogers at McClintocksville on a business trip, he already knew Charles P. Ellis, having earlier bought whale oil from him back east in Fairhaven. Although Charles P. Ellis and Henry Rogers had no wells and were dependent upon purchasing crude oil to refine and sell to Charles Pratt, the 2 young men agreed to sell the entire output of their small Wamsutta refinery to Charles Pratt’s company at a fixed price. This worked well at first. Then, a few months later, crude oil prices suddenly increased due to manipulation by speculators. The young entrepreneurs struggled to try to live up to their contract with Charles Pratt, but soon their surplus was wiped out. Before long, they were heavily in debt to Charles Pratt.

Charles P. Ellis gave up, but in 1866, Henry Rogers went to Charles Pratt in New York and told him he would take personal responsibility for the entire debt. This so impressed Charles Pratt that he immediately hired him for his own organisation.

Charles Pratt made Henry Rogers foreman of his Brooklyn refinery, with a promise of a partnership if sales ran over $50,000 a year. Henry, Abbie, and young Anne moved to Brooklyn. The Rogers family continued to live frugally and he worked very hard. Abbie brought his meals to the “works,” and often he would sleep but 3 hours a night rolled up in a blanket by the side of a still. Henry Rogers moved steadily from foreman to manager, and then superintendent of Charles Pratt’s Astral Oil Refinery.

As promised, Charles Pratt gave Henry Rogers an interest in the business. In 1867, with Henry Rogers as a partner, he established the firm of Charles Pratt and Company. In the next few years, Henry Rogers became, in the words of Elbert Hubbard, Charles Pratt’s “hands and feet and eyes and ears” (Little Journeys to the Homes, 1909). As their family grew, Henry and Abbie continued to live in New York City, but vacationed frequently at Fairhaven.

While working with Charles Pratt, Henry Rogers invented an improved way of separating naphtha, a light oil similar to kerosene, from crude oil. Henry Rogers was granted U.S. Patent # 120,539 on 31 October, 1871.

In the early 1871-72, Pratt and Company and other refiners became involved in a conflict with John D. Rockefeller, Samuel Andrews, and Henry M. Flagler (of Rockefeller, Andrews & Flagler) and the infamous South Improvement Company. South Improvement was basically a scheme to obtain secret favourable net rates from Tom Scott of the Pennsylvania Railroad (PRR) and other railroads through secret rebates. The unfairness of the scheme outraged many independent oil producers and owners of refineries far and new alike.

The opposition among the New York refiners was led by Henry Rogers. The New York interests formed an association, and about the middle of March 1872 sent a committee of 3, with Henry Rogers as head, to Oil City to consult with the Oil Producers’ Union. Their arrival in the oil regions was a matter of great satisfaction to the local oil workers. Working with the Pennsylvania independents, Henry Rogers and the New York delegation managed to forge an agreement with the railroads, whose leaders eventually agreed to open their rates to all and promised to end their shady dealings with South Improvement. The independent oil men were most exultant, but their joy was to be short-lived. John D. Rockefeller and his associates were busy trying another approach, which frequently included buying-up opposing interests.

In 1874, John D. Rockefeller approached Charles Pratt with his plans of cooperation and consolidation. Charles Pratt talked it over with Henry Rogers, and they decided that the combination would benefit them. Henry Rogers formulated terms, which guaranteed financial security and jobs for Charles Pratt and himself. John D. Rockefeller quietly accepted the offer on Henry Rogers’ exact terms. Charles Pratt and Company (including Astral Oil) was one of the important independent refiners to become part of the Standard Oil Trust. Charles Pratt’s son, Charles Millard Pratt (1858 to 1913), became Corporate Secretary of Standard Oil.

Around 1874, the Pratt & Company oil interests, including Henry Rogers who helped negotiate the deal, had joined John D. Rockefeller’s Standard Oil organisation. By 1890, Henry Rogers had become one of the key men, a vice president and chairman of its operating committee. Henry Rogers’ later interviews with investigative journalist Ida M. Tarbell beginning in 1902 would later help bring what was by then also known as the Standard Oil Trust under additional regulatory control.

Typical of his seemingly dualist nature, Henry Rogers both helped build and operate Standard Oil, and through his interviews with Ida M. Tarbell, he (perhaps unintentionally) helped bring it under better control in the public interest.

Standard Oil was an oil refining conglomerate whose predecessor companies were founded by marketeer John D. Rockefeller, chemist Samuel Andrews, and other partners beginning in 1863. Borrowing heavily to expand his business, he drew 5 big refineries including the business concern of Henry Morrison Flagler into 1 firm, John D. Rockefeller, Andrews & Flagler. By 1868, what was to become Standard Oil was the world’s largest oil refinery.

In 1870, John D. Rockefeller formed Standard Oil Company of Ohio and started his strategy of buying up the competition and consolidating all oil refining under 1 company. It was during this period that the Charles Pratt interests and Henry Rogers were brought into the fold. By 1878 Standard Oil held about 90% of the refining capacity in the United States.

In 1881 the company was reorganised as the Standard Oil Trust. The 3 main men of Standard Oil Trust were Henry H. Rogers, William Rockefeller and, the most important, John D. Rockefeller.

Petroleum pipelines were first developed in Pennsylvania in the 1860s to replace transport in wooden barrels loaded on wagons drawn by mules and driven by teamsters. This mule-drawn transportation was expensive and fraught with difficulties: leaking barrels, muddy trails, wagon breakdowns and mule/driver problems.

The first successful metal pipeline was completed in 1865, when Samuel Van Syckel built a 4-mile pipeline from Pithole, Pennsylvania, to the nearest railroad. This initial success led to the construction of pipelines to connect crude oil production, increasingly moving west as new fields were discovered and Pennsylvania fields declined, to refineries located near major demand centers in the Northeast.

When John D. Rockefeller observed this, he began to acquire many of the new pipelines. Soon, his Standard Oil companies owned a majority of the lines, which provided cheap, efficient transportation for oil. Cleveland, Ohio, became a center of the refining industry principally because of its transportation systems.

Henry Rogers conceived the idea of long pipelines for transporting oil and natural gas. In 1881, the National Transit Company was formed by Standard Oil to own and operate Standard’s pipelines. The National Transit Company remained one of Henry Rogers’ favourite projects throughout the rest of his life.

East Ohio Gas Company (EOG) was incorporated on 8 September, 1898, as a marketing company for the National Transit Company, the natural gas arm of John D. Rockefeller’s Standard Oil Company of New Jersey. The company launched its business by selling to consumers in northeast Ohio gas produced by another National Transit subsidiary, Hope Natural Gas Company.

Rubber-manufacturing city Akron, Ohio, was the first to take advantage of the lower prices for natural gas. It granted the East Ohio Gas Company a franchise in September 1898, the same month that the company was founded. During the winter of 1898–99, the National Transit Company built a 10-inch wrought iron pipeline that stretched from the Pipe Creek on the Ohio River to Akron, with branches to Canton, Massillon, Dover, New Philadelphia, Uhrichsville, and Dennison. The 1st gas from the pipeline burned in Akron on 10 May, 1899.

Andrew Carnegie, long the leading steel magnate of Pittsburgh, retired at the turn of the 20th century, and refocused his interests on philanthropy. Andrew Carnegie’s steel holdings were consolidated into the new United States Steel Corporation. Standard Oil’s interest in steel properties led to Henry Rogers’ becoming one of the directors when it was organised in 1901.

In 1890 the U.S. Congress passed Sherman Antitrust Act. This act is the source of all American anti-monopoly laws. The law forbids every contract, scheme, deal, conspiracy to restrain trade. It also forbids inspirations to secure monopoly of a given industry. Standard Oil Trust attracted attention from antitrust authorities and the Ohio Attorney General filed and won an antitrust suit in 1892.

Unwanted attention was also drawn to the Standard Oil Trust by Ida M. Tarbell, an American author and journalist, known as one of the leading muckrakers.

Ida M. Tarbell had been born in Erie County, Pennsylvania. As a child, she lived in what became Rouseville, Pennsylvania. This was only a short distance from Henry Rogers’ Wamsutta Oil Refinery at McClintocksville, which was also in Cornplanter Township in Venango County. However, they were apparently not destined to meet for another 37 years.

Ida Tarbell’s father had been forced out of business around 1872 by the South Improvement Company scheme, perpetrated by those who built Standard Oil. In 1894, she was hired by McClure’s magazine. Ida Tarbell soon turned to investigative journalism, and was the 1st to really use investigative reporting, as we know it today, redefining this in-depth technique of writing. Ida Tarbell’s method was to use various documents concerning Standard Oil, accompanied by interviews of employees, competitors, lawyers and experts on the topic. Ida Tarbell and her fellow staff members Ray Stannard Baker and Lincoln Steffens became a celebrated muckraking trio.

Ida Tarbell became acquainted with Henry Rogers, who by then was the most senior and powerful director of Standard Oil, through his friend, Mark Twain, who arranged a meeting. Meetings between Ida Tarbell and Henry Rogers began in January 1902 and continued regularly over the next 2 years. Ida Tarbell would bring up various case histories and Henry Rogers would provide for her an explanation, documents and figures concerning the case. Henry Rogers, wily and normally-guarded in matters related to business and finance, may have been under the impression her work was to be complimentary. Henry Rogers was apparently uncustomarily forthcoming. However, Ida Tarbell’s interviews with Henry Rogers formed the basis her negative exposé of the nefarious business practices of the massive Standard Oil organisation. Following extensive interviews with Henry Rogers, Ida Tarbell’s investigations of Standard Oil for McClure’s, ran in 19 parts from November 1902 to October 1904. They were collected and published as The History of the Standard Oil Company in 1904. The book placed 5th in a 1999 list of the top 100 works of journalism in the 20th century.

Although public opposition to John D. Rockefeller and Standard Oil existed prior to Ida Tarbell’s investigation, it fueled public attacks on Standard Oil and in trusts in general. Ida Tarbell’s book is widely credited with hastening the 1911 breakup of Standard Oil. They had never played fair, and that ruined their greatness for me, Ida Tarbell wrote about the company.

The Standard Oil Trust was broken up after the United States Supreme Court declared the company to be an “unreasonable” monopoly under the Sherman Antitrust Act on 15 May, 1911. However, the owners remained in charge of the smaller companies which made up 4 of the 7 Sisters.

Standard Oil was often not appreciated by the public. It developed a reputation among many for dubious business practices, including subduing competitors and engaging in illegal transportation deals with the railroad companies to ensure it could undercut its competitors’ prices. Standard Oil, formed well before the discovery of Spindletop in Texas and a demand for oil other than for heat and light, was well placed to control the growth of the oil business. It was perceived that it did this by ensuring it owned and controlled all aspects of the trade.

Henry Rogers joined in the organisation of holding companies aimed at controlling natural gas production and distribution. In 1884, with associates, Henry Rogers formed the Consolidated Gas Company, and thereafter for several years he was instrumental in gaining control of great city plants, fighting terrific battles with rivals for some of them, as in the case of Boston. Almost the whole story of his natural gas interests was one of business warfare.

During the 1890s, Henry Rogers became interested in Anaconda and other copper properties in the western United States. In 1899, with William Rockefeller, and Thomas W. Lawson, he formed the 1st $75,000,000 section of the gigantic trust, Amalgamated Copper Mining Company, which was the subject of much acrid criticism then and for years afterward. In the building of this great trust, some of the most ruthless strokes in modern business history were dealt: the $38,000,000 “watering” of the stock of the 1st corporation, its subsequent manipulation, the seizure of the copper property of the Butte & Boston Consolidated Mining Company, the using of the latter as a weapon against the Boston & Montana Consolidated Copper and Silver Mining Company, the guerrilla warfare against certain private interests, and the wrecking of the Globe Bank of Boston.

A holding company aimed at controlling copper production and distribution, Amalgamated Copper controlled the copper mines of Butte, Montana and later became Anaconda Copper Company.

On 1 July, 1892, Staten Island, New York’s 1st trolley line opened, running between Port Richmond and Meiers Corners. Trolleys, which cost only a nickel a ride through most of their existence, help facilitate mass transit across the Island by reaching communities not serviced by trains. Henry H. Rogers was long-known as the Staten Island transit magnate, and was also involved with the Staten Island-Manhattan Ferry Service and the Richmond Power and Light Company.

Henry Rogers was also close associate of E. H. Harriman in the latter’s extensive railroad operations. Henry Rogers was a director of the Sante Fe, St. Paul, Erie, Lackawanna, Union Pacific, and several other large railroads. However, he also involved himself in at least 3 West Virginia short-line railroad projects, one of which would grow much larger than he probably anticipated.

In mid-1890s, Henry Rogers became president of the Ohio River Railroad, founded by Johnson Newlon Camden, a United States Senator from West Virginia who was also secretly involved with Standard Oil. Charles M. Pratt and Henry Rogers were 2 of the largest owners and the Ohio River Railroad’s General Manager was C.M. Burt. Its General Solicitor was former West Virginia governor William A. MacCorkle. The owners wished to sell the railroad, which was losing money.

Under Henry Rogers’ leadership, they formed a subsidiary, West Virginia Short Line Railroad, to build a new line between New Martinsville and Clarksburg to reach new coal mining areas, into territory already planned for expansion by the Baltimore and Ohio Railroad (B&O). The expansion plans had the desired effect of essentially forcing B&O to purchase the Ohio River Railroad to block the competition in the new coal areas. The Ohio River Railroad was sold to B&O in 1898.

The Kanawha and Pocahontas Railroad Company was incorporated in West Virginia in 1898 by either a son of Charles Pratt or the estate of Charles Pratt. Its line ran 15 miles from the Kanawha River up a tributary called Paint Creek. Once again, new coal mining territory was involved. Henry Rogers, acting on behalf of Charles Pratt and Company negotiated its lease to the Chesapeake and Ohio Railway (C&O) in 1901 and its sale to a newly formed C&O subsidiary, Kanawha and Paint Creek Railway Company, in 1902.

Henry Rogers’ final achievement, working with partner William Nelson Page, was the building of the Virginian Railway (VGN), which eventually extended 600 miles from the coal fields of southern West Virginia to port near Norfolk at Sewell’s Point, Virginia in the harbour of Hampton Roads.

Initially, Henry Rogers’ involvement in the project began in 1902 with Nelson Page’s Deepwater Railway, planned as an 80-mile short line to reach untapped coal reserves in a very rugged portion of southern West Virginia, and interchange its traffic with the C&O and/or the N&W. The Deepwater Railway was probably intended for resale in the manner of the earlier 2 West Virginia short lines. However, if so, the ploy was foiled by collusion of the bigger railroads, who agreed with each other to neither purchase it or grant favourable interchange rates.

Nelson Page was the “front man” for the Deepwater project, and it is likely the leaders of the big railroads were unaware that their foe was backed by the wealthy Henry Rogers, who did not give up a good fight easily. Instead of abandoning the project, Nelson Page and Henry Rogers secretly developed a plan to extend their new railroad all the way across West Virginia and Virginia to port at Hampton Roads. They modified the Deepwater Railway charter to reach the Virginia-state line. A Rogers coal property attorney in Staunton, Virginia formed another intrastate railroad in Virginia, the Tidewater Railway.

The battle for the Tidewater Railway’s rights-of-way displayed Henry Rogers at his most crafty and ingenious. Henry Rogers was able to persuade the leading citizens of Roanoke and Norfolk, both strongholds of the rival Norfolk and Western, that his new railroad would be a boon to both communities, secretly securing crucial rights-of-way in the process. In 1907, the name of the Tidewater Railway was changed to The Virginia Railway Company, and it acquired the Deepwater Railway to form the needed West Virginia-Virginia link.

Financed almost entirely from Henry Rogers’ own resources, and completed in 1909, instead of interchanging, the new Virginian Railway competed with the much larger Chesapeake and Ohio Railway and Norfolk and Western Railway for coal traffic. Built following his policy of investing in the best route and equipment on initial selection and purchase to save operating expenses, the VGN enjoyed a more modern pathway built to the highest standards, and provided major competition to its larger neighbouring railroads, each of whom tried several times unsuccessfully to acquire it after they realised it could not be blocked from completion.

However, the time and enormous effort Henry Rogers expended on the project continued to undermine his already declining health, not only because of his Herculean work but also because of the uncertain economy of the period, exacerbated by the financial Panic of 1907 which began in March of that year. To obtain the needed financing, he was forced to pour many of his own assets into the railroad. Management of the funding Henry Rogers was providing was handled by Boston financier Godfrey M. Hyams, with whom he had also worked on the Anaconda Company, and many other natural resource projects.

On 22 July, 1907, he suffered a debilitating stroke. Over a period of about 5 months, he gradually recovered. In 1908, he put the remaining financing in place needed to see his railroad to completion. When completed the following year, the Virginian Railway was called by the newspapers “the biggest little railway in the world” and proved both viable and profitable.

Many historians consider the Virginian Railway to be one of Henry Rogers’ greatest legacies. The 600-mile Virginian Railway (VGN) followed his philosophy regarding investing in the best equipment and paying it employees and vendors well throughout its profitable history. It operated some of the largest and most powerful steam, electric, and diesel locomotives throughout its 50-year history. Chronicled by rail historian and rail photographer H. Reid in The Virginian Railway (Kalmbach, 1961), the VGN gained a following of railway enthusiasts which continues to the present day.

The VGN was merged into the Norfolk & Western in 1959. However, almost all of the former VGN mainline trackage in West Virginia and about 50% of that in Virginia is still in use in 2006 as the preferred route for eastbound coal trains for Norfolk Southern Corporation due to the more favourable gradients while crossing the Allegheny Mountains’ continental divide and the Blue Ridge Mountains east of Roanoke, while most westbound traffic of empty coal cars uses the original Norfolk and Western main line.

Henry Rogers was an energetic man, and exhibited ruthlessness, and iron determination. In the financial and business world he could be grasping and greedy, and operated under a flexible moral code that often stretched the rules of both honesty and fair play. On Wall Street in New York City, he became known as “Hell Hound Rogers” and “The Brains of the Standard Oil Trust.” Henry Rogers was considered one of the last and great “robber barons” of his day, as times were changing. Nevertheless, Henry Rogers amassed a great fortune, estimated at over $100,000,000. Henry Rogers invested heavily in various industries, including copper, steel, mining, and railways.

Much of what we know about Henry Rogers and his style in business dealings were recorded by others. Henry Rogers’ behaviour in public Court Proceedings provide some of the better examples and some insight. Henry Rogers’ business style extended to his testimony in many court settings. Before the Hepburn Commission of 1878, investigating the railroads of New York, he fine-tuned his circumlocutory, ambiguous, and haughty responses. Henry Rogers’ most intractable performance was later in a 1906 lawsuit by the state of Missouri, which claimed that 2 companies in that state registered as independents were actually subsidiaries of Standard Oil, a secret ownership Henry Rogers finally acknowledged.

In Marquis Who’s Who for 1908, Henry Rogers listed more than 20 corporations of which he was either president and director or vice president and director.

Henry H. Rogers is in the top 25 wealthiest men in America of all time. According to The Wealthy 100: From Benjamin Franklin to Bill Gates – A Ranking of the Richest Americans, Past and Present published by 2 business professors in 1996, Henry Rogers is #22, ranking ahead of J.P. Morgan, #23, Bill Gates #31, William Rockefeller #35, Warren Buffett #39, J. Paul Getty #67, and Frank W. Woolworth #82.

There were 2 very distinct aspects which characterised Henry Rogers’ seemingly dualist personality. Biographers have noted that, while pitiless in business deals, in his personal affairs, there was a much kinder side. In those matters, he was both warm and generous.

Some of the other most self-made robber baron types of the late 19th century became well-known for becoming philanthropists after ending their business careers. Most notable perhaps of these was Henry Rogers’ friend from business interests Andrew Carnegie. However, unlike Andrew Carnegie and others, the kinder side of Henry Rogers seems to have also been there throughout his life.

A modest man, some of his other kindness and generosity became known for the most part only after his death. Examples are found in looking over the lives and writings of Helen Keller, Mark Twain, and Booker T. Washington. However, nowhere was the kinder side more apparent when he was alive than in his hometown of Fairhaven, Massachusetts. Beginning in 1885, seaside Fairhaven received a number of architectural gifts from the Rogers family.

These included a grammar school, Rogers School, built in 1885. The Millicent Library was completed in 1893 and was a gift to the Town by the Rogers children in memory of their sister Millicent, who had died in 1890 at the age of 17.

Abbie Palmer (née Gifford) Rogers presented the new Town Hall in 1894. The George H. Taber Masonic Lodge building, named for Henry’s boyhood mentor and former Sunday-school teacher, was completed in 1901. The beautiful gothic Unitarian Memorial Church was dedicated in 1904 to the memory of Henry Rogers’ mother, Mary Huttleston (née Eldredge) Rogers. The Tabitha Inn was built in 1905, and a new Fairhaven High School, affectionately called “Castle on the Hill,” was completed in 1906.

Henry Rogers drained the mill pond to create a park, installed the town’s public water and sewer systems, and served as superintendent of streets for his hometown.

Many years later, Henry H. Rogers’ daughter, Cara Leland Rogers Broughton (Lady Fairhaven), purchased the site of Fort Phoenix, and donated it to the Town of Fairhaven in her father’s memory.

Abbie and Henry Rogers had 5 children, 4 girls and a boy. Another little son had died at birth. Their oldest daughter, Anne Engle Rogers, was born in 1865 in Pennsylvania.

The family moved to New York in 1866. Daughter Cara Leland Rogers was born in Fairhaven in 1867, Millicent was born in 1873, followed by Mary (a.k.a. Mai) in 1875. Their son, Henry Huttleston Rogers Jr., was born in 1879, and was known as Harry.

“Mother of 6 children, Mrs. Rogers is represented as having been of a quiet and retiring disposition, completely devoid of the ostentation often associated with great wealth. Contemporary photographs attest to a shy and gentle charm of feature, and she is known to have cherished a deep affection for Fairhaven and a nostalgia for the simple ways of her childhood.

“She was, therefore, delighted to become the donor of Fairhaven’s beautiful new ‘Town House’, and on February 22nd and 23rd, 1894, she attended dedication exercises and received graciously at the splendid Dedication Ball, in the first gala functions marking the opening of the new building.

“It was not given those attending these happy festivities to know that – but three months later – in May, 1894, this gentle woman was to die in New York City after an operation performed to save her life.”

Abbie Palmer Gifford Rogers died unexpectedly on 21 May, 1894. Abbie Palmer Gifford’s childhood home, a 2-story, gable-end frame house built in the Greek Revival style has been preserved. It is made available for tours of Fairhaven, where she and her husband grew up and left many other legacies to the town and its inhabitants.

In 1896, Henry Rogers was remarried Emelie Augusta Randel Hart, a divorcée, and New York socialite, but had no children with his 2nd wife.

On 19 May, 1909, he died suddenly of another stroke, barely 6 weeks before full operations were scheduled to begin on his Virginian Railway, and only 2 days short of 15 years after his beloved Abbie, and also in New York City. After a funeral at the First Unitarian Church in Manhattan, his body was transported to Fairhaven by a New Haven Railroad train. There, he was interred beside Abbie in Fairhaven’s Riverside Cemetery.

After Abbie’s death, Henry Rogers developed close friendships with 2 other famous Americans: Mark Twain and Dr Booker T. Washington, and was instrumental in the education and rise to fame of Helen Keller. Urged on by Mark Twain, Henry Rogers and his 2nd wife financed a college education for the remarkable Ms. Keller.

In 1899, Henry Rogers had a luxury steam yacht built by a shipyard in the Bronx. The Kanawha, at 471-tons, was about 200 feet long and manned by a crew of 39. For the final 10 year of his life, Henry Rogers entertained friends as they sailed on cruises mostly along the East Coast of the United States, north to Maine and Canada, and south the Virginia. With Mark Twain among his frequent guests, the movements of the Kanawha attracted great attention from the newspapers, the dominant public media of the era. Cruises on the Kanawha also provided a private setting for what was later revealed to be a relationship of much greater importance than mere friendship and socialisation with Dr. Booker T. Washington.

In 1893, a mutual friend introduced Henry Rogers to humorist Mark Twain. Henry Rogers reorganised Mark Twain’s tangled finances, and the 2 became close friends for the rest of Henry Rogers’ life.

By the 1890s, Mark Twain’s fortunes began to decline; in his later life, Mark Twain was a very depressed man, but still capable. Mark Twain was able to respond “The report of my death is an exaggeration” in the New York Journal, 2 June, 1897. Mark Twain lost 2 out of 3 of his children, and his beloved wife, Olivia Langdon, before his death in 1910.

Mark Twain also had some very bad times with his businesses. Mark Twain’s publishing company ended up going bankrupt, and he lost thousands of dollars on one typesetting machine that was never finished. Mark Twain also lost a great deal of revenue on royalties from his books being plagiarised before he even had a chance to publish them himself. Things looked pretty grim financially until he met Henry Rogers in 1893.

Henry Rogers and Mark Twain enjoyed a mutually beneficial friendship which was to last for more than 16 years. Henry Rogers’ family became Mark Twain’s surrogate family and he was a frequent guest at the Henry Rogers townhouse in New York City. Earl J. Dias described the relationship in these words: “Rogers and Twain were kindred spirits – fond of poker, billiards, the theater, practical jokes, mild profanity, the good-natured spoof. Their friendship, in short, was based on a community of interests and on the fact that each, in some way, needed the other.”

While Mark Twain openly credited Henry Rogers with saving him from financial ruin; there is also substantial evidence in their published correspondence that the close friendship in their later years was mutually beneficial. Their letters back and forth are so interesting and insightful that they were published in a book, Mark Twain’s Correspondence with Henry Huttleston Rogers, 1893-1909.

In the written exchanges between the 2 men, there are pleasant examples of Henry Rogers’ sense of fun as well as Mark Twain’s well-known sense of humor.

There was a standing joke between them that Mark Twain was inclined to pilfer items from the Henry Rogers household whenever he spent the night there as a guest. 2 of the many letters provide an illustration:

In a letter sent to Mrs. Rogers by Mark Twain, he notes that while packing his things after a visit, he found that he had put in

“some articles that was laying around …….2 books, Mr. Rogers’ brown slippers, and a ham. I thought it was one of ourn. It looked like one we used to have, but it shan’t occur again, and don’t you worry. He will temper the wind to the shorn lamb, and I will send some of the things back if there is some that won’t keep. Yores in Jesus, S.L.C.”

The reply to Mark Twain was a letter written by Henry Rogers on 31 October, 1906. It reads:

“Before I forget it, let me remind you that I shall want the trunk and the things you took away from my house as soon as possible. I learn that instead of taking old things, you took my best. Mrs. Rogers is at the White Mountains. I am going to Fairhaven this afternoon. I hope you will not be there. By the way, I have been using a pair of your gloves in the Mountains, and they don’t seem to be much of an attraction.”

In April 1907, they travelled together in Henry Rogers’ steam yacht Kanawha to the Jamestown Exposition held at Sewell’s Point near Norfolk, Virginia in celebration of the 300th anniversary of the founding of the Jamestown Colony.

Although by this late date, both men were in marginal health, Mark Twain returned to Norfolk with Henry Rogers in April 1909, and was the guest speaker at the dedication dinner held for the newly completed Virginian Railway, a “Mountains to Sea” engineering marvel of the day. The construction of the new railroad had been solely financed by industrialist Henry Rogers.

When Henry Rogers died suddenly in New York City on 20 May, 1909 of an apoplectic stroke, the humorist had been on his way by train from Connecticut to visit Mark Twain. When Mark Twain was met with the news at Grand Central Station the same morning by his daughter, his grief-stricken reaction was widely reported. Although he served as one of the honoured pallbearers at the Henry Rogers funeral in New York later that week, he declined to ride the funeral train from New York on to Fairhaven for the internment. Albert Bigelow Paine, in his book Mark Twain: A Biography wrote that Mark Twain “could not undertake to travel that distance among those whom he knew so well, and with whom he must of necessity join in conversation.”

Mark Twain himself died less than 1 year later. Mark Twain wrote in 1909, “I came in with Halley’s Comet in 1835. It is coming again next year, and I expect to go out with it.” And so he did.

Helen Keller was a remarkable woman who, although deaf, and blind, made a name for herself as writer and humanitarian. Helen Keller became another of Henry Rogers’ closest friends. In May 1896, at the home in New York City of editor-essayist Laurence Hutton, Henry Rogers and Mark Twain 1st saw Ms. Keller, who was then 16 years old. Helen Keller had profited under the tutelage of her gifted teacher-companion, Anne Sullivan, and when she was 20, passed with distinction the entrance examination to Radcliffe College.

In a letter to Mrs. Emile Rogers, Mark Twain praised “this marvelous child” and hoped that Helen would not be forced to retire from her studies because of poverty. Mark Twain urged Mrs. Emile Rogers to speak to Henry Rogers himself, to remind him of their 1st sight of Ms. Keller at Hutton’s home and to speak also “to the other Standard Oil chiefs” to see what could be done for the meritorious Miss Keller.

Henry Rogers was generously responsive. Henry Rogers and his wife helped make possible a college education for Helen Keller at Radcliffe. They even provided her, for many years after, with a monthly stipend.

That she was grateful is obvious in the dedication of her book, The World I Live In, which reads, “To Henry H. Rogers, my Dear Friend of Many Years.” On the fly leaf of Henry Rogers’ own copy of the book, she wrote, To Mrs Rogers The best of the world I live in is the kindness of friends like you and Mr Rogers.

Another friend was Booker T. Washington. Around 1894, Henry Rogers attended one of the famous educator’s speeches at Madison Square Garden in New York City. The next day, Henry Rogers contacted Washington, and invited him to come to 26 Broadway in his Standard Oil office to meet with him. Booker T. Washington later wrote that Henry Rogers said that he had been surprised that nobody had “passed the hat” after the speech the previous night. With the common ground of their relatively humble beginnings and early life, the seeds of a friendship between the 2 famous men had been sown.

Booker T. Washington became a frequent visitor to Henry Rogers’ office, to Henry Rogers’ 85-room mansion in Fairhaven, Massachusetts, and was an honoured guest aboard Henry Rogers’ yacht, the Kanawha. Their friendship extended over a period of 15 years.

Although Henry Rogers had died suddenly a few weeks earlier, in June 1909, Dr. Booker T. Washington went on a previously arranged speaking tour along the newly completed Virginian Railway. Dr Booker T. Washington rode in Henry Rogers’ personal rail car, “Dixie”, making speeches at many locations over a 7-day period.

Dr. Booker T. Washington told his audiences that his recently departed friend had urged him to make the trip and see what could be done to improve relations between the races and economic conditions for African Americans along the route of the new railway, which touched many previously isolated communities in the southern portions of Virginia and West Virginia, including passing close by the community where Washington had been born over 50 years earlier.

Some of the places where Dr. Booker T. Washington spoke on the tour were (in order of the tour stops), Newport News, Norfolk, Suffolk, Lawrenceville, Kenbridge, Victoria, Charlotte Courthouse, Roanoke, Salem, and Christiansburg in Virginia, and Princeton, Mullens, Page and Deepwater in West Virginia. One of his trip companions recorded that they had received a strong and favorable welcome from both white and African American citizens all along the tour route of the new railroad.

It was only after Henry Rogers’ death that Dr. Booker T. Washington felt compelled to revealing publicly some of the extent of Henry Rogers’ contributions. These, he said, were at that very time “funding the operation of at least 65 small country schools for the education and betterment of African Americans in Virginia and other portions of the South, all unknown to the recipients.” Also, known only to a few trustees at Dr. Booker T. Washington’s insistence, Henry Rogers had also generously provided support to institutions of higher education, including Tuskegee Institute and Hampton Institute.

Dr. Booker T. Washington later wrote that Henry Rogers had encouraged projects with at least partial matching funds, as that way, 2 ends were accomplished:

The gifts would help fund even greater work.

Recipients would have a stake in knowing that they were helping themselves through their own hard work and sacrifice.

Henry Rogers’ example of both concern for Negro education and the concept of matching funds may well have influenced Julius Rosenwald, another self-made man from a modest background who also befriended Dr Booker T. Washington, and beginning in 1911, contributed many millions to build thousands of Rosenwald Schools in many states, in a sense, continuing the work Henry Rogers and Dr Booker T. Washington began long after both were dead.

In Fairhaven, the Rogers family gifts are located throughout the town. These include Rogers School, Town Hall, Millicent Library, Unitarian Memorial Church and Fairhaven High School. A granite shaft on the High School lawn is dedicated to Henry Rogers. In Riverside Cemetery, the Henry Huttleston Rogers Mausoleum is patterned after the Temple of Minerva in Athens, Greece. Henry, his 1st wife Abbie, and several family members are interred there.

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Speech Differences And Stutter Series-Disabled Legend Adrian Peterson

Adrian Lewis Peterson was born on 21 March, 1985 in Palestine, Texas. Nicknamed “A.D.” (for “All Day”) or “Purple Jesus”, is a professional American football running back for the Minnesota Vikings of the National Football League (NFL). Adrian Peterson played college football as a running back for 3 years at the University of Oklahoma. At Oklahoma, Adrian Peterson set the NCAA freshman rushing record with 1,925 yards (as a true freshman). Adrian Peterson was a 1st team All-American, and he also set a freshman record by finishing as the runner-up in the Heisman Trophy balloting. Adrian Peterson finished as the school’s 3rd all-time leading rusher.

Adrian Peterson was selected by the Minnesota Vikings with the 7th overall pick in the 1st round of the 2007 NFL Draft. Coming into the league, he was known as a tall, upright runner possessing a rare combination of speed, strength, agility, size, and vision, along with a highly aggressive running style. Adrian Peterson’s rare talent as both a great breakaway and power runner has often raised comparisons to past legends, including Eric Dickerson, O.J. Simpson, Walter Payton, Gale Sayers, and Jim Brown. As a rookie in the NFL, he broke numerous franchise and league records for rushing yardage, the foremost being the NFL single-game rushing record when he ran for 296 yards on 30 carries on 4 November, 2007, against the San Diego Chargers. Following his stellar 1st pro season, Adrian Peterson was a near-unanimous choice as the NFL Offensive Rookie of the Year. In the 2008 NFL Pro Bowl, Adrian Peterson rushed for 129 yards and 2 touchdowns, achieving the 2nd highest rushing total in Pro Bowl history. Adrian Peterson was awarded the MVP award for his performance in the Pro Bowl, which led to a 42-30 victory over the AFC.

Adrian Peterson has 1 daughter, Adeja. Adrian Peterson currently resides in Eden Prairie, Minnesota, a suburb of Minneapolis, Minnesota, with his brothers, Eldon, and Derrick Peterson.

Adrian Peterson was interested in football as a child as he began playing at the age of 7 and participated in the popular Pop Warner Football programme. Adrian Peterson continued his interest in athletics into high school where he competed in track and field, basketball, and football at Palestine High School. Adrian Peterson was most notable in football where he played during his junior and senior years. Adrian Peterson finished his 2002 campaign as a junior with 2,051 yards on 246 carries, an average of 8.3 yards per carry, and 22 touchdowns. As a senior in 2003, he rushed for 2,960 yards on 252 attempts, an average of 11.7 yards per carry, and 32 touchdowns. Concluding his high school football career at the annual U.S. Army All-American Bowl, he led the West squad with 95 yards on 9 carries and scoring 2 touchdowns and announced at the game he would attend college at Oklahoma. Among his other choices of schools were the University of Southern California, University of Texas at Austin, Texas A&M University, University of California, Los Angeles, University of Arkansas, and University of Miami. Following the season, he was awarded the Hall Trophy as the Ball Park National High School Player of the Year. In addition, he was named the top high school player by College Football News and Rivals.com.

During his freshman season, Adrian Peterson broke many NCAA freshman rushing records, rushing for 1925 yards and leading the nation in carries with 339. Adrian Peterson was a finalist for the Heisman Trophy, finishing 2nd to USC quarterback Matt Leinart, which was the highest finish ever for a freshman. Adrian Peterson was also a finalist for the Doak Walker Award. Among other honours include being the 1st Oklahoma freshman recognised as a 1st-Team Associated Press All-American. Adrian Peterson contributed to an undefeated season for the Oklahoma Sooners and participated in the 2005 BCS National Championship Game with a berth to the FedEx Orange Bowl.

Adrian Peterson’s playing time in 2005 was limited by a high ankle sprain. Adrian Peterson injured his ankle in the 1st Big 12 Conference game of the season against Kansas State University. Despite missing time in 4 games, he rushed for 1,208 yards and 14 touchdowns on 220 carries, finishing 2nd in Big 12 rushing yardage. Adrian Peterson’s 2005 season was also notable for a career-long 84 yard touchdown run against Oklahoma State University. Upon the conclusion of the season, he was named a member of the All-Big 12 Conference team.

Nelson Peterson was released from prison during the 2006 college football season and was able to watch his son as a spectator for the 1st time on 14 October, 2006 when Oklahoma played Iowa State University. Oklahoma defeated Iowa State in that game, but Adrian Peterson broke his collar bone falling into the end zone to end a 53 yard touchdown run. During a press conference on 18 October, Adrian Peterson said he was told by doctors to expect to be out for 4 to 6 weeks. At the time of the injury, Adrian Peterson needed only 150 yards to gain to pass Billy Sims as the University of Oklahoma’s all-time leading rusher. Adrian Peterson was unable to return for the rest of the Sooners regular season, but returned for the Sooners’ last game against Boise State in the 2007 Fiesta Bowl, where he rushed for 77 yards and a touchdown. Adrian Peterson refused to discuss his plans beyond the end of this season with the press. Adrian Peterson concluded his college football career with 1,112 rushing yards his final season, even after missing multiple games due to injury for a total of 4,045 rushing yards (only 3 season). Adrian Peterson was 73 yards short of passing Billy Sims as Oklahoma’s all-time leading rusher.

Awards And Honours

Hall Trophy (2003)
First-team AP All-Freshman (2004)
First-team AP All-American (2004)
Doak Walker Award finalist (2004)
Heisman Trophy finalist (2004)

On 15 January, 2007, Adrian Peterson declared that he would forego his senior year of college and enter the 2007 NFL Draft. Concerns about his injuries suffered during college were noted by the media and potential NFL teams. Adrian Peterson started 22 out of 31 games in his college career and missed games due to a dislocated shoulder his 1st year, a high ankle sprain his sophomore year, and a broken collarbone his final year at Oklahoma. Adrian Peterson’s durability was a consideration by at least 2 teams in their draft analysis, which impacted selection position. Prior to the 2007NFL Draft, Adrian Peterson was compared by professional football scouts to Eric Dickerson. ESPN NFL Draft analyst Mel Kiper, Jr. said of Peterson, “You can make the argument,[Peterson]is the best player in this draft, if not, certainly 1 of the top 3.”

On 28 April, 2007, Adrian Peterson was selected by the Minnesota Vikings with the 7th overall pick in the 1st round of the 2007 NFL Draft. Adrian Peterson was the 1st running back selected in that year’s draft. At a press conference during the draft, Adrian Peterson announced, “My collarbone, I would say it’s 90% healed. A lot of teams know that, and I don’t see it stopping me from being prepared for the season.”

After being drafted by the Vikings, there was speculation that Adrian Peterson would require surgery to fully heal the collarbone injury he suffered during college, but it was soon learned that was not the case.

Adrian Peterson believes he is a player that a franchise can build around. In an interview with IGN following the NFL Draft, he said, “I’m a player who is coming in with the determination to turn a team around. I want to help my team get to the playoffs, win…and run wild. I want to bring people to the stands. I want people to come to the game to see what I can do next. Things like that can change the whole attitude of an organisation. I want to win.” Adrian Peterson later told the Star Tribune in an interview, “I want to be the best player to ever play this game.”

Nearly 3 months after being drafted, he was signed by the Vikings on 29 July, 2007. Adrian Peterson’s contract is worth US$40.5,000,000 over 5 years, with $17,000,000 guaranteed.

Adrian Peterson’s outstanding rookie season began with high expectations from Adrian Peterson himself; he announced ambitious goals including being named Offensive Rookie of the Year, rushing for 1,800 yards during the course of the year, and breaking the league’s rookie rushing record just as he broke the freshman rushing record during his 1st season at Oklahoma. The NFL’s rushing record for a rookie is currently held by Eric Dickerson at 1,808 yards. Just 11 weeks into his rookie season with the Vikings, Adrian Peterson was well on his way to Eric Dickerson’s record and considered one of the elite running backs in the NFL.

On 10 August, Adrian Peterson made his Minnesota Vikings debut in a preseason game against the St. Louis Rams. Adrian Peterson ran for 33 yards on 11 carries with 1 catch for 2 yards. On 9 September, 2007, Adrian Peterson ran for 103 yards on 19carries in his 1st NFL regular season game against the Atlanta Falcons. In addition to his rushing yardage, he scored his 1st professional football touchdown on a 60 yard pass reception. Over his 1st 3 regular season games, his 431 yards (271 rushing & 160 receiving) from scrimmage are a team record. For his performance during the 3 games, Adrian Peterson received the NFL Offensive Rookie of the Month award for both September and October 2007.

Adrian Peterson’s breakout game as a professional came on 14 October, 2007 against the Chicago Bears, highlighted by a 3 touchdown performance and a then franchise record of 224 yards rushing on 20 carries. Adrian Peterson established additional team records for a rookie during this game, which included the most 100-yard games rushing and the longest touchdown run from scrimmage. Adrian Peterson also set an NFL rookie record with 361 all-purpose yards in a single game. Adrian Peterson’s 607 rushing yards through the 1st 5 games of the season is 2nd in NFL history to Eric Dickerson. Following Adrian Peterson’s record performance, Deion Sanders, now an NFL Network analyst said the following about Adrian Peterson: “He has the vision of a Marshall Faulk, the power of an Earl Campbell, and the speed of an Eric Dickerson. Let’s pray he has the endurance of an Emmitt Smith.” Adrian Peterson has also been compared to Walter Payton and Tony Dorsett by Star Tribune sports journalist Jim Souhan.

3 weeks later on 4 November, 2007, Adrian Peterson broke his own franchise record as well as the NFL single game rushing yard record previously held by Jamal Lewis since 2003 when he rushed for 296 yards on 30 carries and 3 touchdowns against the San Diego Chargers. That game was his 2nd game of over 200 yards rushing, a feat no other rookie has ever accomplished in a season. In addition to the NFL rushing record in a single game, it took him past 1,000 yards rushing for the year after just 8 games. Adrian Peterson’s 1,036 rushing yards represents the best 8-game performance by a rookie in NFL history.

On 11 November, 2007, just a week after his record-breaking performance against the Chargers, Adrian Peterson injured the lateral collateral ligament in his right knee in a game against the Green Bay Packers. The injury occurred in the 3rd quarter of a 34-0 defeat at Lambeau Field on a low, yet clean tackle by Packers cornerback Al Harris. Almost a month after the injury, Adrian Peterson returned to action on 2 December, 2007 against the Detroit Lions scoring 2 touchdowns and rushing for 116 yards. On 17 December Adrian Peterson played in his 1st Monday Night Football game where he had 78 yards rushing, 17 yards receiving and 2 TDs. The next day Adrian Peterson was named as the starting running back for the 2008 NFC Pro Bowl team. On 2 January, he was named The Associated Press NFL Offensive Rookie of the Year.

On 10 February, 2008, Adrian Peterson won the 2008 NFL Pro Bowl MVP award with 16 carries for 129 yards rushing along with 2 touchdowns. The 129 yards rushing was the 2nd most in Pro Bowl history. Adrian Peterson was the 1st rookie since Marshall Faulk in 1995 to win the Pro Bowl MVP award.

Adrian Peterson finished in 2nd place in rushing yards (1341)in the 2007 season behind LaDainian Tomlinson, who finished with (1474) rushing yards.

Adrian Peterson and the Vikings entered the 2008 season with high expectations and as he did during his rookie season, Adrian Peterson set high goals for himself including a 2000-yard campaign and the NFL MVP award. Questions remained as to Adrian Peterson’s durability and the ability of the Vikings offense to take the focus of opposing defenses off of Adrian Peterson. In the 1st game of the season against the Packers, Adrian Peterson ran for 103 yards on 19 carries and a TD, including 1 reception for 11 yards. In week 2 against the Colts, Adrian Peterson had 29 carries for 160 yards and 4 receptions for 20 yards. Against Carolina in week 3 Adrian Peterson ran for 77 yards on 17 carries. In week 4 Adrianh Peterson ran the ball 18 times for 80 yards and 2 TDs against the Titans. Adrian Peterson also had 4 catches 21 yards. Against New Orleans he ran for a dismal 32 yards on 21 yards and 9 yards on a catch. Week 6 against Detroit Adrian ran for 111 yards on 25 carries and 1catch for -5 yards, but he had 2 vital fumbles that almost lost them the game. Adrian Peterson currently ranks 3rd in the NFL in rushing and 6th in yards from scrimmage.

Records

Most 200-yard rushing games for a rookie (2)
Most yards rushing in the first eight games (1,036)
Most yards rushing in a single game (296)

Awards

2008 NFL Pro Bowl MVP
2007 NFL AP Offensive Rookie of the Year
2007 Diet Pepsi NFL Rookie of the Year
Two 2007 Player of the Month awards
2008 Best Breakthrough Athlete ESPY Award

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Speech Differences And Stutter Series-Disabled Legend Sir Winston Churchill

Sir Winston Leonard Spencer-Churchil was born on 30 November 1874. On 15 January 1965 Winston Churchill suffered a severe stroke that left him gravely ill.  Winston Churchill died at his home 9 days later, at age 90, on the morning of Sunday 24 January 1965, coincidentally 70 years to the day after his father’s death.

By decree of the Queen, his body lay in state for 3 days and a state funeral service was held at St Paul’s Cathedral. This was the 1st state funeral for a non-royal family member since 1914, and no other of its kind has been held since. As his coffin passed down the Thames on the Havengore, dockers lowered their crane jibs in a salute. The Royal Artillery fired a 19-gun salute (as head of government), and the RAF staged a fly-by of 16 English Electric Lightning fighters. The funeral also saw the largest assemblage of statesmen in the world until the 2005 funeral of Pope John Paul II, one of whom, President Luis Giannattasio of Uruguay, died shortly after representing his country at the event. In the fields along the route, and at the stations through which the train passed, thousands stood in silence to pay their last respects. At Winston Churchill’s request, he was buried in the family plot at St Martin’s Church, Bladon, near Woodstock, not far from his birthplace at Blenheim Palace.

Sir Winston Churchill was a British politician known chiefly for his leadership of the United Kingdom during World War II. Sir Winston Churchill served as Prime Minister of the United Kingdom from 1940 to 1945 and again from 1951 to 1955. A noted statesman and orator, Winston Churchill was also an officer in the British Army, a historian, a Nobel Prize-winning writer, and an artist.

During his army career, Winston Churchill saw combat in India, in the Sudan and the Second Boer War. Winston Churchill gained fame and notoriety as a war correspondent and through contemporary books he wrote describing the campaigns. Winston Churchill also served briefly in the British Army on the Western Front in World War I, commanding the 6th Battalion of the Royal Scots Fusiliers.

At the forefront of the political scene for almost 60 years, he held many political and cabinet positions. Before the First World War, he served as President of the Board of Trade, Home Secretary and First Lord of the Admiralty as part of the Asquith Liberal government. During the war he continued as First Lord of the Admiralty until the disastrous Battle of Gallipoli caused his departure from government. Winston Churchill returned as Minister of Munitions, Secretary of State for War and Secretary of State for Air. In the interwar years, he served as Chancellor of the Exchequer in the Conservative government.

After the outbreak of the Second World War, Winston Churchill was again appointed First Lord of the Admiralty. Following the resignation of Neville Chamberlain on 10 May 1940, he became Prime Minister of the United Kingdom and led Britain to victory against the Axis powers. Winston Churchill was always noted for his speeches, which became a great inspiration to the British people and embattled Allied forces.

After losing the 1945 election, he became Leader of the Opposition. In 1951, he again became Prime Minister before finally retiring in 1955. Upon his death the Queen granted him the honour of a state funeral, which saw one of the largest assemblies of statesmen in the world.

A descendant of the famous Spencer family, Winston Leonard Spencer-Churchill, like his father, used the surname Churchill in public life. Winston Churchill’s ancestor George Spencer had changed his surname to Spencer-Churchill in 1817 when he became Duke of Marlborough, to highlight his descent from John Churchill, 1st Duke of Marlborough. Winston Churchill’s father, Lord Randolph Churchill, the 3rd son of John Spencer-Churchill, 7th Duke of Marlborough, was a politician, while his mother, Lady Randolph Churchill (née Jennie Jerome) was the daughter of American millionaire, Leonard Jerome. Born 2 months premature on 30 November 1874 in a bedroom in Blenheim Palace, Woodstock, Oxfordshire; he arrived 8 months after his parents’ hasty marriage. Winston Churchill had 1 brother, John Strange Spencer-Churchill.

Independent and rebellious by nature, Winston Churchill generally did poorly in school, for which he was punished. Winston Churchill entered Harrow School on 17 April 1888, where his military career began. Within weeks of his arrival, he had joined the Harrow Rifle Corps. Winston Churchill earned high marks in English and history and was also the school’s fencing champion.

Winston Churchill was rarely visited by his mother (then known as Lady Randolph), and wrote letters begging her to either come to the school or to allow him to come home. Winston Churchill had a distant relationship with his father and once remarked that they barely spoke to each other. Due to his lack of parental contact he became very close to his nanny, Elizabeth Anne Everest, whom he used to call “Woomany”. Winston Churchill’s father died on 24 January 1895, leaving Winston Churchill with the conviction that he too would die young, so should be quick about making his mark on the world.

Winston Churchill described himself as having a “speech impediment” which he consistently worked to overcome. After many years, he finally stated, “My impediment is no hindrance.” Trainee speech therapists are often shown videotapes of Churchill’s mannerisms while making speeches and the Stuttering Foundation of America uses Churchill, pictured on its home page, as one of its role models of successful stutterers. This diagnosis is confirmed by contemporaries writing in the 1920s, 1930s and 1940s. The Churchill Centre, however, flatly refutes the claim that Winston Churchill stuttered while confirming that he did have difficulty pronouncing the letter ‘S’ and spoke with a lisp. Winston Churchill’s father also spoke with a lisp.

Winston Churchill met his future wife, Clementine Hozier, in 1904 at a ball in Crewe House, home of the Earl of Crewe and his wife Margaret Primrose (daughter of Archibald Primrose, 5th Earl of Rosebery). In 1908, they met again at a dinner party hosted by Lady St Helier. Winston Churchill found himself seated beside Clementine, and they soon began a lifelong romance. Winston Churchill proposed to Hozier during a house party at Blenheim Palace on 10 August 1908, in a small Temple of Diana. On 12September 1908, they were married in St. Margaret’s, Westminster. The church was packed; the Bishop of St Asaph conducted the service. In March 1909, the couple moved to a house at 33 Eccleston Square.

Their 1st child, Diana, was born in London on 11 July 1909. After the pregnancy, Clementine moved to Sussex to recover, while Diana stayed in London with her nanny. On 28 May 1911, their 2nd child, Randolph, was born at 33 Eccleston Square. Their 3rd child, Sarah, was born on 7 October 1914 at Admiralty House. The birth was marked with anxiety for Clementine, as Winston Churchill had been sent to Antwerp by the Cabinet to “stiffen the resistance of the beleaguered city” after news that the Belgians intended to surrender the town.

Clementine gave birth to her 4th child, Marigold Frances Churchill, on 15 November 1918, 4 days after the official end of World War I. In the early months of August, the Churchills’ children were entrusted to a French nursery governess in Kent named Mlle Rose. Clementine, meanwhile, travelled to Eaton Hall to play tennis with Hugh Grosvenor, 2nd Duke of Westminster and his family. While still under the care of Mlle Rose, Marigold had a cold, but was reported to have recovered from the illness. As the illness progressed with hardly any notice, it turned into septicaemia. Following advice from a landlady, Rose sent for Clementine. However the illness turned fatal on 23 August 1921, and Marigold was buried in the Kensal Green Cemetery 3 days later. On 15 September 1922, the Churchills’ last child was born, Mary. Later that month, the Churchills bought Chartwell, which would be Winston Churchill’s home until his death in 1965.

After Winston Churchill left Harrow in 1893, he applied to attend the Royal Military Academy, Sandhurst. It took 3 attempts before he passed the admittance exam; he applied for cavalry rather than infantry because the entrance requirement was lower and did not require him to learn mathematics, which he disliked. Winston Churchill graduated 8th out of a class of 150 in December 1894, and was then commissioned as a 2nd Lieutenant in the 4th Queen’s Own Hussars on 20 February 1895. In 1941, he received the honour of Colonel of the Hussars.

Winston Churchill’s pay as a 2nd lieutenant in the 4th Hussars was £300. However, he believed that he needed at least a further £500 (equivalent to £25,000 in 2001 terms) to support a style of life equal to other officers of the regiment. Winston Churchill’s mother provided an allowance of £400 per year, but this was repeatedly overspent. According to biographer Roy Jenkins, this is one reason he took an interest in war correspondence. Winston Churchill did not intend to follow a conventional career of promotion through army ranks, but to seek out all possible chances of military action and used his mother’s and family influence in high society to arrange postings to active campaigns. Winston Churchill’s writings both brought him to the attention of the public, and earned him significant additional income. Winston Churchill acted as a war correspondent for several London newspapers and wrote his own books about the campaigns.

In 1895, Winston Churchill travelled to Cuba to observe the Spanish fight the Cuban guerrillas; he had obtained a commission to write about the conflict from the Daily Graphic. To his delight, he came under fire for the first time on his 21st birthday. Winston Churchill had fond memories of Cuba as a “…large, rich, beautiful island…” While there, he soon acquired a taste for Havana cigars, which he would smoke for the rest of his life. While in New York, he stayed at the home of Bourke Cockran, an admirer of his mother’s. Bourke Cockran was an established American politician, member of the House of Representatives and potential presidential candidate. Bourke Cockran greatly influenced Winston Churchill, both in his approach to oratory and politics, and encouraging a love of America.

Winston Churchill soon received word that his nanny, Mrs Everest, was dying; he then returned to England and stayed with her for a week until she died. Winston Churchill wrote in his journal “She was my favourite friend.” In My Early Life he wrote: “She had been my dearest and most intimate friend during the whole of the 20 years I had lived.”

In early October 1896, he was transferred to Bombay, British India. Winston Churchill was considered one of the best polo players in his regiment and led his team to many prestigious tournament victories.

About this time Winston Churchill read William Winwood Reade’s Martyrdom of Man, a classic of Victorian atheism, which completed his loss of faith in Christianity and left him with a sombre vision of a godless universe in which humanity was destined, nevertheless, to progress through the conflict between the more advanced and the more backward races. When he was posted to India, and began to read avidly to make up for lost time, he was profoundly impressed by Darwinism. Winston Churchill lost whatever religious faith he may have had through reading Edward Gibbon, he stated, and took a particular dislike to the Catholic Church, as well as Christian missions. Winston Churchill became, in his own words, “a materialist to the tips of my fingers,” and he fervently upheld the worldview that human life is a struggle for existence, with the outcome the survival of the fittest. Winston Churchill expressed this philosophy of life and history in his 1st and only novel, Savrola.

In 1897, Winston Churchill attempted to travel to both report and, if necessary, fight in the Greco-Turkish War, but this conflict effectively ended before he could arrive. Later, while preparing for a leave in England, he heard that 3 brigades of the British Army were going to fight against a Pashtun tribe and he asked his superior officer if he could join the fight. Winston Churchill fought under the command of General Jeffery, who was the commander of the 2nd brigade operating in Malakand, in what is now Pakistan. General Jeffery sent him with 15 scouts to explore the Mamund Valley; while on reconnaissance, they encountered an enemy tribe, dismounted from their horses and opened fire. After an hour of shooting, their reinforcements, the 35th Sikhs arrived, and the fire gradually ceased and the brigade and the Sikhs marched on. Hundreds of tribesmen then ambushed them and opened fire, forcing them to retreat. As they were retreating four men were carrying an injured officer but the fierceness of the fight forced them to leave him behind. The man who was left behind was slashed to death before Winston Churchill’s eyes; afterwards he wrote of the killer, “I forgot everything else at this moment except a desire to kill this man”. However the Sikhs’ numbers were being depleted so the next commanding officer told Winston Churchill to get the rest of the men and boys to safety. Before he left he asked for a note so he would not be charged with desertion. Winston Churchill received the note, quickly signed, and headed up the hill and alerted the other brigade, whereupon they then engaged the army. The fighting in the region dragged on for another 2 weeks before the dead could be recovered. Winston Churchill wrote in his journal: “Whether it was worth it I cannot tell.” An account of the Siege of Malakand was published in December 1900 as The Story of the Malakand Field Force. Winston Churchill received £600 for his account. During the campaign, he also wrote articles for the newspapers The Pioneer and The Daily Telegraph. Winston Churchill’s account of the battle was 1 of his 1st published stories, for which he received £5 per column from The Daily Telegraph.

Winston Churchill was transferred to Egypt in 1898 where he visited Luxor before joining an attachment of the 21st Lancers serving in the Sudan under the command of General Herbert Kitchener. During his time he encountered 2 future military officers, whom he would later work with, during the First World War: Douglas Haig, then a captain and John Jellicoe, then a gunboat lieutenant. While in the Sudan, he participated in what has been described as the last meaningful British cavalry charge at the Battle of Omdurman in September 1898. Winston Churchill also worked as a war correspondent for the Morning Post. By October 1898, he had returned to Britain and begun his 2-volume work; The River War, an account of the reconquest of the Sudan published the following year. Winston Churchill resigned from the British Army effective from 5th May, 1899.

Winston Churchill stood for parliament as a Conservative candidate in Oldham in the by-election of 1899, which he lost, coming 3rd in the contest for 2 seats.

Having failed at Oldham, Winston Churchill looked about for some other opportunity to advance his career. On 12 October 1899, the Second Boer War between Britain and the Boer Republics broke out and he obtained a commission to act as war correspondent for the Morning Post with a salary of £250 per month. Winston Churchill rushed to sail on the same ship as the newly appointed British commander, Sir Redvers Buller. After some weeks in exposed areas he accompanied a scouting expedition in an armoured train, leading to his capture and imprisonment in a POW camp in Pretoria. Winston Churchill’s actions during the ambush of the train led to speculation that he would be awarded the Victoria Cross, Britain’s highest award for gallantry in the face of the enemy, but this did not occur. Writing in London to Ladysmith via Pretoria, a collected version of his war reports, he described the experience:

I have had, in the last 4 years, the advantage, if it be an advantage, of many strange and varied experiences, from which the student of realities might draw profit and instruction. But nothing was so thrilling as this: to wait and struggle among these clanging, rending iron boxes, with the repeated explosions of the shells and the artillery, the noise of the projectiles striking the cars, the hiss as they passed in the air, the grunting and puffing of the engine–poor, tortured thing, hammered by at least a dozen shells, any one of which, by penetrating the boiler, might have made an end of all–the expectation of destruction as a matter of course, the realisation of powerlessness, and the alternations of hope and despair–all this for 70 minutes by the clock with only 4 inches of twisted iron work to make the difference between danger, captivity, and shame on the one hand–safety, freedom, and triumph on the other.

Winston Churchill escaped from the prison camp and travelled almost 300 miles (480 km) to Portuguese Lourenço Marques in Delagoa Bay, with the assistance of an English mine manager. Winston Churchill’s escape made him a minor national hero for a time in Britain, though instead of returning home, he rejoined General Buller’s army on its march to relieve the British at the Siege of Ladysmith and take Pretoria. This time, although continuing as a war correspondent, he gained a commission in the South African Light Horse. Winston Churchill was among the 1st British troops into Ladysmith and Pretoria. Winston Churchill and his cousin, the Duke of Marlborough, were able to get ahead of the rest of the troops in Pretoria, where they demanded and received the surrender of 52 Boer prison camp guards.

In 1900, Winston Churchill returned to England on the RMS Dunottar Castle, the same ship on which he set sail for South Africa 8 months earlier. Winston Churchill here published London to Ladysmith and a 2nd volume of Boer war experiences, Ian Hamilton’s March. After standing again and winning in Oldham in the 1900 general election he embarked on a speaking tour of Britain, followed by tours of the United States and Canada, earning in excess of £5,000.

In 1900, he retired from regular army and in 1902 joined the Imperial Yeomanry where he was commissioned as a Captain in the Queen’s Own Oxfordshire Hussars on 4 January 1902. In April 1905, he was promoted to Major and appointed to command of the Henley Squadron of the Queen’s Own Oxfordshire Hussars. In September 1916, he transferred to the territorial reserves of officers where he remained till retiring in 1924.

Winston Churchill was First Lord of the Admiralty at the start of World War I, but was obliged to leave the war cabinet after the disastrous Battle of Gallipoli. Winston Churchill attempted to obtain a commission as a brigade commander, but settled for command of a battalion. After spending some time with the Grenadier Guards he was appointed Lieutenant-Colonel, commanding the 6th Battalion, Royal Scots Fusiliers, on 1 January 1916. Correspondence with his wife shows that his intent in taking up active service was to rehabilitate his reputation, but this was balanced by the serious risk of being killed. As a commander he continued to exhibit the reckless daring which had been a hallmark of all his military actions, although he disapproved strongly of the mass slaughter involved in many western front actions.

Lord Deedes explained to a gathering of the Royal Historical Society in 2001 why Winston Churchill went to the front line: “He was with Grenadier Guards, who were dry [without alcohol] at battalion headquarters. They very much liked tea and condensed milk, which had no great appeal to Winston Churchill, but alcohol was permitted in the front line, in the trenches. Winston Churchill suggested to the colonel that he really ought to see more of the war and get into the front line. This was highly commended by the colonel, who thought it was a very good thing to do.”

Winston Churchill stood again for the seat of Oldham at the 1900 general election. After winning the seat, he went on a speaking tour throughout Britain and the United States, raising £10,000 for himself. In Parliament, he became associated with a faction of the Conservative Party led by Lord Hugh Cecil; the Hughligans. During his first parliamentary session, he opposed the government’s military expenditure and Joseph Chamberlain’s proposal of extensive tariffs, which were intended to protect Britain’s economic dominance. Winston Churchill’s own constituency effectively deselected him, although he continued to sit for Oldham until the next general election. After the Whitsun recess in 1904 he crossed the floor to sit as a member of the Liberal Party. As a Liberal, he continued to campaign for free trade. When the Liberals took office with Henry Campbell-Bannerman as Prime Minister, in December 1905, Winston Churchill became Under-Secretary of State for the Colonies dealing mainly with South Africa after the Boer War. From 1903 until 1905, Winston Churchill was also engaged in writing Lord Randolph Churchill, a 2-volume biography of his father which was published in 1906 and received much critical acclaim.

Following his deselection in the seat of Oldham, Winston Churchill was invited to stand for Manchester North West. Winston Churchill won the seat at the 1906 general election with a majority of 1,214 and represented the seat for 2 years, until 1908. When Campbell-Bannerman was succeeded by Herbert Henry Asquith in 1908, Winston Churchill was promoted to the Cabinet as President of the Board of Trade. Under the law at the time, a newly appointed Cabinet Minister was obliged to seek re-election at a by-election; Winston Churchill lost his seat but was soon back as a member for Dundee constituency. As President of the Board of Trade he joined newly appointed Chancellor Lloyd George in opposing First Lord of the Admiralty, Reginald McKenna’s proposed huge expenditure for the construction of Navy dreadnought warships, and in supporting the Liberal reforms. In 1908, he introduced the Trade Boards Bill setting up the 1st minimum wages in Britain, In 1909, he set up Labour Exchanges to help unemployed people find work. Winston Churchill helped draft the 1st unemployment pension legislation, the National Insurance Act of 1911.

Winston Churchill also assisted in passing the People’s Budget becoming President of the Budget League, an organisation set up in response to the opposition’s “Budget Protest League”. The budget included the introduction of new taxes on the wealthy to allow for the creation of new social welfare programmes. After the budget bill was sent to the Commons in 1909 and passed, it went to the House of Lords, where it was vetoed. The Liberals then fought and won 2 general elections in January and December of 1910 to gain a mandate for their reforms. The budget was then passed following the Parliament Act of 1911 for which he also campaigned. In 1910, he was promoted to Home Secretary. Winston Churchill’s term was controversial, after his responses to the Siege of Sidney Street and the dispute at the Cambrian Colliery and the suffragettes.

In 1910, a number of coal miners in the Rhondda Valley began what has come to be known as the Tonypandy Riot. The Chief Constable of Glamorgan requested troops be sent in to help police quell the rioting. Winston Churchill, learning that the troops were already travelling, allowed them to go as far as Swindon and Cardiff but blocked their deployment. On 9 November, the Times criticised this decision. In spite of this, the rumour persists that Winston Churchill had ordered troops to attack, and his reputation in Wales and in Labour circles never recovered.

In early January 1911, Winston Churchill made a controversial visit to the Siege of Sidney Street in London. There is some uncertainty as to whether he attempted to give operational commands, and his presence attracted much criticism. After an inquest, Arthur Balfour remarked, “he [Churchill] and a photographer were both risking valuable lives. I understand what the photographer was doing, but what was the right honourable gentleman doing?” A biographer, Roy Jenkins, suggests that he went simply because “he could not resist going to see the fun himself” and that he did not issue commands.

Winston Churchill’s proposed solution to the suffragette issue was a referendum on the issue, but this found no favour with Herbert Henry Asquith and women’s suffrage remained unresolved until after the First World War.

In 1911, Winston Churchill was transferred to the office of the First Lord of the Admiralty, a post he held into World War I. Winston Churchill gave impetus to several reform efforts, including development of naval aviation (he undertook flying lessons himself), the construction of new and larger warships, the development of tanks, and the switch from coal to oil in the Royal Navy.

On 5 October 1914, Winston Churchill went to Antwerp which the Belgian government proposed to evacuate. The Royal Marine Brigade was there and at Winston Churchill’s urgings the 1st and 2nd Naval Brigades were also committed. Antwerp fell on 10 October with the loss of 2500 men. At the time he was attacked for squandering resources. It is more likely that his actions prolonged the resistance by a week (Belgium had proposed surrendering Antwerp on 3 October) and that this time saved Calais and Dunkirk.

Winston Churchill was involved with the development of the tank, which was financed from naval research funds. Winston Churchill then headed the Landships Committee which was responsible for creating the 1st tank corps and, although a decade later development of the battle tank would be seen as a tactical victory, at the time it was seen as misappropriation of funds. In 1915, he was one of the political and military engineers of the disastrous Gallipoli landings on the Dardanelles during World War I. Winston Churchill took much of the blame for the fiasco, and when Prime Minister Asquith formed an all-party coalition government, the Conservatives demanded his demotion as the price for entry.

For several months Winston Churchill served in the sinecure of Chancellor of the Duchy of Lancaster. However on 15 November 1915 he resigned from the government, feeling his energies were not being used and, though remaining an MP, served for several months on the Western Front commanding the 6th Battalion of the Royal Scots Fusiliers, under the rank of Colonel. In March 1916, Winston Churchill returned to England after he had become restless in France and wished to speak again in the House of Commons. In July 1917, Winston Churchill was appointed Minister of Munitions, and in January 1919, Secretary of State for War and Secretary of State for Air. Winston Churchill was the main architect of the 10 Year Rule, a principle that allows the Treasury to dominate and control strategic, foreign and financial policies under the assumption that “there would be no great European war for the next 5 or 10 years”.

A major preoccupation of his tenure in the War Office was the Allied intervention in the Russian Civil War. Winston Churchill was a staunch advocate of foreign intervention, declaring that Bolshevism must be “strangled in its cradle”. Winston Churchill secured, from a divided and loosely organised Cabinet, intensification and prolongation of the British involvement beyond the wishes of any major group in Parliament or the nation—and in the face of the bitter hostility of Labour. In 1920, after the last British forces had been withdrawn, Winston Churchill was instrumental in having arms sent to the Poles when they invaded Ukraine. Winston Churchill became Secretary of State for the Colonies in 1921 and was a signatory of the Anglo-Irish Treaty of 1921, which established the Irish Free State. Winston Churchill was involved in the length negotiations of the treaty and to protect British maritime interests, he engineered part of the Irish Free State agreement to include 3 Treaty Ports—Queenstown (Cobh), Berehaven and Lough Swilly—which could be used as Atlantic bases by the Royal Navy. Under the terms of the Anglo-Irish Trade Agreement the bases were returned to the newly renamed “Ireland” in 1938.

In September, the Conservative Party withdrew from the Coalition government following a meeting of backbenchers dissatisfied with the handling of the Chanak Crisis, a move that precipitated the looming October 1922 General Election. Winston Churchill fell ill during the campaign, and had to have an appendicectomy. This made it difficult for him to campaign, and a further setback was the internal division that continued to beset the Liberal Party. Winston Churchill came only 4th in the poll for Dundee, losing to the prohibitionist Edwin Scrymgeour. Winston Churchill later quipped that he left Dundee “without an office, without a seat, without a party and without an appendix”. Winston Churchill stood for the Liberals again in the 1923 general election, losing in Leicester, and then as an independent, first without success in a by-election in the Westminster Abbey constituency, and then successfully in the general election of 1924 for Epping. The following year, he formally rejoined the Conservative Party, commenting wryly that “anyone can rat, but it takes a certain ingenuity to re-rat.”

Winston Churchill was appointed Chancellor of the Exchequer in 1924 under Stanley Baldwin and oversaw Britain’s disastrous return to the Gold Standard, which resulted in deflation, unemployment, and the miners’ strike that led to the General Strike of 1926. Winston Churchill’s decision, announced in the 1924 Budget, came after long consultation with various economists including John Maynard Keynes, the Permanent Secretary to the Treasury, Sir Otto Niemeyer and the board of the Bank of England. This decision prompted Keynes to write The Economic Consequences of Winston Churchill, arguing that the return to the gold standard at the pre-war parity in 1925(£1=$4.86) would lead to a world depression. However, the decision was generally popular and seen as ‘sound economics’ although it was opposed by Lord Beaverbrook and the Federation of British Industries.

Winston Churchill later regarded this as the greatest mistake of his life. However in discussions at the time with former Chancellor McKenna, Winston Churchill acknowledged that the return to the gold standard and the resulting ‘dear money’ policy was economically bad. In those discussions he maintained the policy as fundamentally political – a return to the pre-war conditions in which he believed. In his speech on the Bill he said “I will tell you what it [the return to the Gold Standard] will shackle us to. It will shackle us to reality.”

The return to the pre-war exchange rate and to the Gold Standard depressed industries. The most affected was the coal industry. Already suffering from declining output as shipping switched to oil, as basic British industries like cotton came under more competition in export markets, the return to the pre-war exchange was estimated to add up to 10% in costs to the industry. In July 1925, a Commission of Inquiry reported generally favouring the miners, rather than the mine owners’ position. Baldwin, with Winston Churchill’s support proposed a subsidy to the industry while a Royal Commission prepared a further report.

That Commission solved nothing and the miners dispute led to the General Strike of 1926, Winston Churchill was reported to have suggested that machine guns be used on the striking miners. Winston Churchill edited the Government’s newspaper, the British Gazette, and, during the dispute, he argued that “either the country will break the General Strike, or the General Strike will break the country” and claimed that the fascism of Benito Mussolini had “rendered a service to the whole world,” showing, as it had, “a way to combat subversive forces”—that is, he considered the regime to be a bulwark against the perceived threat of Communist revolution. At one point, Winston Churchill went as far as to call Mussolini the “Roman genius… the greatest lawgiver among men.”

Later economists, as well as people at the time, also criticised Winston Churchill’s budget measures. These were seen as assisting the generally prosperous rentier banking and salaried classes (to which Winston Churchill and his associates generally belonged) at the expense of manufacturers and exporters which were known then to be suffering from imports and from competition in traditional export markets, and as paring the Armed Forces too heavily.

The Conservative government was defeated in the 1929 General Election. Winston Churchill did not seek election to the Conservative Business Committee, the official leadership of the Conservative MPs. Over the next 2 years, Winston Churchill became estranged from the Conservative leadership over the issues of protective tariffs and Indian Home Rule and by his political views and by his friendships with press barons, financiers and people whose characters were seen as dubious. When Ramsay MacDonald formed the National Government in 1931, Winston Churchill was not invited to join the Cabinet. Winston Churchill was at the low point in his career, in a period known as “the wilderness years”.

Winston Churchill spent much of the next few years concentrating on his writing, including Marlborough: His Life and Times—a biography of his ancestor John Churchill, 1st Duke of Marlborough—and A History of the English Speaking Peoples (though the latter was not published until well after World War II), Great Contemporaries and many newspaper articles and collections of speeches. Winston Churchill was one of the best paid writers of his time. Winston Churchill’s political views, set 4th in his 1930 Romanes Election and published as Parliamentary Government and the Economic Problem (republished in 1932 in his collection of essays “Thoughts and Adventures”) involved abandoning universal suffrage, a return to a property franchise, proportional representation for the major cities and an economic ‘sub parliament’.

Winston Churchill opposed Mohandas Gandhi’s peaceful disobedience revolt and the Indian Independence movement in the 1930s, arguing that the Round Table Conference “was a frightful prospect”. Later reports indicate that Winston Churchill favoured letting Gandhi die if he went on hunger strike. During the 1st 1/2 of the 1930s, Winston Churchill was outspoken in his opposition to granting Dominion status to India. Winston Churchill was one of the founders of the India Defence League, a group dedicated to the preservation of British power in India. In speeches and press articles in this period he forecast widespread British unemployment and civil strife in India should independence be granted. The Viceroy Lord Irwin who had been appointed by the prior Conservative Government engaged in the Round Table Conference in early 1931 and then announced the Government’s policy that India should be granted Dominion Status. In this the Government was supported by the Liberal Party and, officially at least, by the Conservative Party. Winston Churchill denounced the Round Table Conference.

At a meeting of the West Essex Conservative Association specially convened so Winston Churchill could explain his position he said, “It is alarming and also nauseating to see Mr Gandhi, a seditious Middle-Temple lawyer, now posing as a fakir of a type well-known in the East, striding half-naked up the steps of the Vice-regal palace…to parley on equal terms with the representative of the King-Emperor.” Winston Churchill called the Indian Congress leaders “Brahmins who mouth and patter principles of Western Liberalism.”

There were 2 incidents which damaged Winston Churchill’s reputation greatly within the Conservative Party in the period. Both were taken as attacks on the Conservative front bench. The 1st was his speech on the eve of the St George by-election in April 1931. In a secure Conservative seat, the official Conservative candidate Duff Cooper was opposed by an independent Conservative. The independent was supported by Lord Rothermere, Lord Beaverbrook and their respective newspapers. Although arranged before the by election was set, Winston Churchill’s speech was seen as supporting the independent candidate and as a part of the Press Baron’s campaign against Baldwin. Baldwin’s position was strengthened when Duff Cooper won and when the civil disobedience campaign in India ceased with the Gandhi-Irwin Pact. The 2nd issue was a claim that Sir Samuel Hoare and Lord Derby had pressured the Manchester Chamber of Commerce to change evidence it had given to the Joint Select Committee considering the Government of India Bill and in doing so had breached Parliamentary privilege. Winston Churchill had the matter referred to the House of Commons Privilege Committee which after investigations, in which Winston Churchill gave evidence reported to the House that there had been no breach. The report was debated on 13 June. Winston Churchill was unable to find a single supporter in the House and the debate ended without a division.

Winston Churchill permanently broke with Stanley Baldwin over Indian independence and never held any office while Stanley Baldwin was Prime Minister. Some historians see his basic attitude to India as being set out in his book My Early Life (1930). Historians also dispute his motives in maintaining his opposition. Some see him as trying to destabilise the National Government. Some also draw a parallel between Winston Churchill’s attitudes to India and those towards the Nazis.

Beginning in 1932, when he opposed those who advocated giving Germany the right to military parity with France, Winston Churchill spoke often of the dangers of Germany’s rearmament. Winston Churchill later, particularly in The Gathering Storm, portrayed himself as being for a time, a lone voice calling on Britain to strengthen itself to counter the belligerence of Germany. However Lord Lloyd was the 1st to so agitate. Winston Churchill’s attitude toward the fascist dictators was ambiguous. In 1931, he warned against the League of Nations opposing the Japanese in Manchuria “I hope we shall try in England to understand the position of Japan, an ancient state…. On the one side they have the dark menace of Soviet Russia. On the other the chaos of China, 4 or 5 provinces of which are being tortured under Communist rule”. In contemporary newspaper articles he referred to the Spanish Republican government as a Communist front, and Franco’s army as the “Anti-red movement”. Winston Churchill supported the Hoare-Laval Pact and continued up until 1937 to praise Benito Mussolini.

Speaking in the House of Commons in 1937, Winston Churchill said “I will not pretend that, if I had to choose between communism and Nazism, I would choose communism”. In a 1935 essay, entitled “Hitler and his Choice” as republished in Winston Churchill’s 1937 book Great Contemporaries, Winston Churchill expressed a hope that Hitler, if he so chose, and despite his rise to power through dictatorial action, hatred, and cruelty, he might yet “go down in history as the man who restored honour and peace of mind to the great Germanic nation and brought it back serene, helpful and strong, to the forefront of the European family circle.” Winston Churchill’s 1st major speech on defence on 7 February 1934 stressed the need to rebuild the Royal Air Force and to create a Ministry of Defence; his 2nd, on 13 July urged a renewed role for the League of Nations. These 3 topics remained his themes until early 1936. In 1935, he was one of the founding members of Focus which brought together people of differing political backgrounds and occupations who were united in seeking ‘the defence of freedom and peace’. Focus led to the formation of the much wider Arms and the Covenant Movement in 1936.

Winston Churchill was holidaying in Spain when the Germans reoccupied the Rhineland in February 1936, and returned to a divided England—Labour opposition was adamant in opposing sanctions and the National Government was divided between advocates of economic sanctions and those who said that even these would lead to a humiliating backdown by Britain as France would not support any intervention. Winston Churchill’s speech on 9 March was measured and praised by Neville Chamberlain as constructive. But within weeks Winston Churchill was passed over for the post of Minister for Co-ordination of Defence in favour of the Attorney General Sir Thomas Inskip. Alan Taylor called this; ‘An appointment rightly described as the most extraordinary since Caligula made his horse a consul.’ In June 1936, Winston Churchill organised a deputation of senior Conservatives who shared his concern to see Stanley Baldwin, Neville Chamberlain and Halifax. Winston Churchill had tried to have delegates from the other 2 parties and later wrote “If the leaders of the Labour and Liberal oppositions had come with us there might have been a political situation so intense as to enforce remedial action”. As it was the meeting achieved little, Stanley Baldwin arguing that the Government was doing all it could given the anti-war feeling of the electorate.

On 12 November Winston Churchill returned to the topic. Speaking in the Address in Reply debate after giving some specific instances of Germany’s war preparedness he said ‘’’The Government simply cannot make up their mind or they cannot get the Prime Minister to make up his mind. So they go on in strange paradox, decided only to be undecided, resolved to be irresolute, adamant for drift, solid for fluidity, all powerful for impotency. And so we go on preparing more months more years precious perhaps vital for the greatness of Britain for the locusts to eat.’’’

R.R. James called this one of Winston Churchill’s most brilliant speeches in this period, Stanley Baldwin’s reply sounding weak and disturbing the House. The exchange gave new encouragement to the Arms and the Covenant Movement.

In June 1936, Walter Monckton told Winston Churchill that the rumours that King Edward VIII intended to marry Mrs Wallis Simpson were true. Winston Churchill then advised against the marriage and said he regarded Mrs Wallis Simpson’s existing marriage as a ‘safeguard’. In November, he declined Lord Salisbury’s invitation to be part of a delegation of senior Conservative backbenchers who met with Stanley Baldwin to discuss the matter. On 25 November he, Attlee and Sinclair met with Stanley Baldwin and were told officially of the King’s intention and asked whether they would form an administration if Stanley Baldwin and the National Government resigned should the King not take the Ministry’s advice. Both Attlee and Sinclair said they would not take office if invited to do so. Winston Churchill’s reply was that his attitude was a little different but he would support the government.

The Abdication crisis became public, coming to head in the 1st fortnight of December 1936. At this time Winston Churchill publicly gave his support to the King. The 1st public meeting of the Arms and the Covenant Movement was on 3 December. Winston Churchill was a major speaker and later wrote that in replying to the Vote of Thanks he made a declaration ‘on the spur of the moment’ asking for delay before any decision was made by either the King or his Cabinet. Later that night Winston Churchill saw the draft of the King’s proposed wireless broadcast and spoke with Beaverbrook and the King’s solicitor about it. On 4 December, he met with the King and again urged delay in any decision about abdication. On 5 December, he issued a lengthy statement implying that the Ministry was applying unconstitutional pressure on the King to force him to make a hasty decision. On 7 December he tried to address the Commons to plead for delay. Winston Churchill was shouted down. Seemingly staggered by the unanimous hostility of all Members he left.

Winston Churchill’s reputation in Parliament and England as a whole was badly damaged. Some such as Alistair Cooke saw him as trying to build a King’s Party. Others like Harold Macmillan were dismayed by the damage Winston Churchill’s support for the King had done to the Arms and the Covenant Movement. Winston Churchill himself later wrote “I was myself smitten in public opinion that it was the almost universal view that my political life was ended.” Historians are divided about Winston Churchill’s motives in his support for Edward VIII. Some such as A J P Taylor see it as being an attempt to ‘overthrow the government of feeble men’. Others such as Rhode James see Winston Churchill’s motives as entirely honourable and disinterested, that he felt deeply for the King.

Winston Churchill later sought to portray himself as an isolated voice warning of the need to rearm against Germany. While it is true that he had little following in the House of Commons during much of the 1930s he was given considerable privileges by the Government. The “Churchill group” in the later half of the decade consisted only of himself, Duncan Sandys and Brendan Bracken. It was isolated from the other main factions within the Conservative Party pressing for faster rearmament and a stronger foreign policy. In some senses the ‘exile’ was more apparent than real. Winston Churchill continued to be consulted on many matters by the Government or seen as an alternative leader.

Winston Churchill giving his famous ‘V’ sign standing for “Victory”. Even during the time Winston Churchill was campaigning against Indian independence, he received official and otherwise secret information. From 1932, Winston Churchill’s neighbour, Major Desmond Morton with Ramsay MacDonald’s approval, gave Winston Churchill information on German air power. From 1930 onwards Major Desmond Morton headed a department of the Committee of Imperial Defence charged with researching the defence preparedness of other nations. Lord Swinton as Secretary of State for Air, and with Stanley Baldwin’s approval, in 1934 gave Winston Churchill access to official and otherwise secret information.

Lord Swinton did so, knowing Winston Churchill would remain a critic of the government but believing that an informed critic was better than one relying on rumour and hearsay. Winston Churchill was a fierce critic of Neville Chamberlain’s appeasement of Adolf Hitler and in a speech to the House of Commons, he bluntly and prophetically stated, “You were given the choice between war and dishonour. You chose dishonour, and you will have war.

After the outbreak of World War II, on 3 September 1939 the day Britain declared war on Germany, Winston Churchill was appointed First Lord of the Admiralty and a member of the War Cabinet, just as he had been during the first part of World War I. When they were informed, the Board of the Admiralty sent a signal to the Fleet: “Winston is back”. In this job, he proved to be one of the highest-profile ministers during the so-called “Phony War”, when the only noticeable action was at sea. Winston Churchill advocated the pre-emptive occupation of the neutral Norwegian iron-ore port of Narvik and the iron mines in Kiruna, Sweden, early in the war. However, Neville Chamberlain and the rest of the War Cabinet disagreed, and the operation was delayed until the successful German invasion of Norway.

On 10 May 1940, hours before the German invasion of France by a lightning advance through the Low Countries, it became clear that, following failure in Norway, the country had no confidence in Neville Chamberlain’s prosecution of the war and so Neville Chamberlain resigned. The commonly accepted version of events states that Lord Halifax turned down the post of Prime Minister because he believed he could not govern effectively as a member of the House of Lords instead of the House of Commons. Although the Prime Minister does not traditionally advise the King on the former’s successor, Neville Chamberlain wanted someone who would command the support of all 3 major parties in the House of Commons. A meeting between Neville Chamberlain, Lord Halifax, Winston Churchill and David Margesson, the government Chief Whip, led to the recommendation of Winston Churchill, and, as a constitutional monarch, George VI asked Winston Churchill to be Prime Minister and to form an all-party government. Winston Churchill’s 1st act was to write to Neville Chamberlain to thank him for his support.

Winston Churchill had been among the 1st to recognise the growing threat of Hitler long before the outset of the Second World War, and his warnings had gone largely unheeded. Although there was an element of British public and political sentiment favouring negotiated peace with a clearly ascendant Germany, among them the Foreign Secretary Lord Halifax, Winston Churchill nonetheless refused to consider an armistice with Hitler’s Germany. Winston Churchill’s use of rhetoric hardened public opinion against a peaceful resolution and prepared the British for a long war. Coining the general term for the upcoming battle, Winston Churchill stated in his “finest hour” speech to the House of Commons on 18 June 1940, “I expect that the Battle of Britain is about to begin.” By refusing an armistice with Germany, Winston Churchill kept resistance alive in the British Empire and created the basis for the later Allied counter-attacks of 1942-45, with Britain serving as a platform for the supply of Soviet Union and the liberation of Western Europe.

In response to previous criticisms that there had been no clear single minister in charge of the prosecution of the war, Winston Churchill created and took the additional position of Minister of Defence. Winston Churchill immediately put his friend and confidant, the industrialist and newspaper baron Lord Beaverbrook, in charge of aircraft production. It was Lord Beaverbrook’s business acumen that allowed Britain to quickly gear up aircraft production and engineering that eventually made the difference in the war.

Winston Churchill’s speeches were a great inspiration to the embattled British. Winston Churchill’s 1st speech as Prime Minister was the famous “I have nothing to offer but blood, toil, tears, and sweat”. Winston Churchill followed that closely with 2 other equally famous ones, given just before the Battle of Britain. One included the words:

we shall fight in France, we shall fight on the seas and oceans, we shall fight with growing confidence and growing strength in the air, we shall defend our island, whatever the cost may be, we shall fight on the beaches, we shall fight on the landing grounds, we shall fight in the fields and in the streets, we shall fight in the hills; we shall never surrender.

The other:

Let us therefore brace ourselves to our duties, and so bear ourselves, that if the British Empire and its Commonwealth last for a thousand years, men will still say, ‘This was their finest hour’.

At the height of the Battle of Britain, his bracing survey of the situation included the memorable line “Never in the field of human conflict was so much owed by so many to so few”, which engendered the enduring nickname “The Few” for the Allied fighter pilots who won it. One of his most memorable war speeches came on 10 November 1942 at the Lord Mayor’s Luncheon at Mansion House in London, in response to the Allied victory at the Second Battle of El Alamein. Winston Churchill stated:

This is not the end. It is not even the beginning of the end. But it is, perhaps, the end of the beginning.

Without having much in the way of sustenance or good news to offer the British people, he took a political risk in deliberately choosing to emphasise the dangers instead.

“Rhetorical power,” wrote Winston Churchill, “is neither wholly bestowed, nor wholly acquired, but cultivated.” Not all were impressed by his oratory. Robert Menzies, who was the Prime Minister of Australia, said during World War II of Winston Churchill: “His real tyrant is the glittering phrase so attractive to his mind that awkward facts have to give way.” Another associate wrote: “He is . . . the slave of the words which his mind forms about ideas. . . . And he can convince himself of almost every truth if it is once allowed thus to start on its wild career through his rhetorical machinery.”

Winston Churchill’s good relationship with Franklin D. Roosevelt secured vital food, oil and munitions via the North Atlantic shipping routes. It was for this reason that Winston Churchill was relieved when Franklin D. Roosevelt was re-elected in 1940. Upon re-election, Franklin D. Roosevelt immediately set about implementing a new method of providing military hardware and shipping to Britain without the need for monetary payment. Put simply, Franklin D. Roosevelt persuaded Congress that repayment for this immensely costly service would take the form of defending the US; and so Lend-lease was born. Winston Churchill had 12 strategic conferences with franklin D. Roosevelt which covered the Atlantic Charter, Europe 1st strategy, the Declaration by the United Nations and other war policies. After Pearl Harbour was attacked, Winston Churchill’s first thought in anticipation of US help was, “We have won the war!” On 26 December 1941, Winston Churchill addressed a joint meeting of the US Congress, asking of Germany and Japan, “What kind of people do they think we are?” Winston Churchill initiated the Special Operations Executive (SOE) under Hugh Dalton’s Ministry of Economic Warfare, which established, conducted and fostered covert, subversive and partisan operations in occupied territories with notable success; and also the Commandos which established the pattern for most of the world’s current Special Forces. The Russians referred to him as the “British Bulldog”.

Winston Churchill’s health was fragile, as shown by a mild heart attack he suffered in December 1941 at the White House and also in December 1943 when he contracted pneumonia. Despite this, he travelled over 100,000 miles (160,000 km) throughout the war to meet other national leaders. For security, he usually travelled using the alias Colonel Warden. Winston Churchill was party to treaties that would redraw post-World War II European and Asian boundaries. These were discussed as early as 1943. Proposals for European boundaries and settlements were officially agreed to by Harry S Truman, Winston Churchill, and Stalin at Potsdam. At the 2nd Quebec Conference in 1944 he drafted and, together with US President Franklin D. Roosevelt, signed a toned-down version of the original Morgenthau Plan, in which they pledged to convert Germany after its unconditional surrender “into a country primarily agricultural and pastoral in its character.” Winston Churchill’s strong relationship with Harry Truman was also of great significance to both countries. While he clearly regretted the loss of his close friend and counterpart Franklin D. Roosevelt, Winston Churchill was enormously supportive of Harry Truman in his 1st days in office, calling him, “the type of leader the world needs when it needs him most.”

When Hitler invaded the Soviet Union, Winston Churchill, a vehement anti-Communist, famously stated “If Hitler were to invade Hell, I should find occasion to make a favourable reference to the Devil,” regarding his policy toward Stalin. Soon, British supplies and tanks were flowing to help the Soviet Union.

The settlement concerning the borders of Poland, that is, the boundary between Poland and the Soviet Union and between Germany and Poland, was viewed as a betrayal in Poland during the post-war years, as it was established against the views of the Polish government in exile. It was Winston Churchill, who tried to motivate Mikołajczyk, who was Prime Minister of the Polish government in exile, to accept Stalin’s wishes, but Mikołajczyk refused. Winston Churchill was convinced that the only way to alleviate tensions between the 2 populations was the transfer of people, to match the national borders.

As he expounded in the House of Commons on 15 December 1944, “Expulsion is the method which, insofar as we have been able to see, will be the most satisfactory and lasting. There will be no mixture of populations to cause endless trouble… A clean sweep will be made. I am not alarmed by these transferences, which are more possible in modern conditions.” However the resulting expulsions of Germans was carried out by the Soviet Union in a way which resulted in much hardship and, according to a 1966 report by the West German Ministry of Refugees and Displaced Persons, the death of over 2.1,000,000. Winston Churchill opposed the effective annexation of Poland by the Soviet Union and wrote bitterly about it in his books, but he was unable to prevent it at the conferences.

During October 1944, he and Eden were in Moscow to meet with the Russian leadership. At this point, Russian forces were beginning to advance into various eastern European countries. Winston Churchill held the view that until everything was formally and properly worked out at the Yalta conference, there had to be a temporary, war-time, working agreement with regard to who would run what. The most significant of these meetings were held on 9 October 1944 in the Kremlin between Winston Churchill and Stalin. During the meeting, Poland and the Balkan problems were discussed. Winston Churchill recounted his speech to Stalin on the day:

Let us settle about our affairs in the Balkans. Your armies are in Rumania and Bulgaria. We have interests, missions, and agents there. Don’t let us get at cross-purposes in small ways. So far as Britain and Russia are concerned, how would it do for you to have 90% predominance in Rumania, for us to have 90% of the say in Greece, and go 50/50 about Yugoslavia?

Stalin agreed to this Percentages Agreement, ticking a piece of paper as he heard the translation. In 1958, 5 years after the recount of this meeting was published (in The Second World War), authorities of the Soviet denied that Stalin accepted the “imperialist proposal”.

Between 13 February and 15 February 1945, British and the US bombers attacked the German city of Dresden, which was crowded with German wounded and refugees. Because of the cultural importance of the city, and of the number of civilian casualties close to the end of the war, this remains one of the most controversial Western Allied actions of the war. Following the bombing Winston Churchill stated in a top secret telegram:

It seems to me that the moment has come when the question of bombing of German cities simply for the sake of increasing the terror, though under other pretexts, should be reviewed … I feel the need for more precise concentration upon military objectives such as oil and communications behind the immediate battle-zone, rather than on mere acts of terror and wanton destruction, however impressive.

On reflection, under pressure from the Chiefs of Staff and in response to the views expressed by Sir Charles Portal (Chief of the Air Staff,) and Arthur Harris (AOC-in-C of Bomber Command,) among others, Churchill withdrew his memo and issued a new one. This final version of the memo completed on 1 April 1945, stated:

It seems to me that the moment has come when the question of the so called ‘area-bombing’ of German cities should be reviewed from the point of view of our own interests. If we come into control of an entirely ruined land, there will be a great shortage of accommodation for ourselves and our allies … We must see to it that our attacks do no more harm to ourselves in the long run than they do to the enemy’s war effort.

Ultimately, responsibility for the British part of the attack lay with Winston Churchill, which is why he has been criticised for allowing the bombings to happen. The German historian Jörg Friedrich, claims that “Winston Churchill’s decision to [area] bomb a shattered Germany between January and May 1945 was a war crime” and writing in 2006 the philosopher A. C. Grayling questioned the whole strategic bombing campaign by the RAF presenting the argument that although it was not a war crime it was a moral crime and undermines the Allies contention that they fought a just war.

On the other hand, it has also been asserted that Winston Churchill’s involvement in the bombing of Dresden was based on the strategic and tactical aspects of winning the war. The destruction of Dresden, while immense, was designed to expedite the defeat of Germany. As the historian Max Hastings said in an article subtitled, “the Allied Bombing of Dresden”: “I believe it is wrong to describe strategic bombing as a war crime, for this might be held to suggest some moral equivalence with the deeds of the Nazis. Bombing represented a sincere, albeit mistaken, attempt to bring about Germany’s military defeat.” Furthermore British historian, Frederick Taylor asserts that “All sides bombed each other’s cities during the war. Half a million Soviet citizens, for example, died from German bombing during the invasion and occupation of Russia. That’s roughly equivalent to the number of German citizens who died from Allied raids. But the Allied bombing campaign was attached to military operations and ceased as soon as military operations ceased.”

In June 1944, the Allied Forces invaded Normandy and pushed the Nazi forces back into Germany on a broad front over the coming year. After being attacked on 3 fronts by the Allies, Germany was soon defeated. On 7 May 1945 at the SHAEF headquarters in Rheims the Allies accepted Germany’s surrender. On the same day in a BBC news flash John Snagge announced that 8 May would be Victory in Europe Day. On Victory in Europe Day, Winston Churchill broadcast to the nation that Germany had surrendered and that a final cease fire on all fronts in Europe would come into effect at 1 minute past midnight that night. Afterwards Winston Churchill told a huge crowd in Whitehall: “This is your victory.” The people shouted: “No, it is yours”, and Winston Churchill then conducted them in the singing of Land of Hope and Glory. In the evening he made another broadcast to the nation asserting the defeat of Japan in the coming months. The Japanese later surrendered on 15 August 1945.

As Europe celebrated peace at the end of 6 years of war, Winston Churchill was concerning on the possibility that the celebrations would soon be brutally interrupted. Winston Churchill concluded that the UK and the US must prepare for the Red Army ignoring previously-agreed frontiers and agreements in Europe “to impose upon Russia the will of the United States and the British Empire.” According to the Operation Unthinkable plan ordered by Winston Churchill and developed by the British Armed Forces, the Third World War could have started on 1 July 1945 with a sudden attack against the allied Soviet troops. The plan was rejected by the British Chiefs of Staff Committee as militarily unfeasible. However this decision didn’t stop the further development of the war plans: with the beginning Arms race the militarily unfeasible Third World War was developed into the Cold War doctrine.

Although Winston Churchill’s role in World War II had generated him much support from the British population, he was defeated in the 1945 election. Many reasons for this have been given, key among them being that a desire for post-war reform was widespread amongst the population and that the man who had led Britain in war was not seen as the man to lead the nation in peace.

For 6 years he was to serve as the Leader of the Opposition. During these years Winston Churchill continued to have an impact on world affairs. In 1946, he gave his Iron Curtain speech which spoke of the USSR and the creation of the Eastern Bloc. He declared:

Winston Churchill with American General Dwight D. Eisenhower and Field Marshal Bernard Law Montgomery at a meeting of NATO in October 1951, shortly before Winston Churchill was to become Prime Minister for a 2nd time. From Stettin in the Baltic to Trieste in the Adriatic, an Iron Curtain has descended across the continent. Behind that line lie all the capitals of the ancient states of Central and Eastern Europe. Warsaw, Berlin, Prague, Vienna, Budapest, Belgrade, Bucharest and Sofia, all these famous cities and the populations around them lie in what I must call the Soviet sphere.

Winston Churchill also argued strongly for British independence from the European Coal and Steel Community, which he saw as a Franco-German project. Winston Churchill saw Britain’s place as separate from the continent, much more in-line with the countries of the Commonwealth and the Empire and with the United States, the so-called Anglosphere.

After the General Election of 1951, Winston Churchill again became Prime Minister. Winston Churchill’s 3rd government—after the wartime national government and the brief caretaker government of 1945—lasted until his resignation in 1955. Winston Churchill’s domestic priorities in his last government were overshadowed by a series of foreign policy crises, which were partly the result of the continued decline of British military and imperial prestige and power. Being a strong proponent of Britain as an international power, Winston Churchill would often meet such moments with direct action. One example was his dispatch of British troops to Kenya to deal with the Mau Mau rebellion. Trying to retain what he could of the Empire, he once stated that, “I will not preside over a dismemberment.”

This was followed by events which became known as the Malayan Emergency. In Malaya, a rebellion against British rule had been in progress since 1948. Once again, Winston Churchill’s government inherited a crisis, and Winston Churchill chose to use direct military action against those in rebellion while attempting to build an alliance with those who were not. While the rebellion was slowly being defeated, it was equally clear that colonial rule from Britain was no longer sustainable.

Winston Churchill also devoted much of his time in office to Anglo-American relations and although Winston Churchill did not get on well with President Dwight D. Eisenhower, Winston Churchill attempted to maintain the special relationship with the United States. Winston Churchill made 4 official transatlantic visits to America during his 2nd term as Prime Minister.

In June 1953, when he was 78, Winston Churchill suffered a stroke at 10 Downing Street. News of this was kept from the public and from Parliament, who were told that Winston Churchill was suffering from exhaustion. Winston Churchill went to his country home, Chartwell, to recuperate from the effects of the stroke which had affected his speech and ability to walk. Winston Churchill returned to public life in October to make a speech at a Conservative Party conference at Margate. However, aware that he was slowing down both physically and mentally, Winston Churchill retired as Prime Minister in 1955 and was succeeded by Anthony Eden.

Winston Churchill spent much of his retirement at his home Chartwell in Kent. Winston Churchill purchased it in 1922 after his daughter Mary was born. After leaving the premiership, Winston Churchill spent less time in parliament until he stood down at the 1964 General Election. As a mere “back-bencher,” Winston Churchill spent most of his retirement at Chartwell and at his home in Hyde Park Gate, in London. As his mental and physical faculties decayed, he began to lose the battle he had fought for so long against the “black dog” of depression. In 1963, US President John F. Kennedy, acting under authorisation granted by an Act of Congress, proclaimed him an Honourary Citizen of the United States, but he was unable to attend the White House ceremony.

Winston Churchill was also an accomplished artist and took great pleasure in painting, especially after his resignation as First Lord of the Admiralty in 1915. Winston Churchill found a haven in art to overcome the spells of depression—or as he termed it, the “Black Dog”—which he suffered throughout his life. As William Rees-Mogg has stated, “In his own life, he had to suffer the ‘black dog’ of depression. In his landscapes and still lives there is no sign of depression”. Winston Churchill is best known for his impressionist scenes of landscape, many of which were painted while on holiday in the South of France or Morocco. Winston Churchill continued his hobby throughout his life and painted dozens of paintings, many of which are on show in the studio at Chartwell.

Winston Churchill as a historian and writer.

Despite his lifelong fame and upper-class origins Winston Churchill always struggled to keep his income at a level that would fund his extravagant lifestyle. MPs before 1946 received only a nominal salary (and in fact did not receive anything at all until the Parliament Act of 1911) so many had secondary professions from which to earn a living. From his 1st book in 1898 until his 2nd stint as Prime Minister, Winston Churchill’s income was almost entirely made from writing books and opinion pieces for newspapers and magazines. The most famous of his newspaper articles are those that appeared in the Evening Standard from 1936 warning of the rise of Hitler and the danger of the policy of appeasement.

Winston Churchill was also a prolific writer of books, writing a novel, 2 biographies, 3 volumes of memoirs, and several histories in addition to his many newspaper articles. Winston Churchill was awarded the Nobel Prize in Literature “for his mastery of historical and biographical description as well as for brilliant oratory in defending exalted human values”. 2 of his most famous works, published after his 1st premiereship brought his international fame to new heights, were his 6-volume memoir The Second World War and A History of the English-Speaking Peoples; a 4-volume history covering the period from Caesar’s invasions of Britain (55 BC) to the beginning of the First World War (1914).

Honours:

Aside from receiving the great honour of a state funeral, Winston Churchill also received numerous awards and honours, including being made the 1st Honourary Citizen of the United States. Winston Churchill received the Nobel Prize in Literature for his numerous published works, especially his 6-edition set The Second World War. In a 2002 BBC poll of the “100 Greatest Britons”, he was proclaimed “The Greatest of Them All” based on approximately a million votes from BBC viewers. Winston Churchill was also rated as one of the most influential leaders in history by Time magazine.

The Winston Churchill Memorial Trust:

When Winston Churchill was 88 he was asked by the Duke of Edinburgh how he would like to be remembered. Winston Churchill replied with a scholarship like the Rhodes scholarship but for the wider masses. After his death, the Winston Churchill Memorial Trust was established in Great Britain and Australia. A Churchill Trust Memorial Day was held in Australia, raising $AUD4.3,000,000. Since that time the Churchill Trust in Australia has supported over 3,000 scholarship recipients in a diverse variety of fields, where merit, either on the basis of past experience, or potential, and the propensity to contribute to the community have been the only criteria. The Churchill Trust is today one of the most prestigious fellowships in the Commonwealth.

It is alleged that while Home Secretary in 1910, Winston Churchill proposed the sterilisation of 100,000 “mental degenerates”, and the dispatch of tens of thousands of others to state-run labor camps, so as to save the “British race” from inevitable decline as its “inferior” members were allowed to breed.

Poison gas:

It is sometimes claimed that Winston Churchill advocated the use of poison gas on Kurdish tribesmen in Mesopotamia. This accusation is based almost entirely on a War Office minute of 12 May 1919, in which Winston Churchill argued for the use of tear gas:

I do not understand this squeamishness about the use of gas. We have definitely adopted the position at the Peace Conference of arguing in favour of the retention of gas as a permanent method of warfare. It is sheer affectation to lacerate a man with the poisonous fragment of a bursting shell and to boggle at making his eyes water by means of lachrymatory gas. I am strongly in favour of using poisoned gas against uncivilised tribes. The moral effect should be so good that the loss of life should be reduced to a minimum. It is not necessary to use only the most deadly gasses: gasses can be used which cause great inconvenience and would spread a lively terror and yet would leave no serious permanent effects on most of those affected.

If British forces did consider the use of poison gas in putting down Kurdish rebellions, there is no evidence that it was ever used.

Winston Churchill was well known for his interest in Bezique, a 2 player game. On a trip to the United States of America in March 1946, he famously lost a lot of money in a game with Harry Truman and his advisors. Winston Churchill revealed that he learnt to play while serving in the Boer War. Following on Winston Churchill’s interests, the Churchill Regular Association for Poker exists to this day at Churchill College, Cambridge. In a recent interview, Donald Trump listed Winston Churchill as one of the people he would most like to play poker with.

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Speech Differences And Stutter Series-Disabled Legend Shane Yellowbird

Shane Yellowbird is a Canadian country music singer/songwriter from Hobbema, Alberta. In 2007, Shane Yellowbird was named the Aboriginal Entertainer of the Year at the Aboriginal People’s Choice Music Awards, Chevy Trucks Rising Star of the Year at the Canadian Country Music Awards, and had 1 of the 10 most played country music songs of the year in Canada.

Shane Yellowbird released his debut album, Life Is Calling My Name, in 2006. The album includes the singles “Beautiful Concept,” “They’re All About You,” “Pickup Truck” and “I Remember the Music.” In November of 2006, Yellowbird won 2 awards at the Aboriginal People’s Choice Music Awards ceremony, including Best New Artist, Single of the Year (“Beautiful Concept”) and Best Video (“Beautiful Concept”). Shane Yellowbird opened for Emerson Drive on their cross-Canada tour, and was chosen to represent his native Canada by performing at the 4th Annual Global Artist Party at the CMA Music Festival in June of 2007. Shane Yellowbird was named the Chevy Trucks Rising Star of the Year at the 2007 Canadian Country Music Awards.

“Pickup Truck,” Shane Yellowbird’s 3rd single, also became his 1st Top 5 song on the Canadian Country Singles chart in the summer of 2007. The song also peaked at No. 64 on the all-genre Canadian Hot 100, while the video topped the CMT Chevy Top 20 in July. It was 1 of the 10 most played country music songs of the year in Canada. Shane Yellowbird opened the 2007 Aboriginal People’s Choice Music Awards, starring with Lorne Cardinal and Gabrielle Miller of Corner Gas. Later that evening, he was named the Aboriginal Entertainer of the Year. Shane Yellowbird also won awards for Best Country CD (Life Is Calling My Name) and Best Music Video (“Pickup Truck”). Shane Yellowbird also won 3 trophies at the 2007 Canadian Aboriginal Music Awards, including Best Male Artist, Best Country Album and Best Album of the Year (Life Is Calling My Name). Shane Yellowbird was also nomiated for the 2008 Juno Award for Country Recording of the Year, for Life Is Calling My Name.

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Speech Differences And Stutter Series-Disabled Legend Bill Walton

William Theodore “Bill” Walton III was born on 5 November, 1952 in La Mesa, California, USA. Bill Walton is a retired American basketball player and current television sportscaster. The “Big Red-Head”, as he was called, achieved superstardom playing for John Wooden’s powerhouse UCLA Bruins in the early ’70s and winning three straight College Player of the Year Awards and went on to have a prominent career in the NBA. Bill Walton was inducted into the Basketball Hall of Fame on 10 May, 1993 and the Oregon Sports Hall of Fame that same year. Bill Walton is the father of current Los Angeles Lakers forward Luke Walton.

Bill Walton, is the son of Gloria Anne (née Hickey) and William Theodore “Ted” Walton. At the age of 17, he played for the United States men’s national basketball team at the 1970 FIBA World Championship.

Bill Walton played college basketball for John Wooden at the University of California, Los Angeles (UCLA) from 1971 to 1974, winning the national title in 1972 over Florida State and again in 1973 with an 87-66 win over Memphis State in which the big redhead from San Diego made an impressive 21 of 22 field goal attempts and scored 44 points. Some regard this as the greatest ever offensive performance in American college basketball. The Walton-led 1971-72 UCLA basketball team had a record of 30-0, in the process winning its games by an average margin of more than 30points. Bill Walton was the backbone of 2 consecutive 30-0 seasons and was also part of UCLA’s NCAA record 88 game winning streak. Coincidentally, Bruins last loss was to Notre Dame and Austin Carr. Bill Walton admits the loss to Notre Dame (coached by Digger Phelps) to end the 88-game streak still bothers him more than any other loss in his career.

Bill Walton was the 1973 recipient of the James E. Sullivan Award as the top amateur athlete in the United States. Bill Walton also received the USBWA College Player of the Year and Naismith College Player of the Year as the top college basketball player in the country 3 years in a row while attending UCLA, at the same time earning Academic All-American honours 3 times. Some college basketball historians rate Bill Walton as the greatest who ever played the game at the college level. In Bill Walton’s senior year of 1973-74 the school’s streak 88-consecutive wins was snapped by Notre Dame, and its record 7 consecutive national titles was broken when North Carolina State defeated the Bruins 80-77 in double overtime in the NCAA semi-finals. With Bill Walton’s graduation in 1974 and legendary Bruin coach John Wooden’s retirement after UCLA’s 1975 national title, the unprecedented UCLA dynasty came to an end.

Bill Walton was drafted number 1 overall by the Portland Trail Blazers and was hailed as the savior of the franchise. Bill Walton’s 1st 2 seasons were marred by injury (at different times he broke his nose, foot, wrist and leg) and the Blazers missed the playoffs both years. It was not until the 1976-77 season that he was healthy enough to play 65 games and, spurred by new head coach Jack Ramsay, the Trail Blazers became the Cinderella team of the NBA. Bill Walton led the NBA in both rebounds per game and blocked shots per game that season and he was selected to the NBA All-Star Game but did not participate due to an injury. Bill Walton was named to the NBA’s 1st All-Defensive Team and the All-NBA 2nd Team for his regular season accomplishments. In the postseason, Bill Walton led Portland to a sweep of the Los Angeles Lakers in the conference finals (famously outplaying Kareem Abdul-Jabbar during the series)and went on to help the Trail Blazers to the NBA title over the favoured Philadelphia 76ers despite losing the 1st 2 games of the series. Bill Walton was named the Finals MVP.

The following year, the Blazers won 50 of their 1st 60 games before Bill Walton suffered a broken foot in what turned out to be the 1st in a string of foot and ankle injuries that cut short his career. Bill Walton nonetheless won the league MVP that season (1978) and the Sporting News NBA MVP, as well. Bill Walton played in his only All-Star Game in 1978 and was named to both the NBA’s 1st All-Defensive Team and the All-NBA 1st Team. Bill Walton returned to action for the playoffs but was reinjured in the 2nd game of a series against the Seattle SuperSonics. Without Bill Walton to lead them, Portland lost the series to Seattle in 6 games. As it turned out, Bill Walton would never play for the Trail Blazers again. During the offseason, Bill Walton demanded to be traded, citing unethical and incompetent treatment of his and other players’ injuries by the Blazers’ front office. Bill Walton did not get his wish and sat out the 1978-79 season in protest, signing with the San Diego Clippers when he became a free agent in 1979.

Bill Walton spent several seasons alternating between the court and the disabled list with his hometown San Diego Clippers. After the 1984-85 campaign, Bill Walton called on 2 of the league’s premier teams, the Boston Celtics and the Los Angeles Lakers. After several players on the Celtics said they liked the idea of having Bill Walton as a teammate backing up Robert Parish and Kevin McHale, Red Auerbach made the deal happen. One anecdote that particularly illustrates Bill Walton’s decision to choose the Celtics over the Lakers is about Larry Bird, who happened to be in Red Auerbach’s office when Bill Walton called and said that if Bill Walton felt healthy enough to play that it was good enough for him, as opposed to Lakers GM Jerry West, who was hedging his interest in Bill Walton pending a doctor’s report. Boston acquired Bill Walton by sending popular forward Cedric Maxwell to the Clippers along with a 1st-round draft pick. Providing a reliable backup to Kevin McHale and Robert Parish, Bill Walton received the NBA 6th Man Award that season en route to the NBA Championship, becoming the only player to have ever won an NBA Finals MVP, 6th Man Award, and regular season MVP.

Bill Walton injured himself again the following season, but returned for the 1987 playoffs. Bill Walton spent the 1987-88 season on the injured list. Bill Walton attempted a comeback in February 1990, but injury intervened and he retired from the game. Bill Walton’s ankle problems became so severe years later that he had both his ankles surgically fused. Bill Walton’s saga of injury and failed rehabs was connected to the use of pain killers by the doctor who was assigned to his case. Bill Walton has said repeatedly in his broadcasts that he is just as much to blame for taking the medication as the doctor was for giving it to him. Yet his experience with injuries and the circumstances surrounding them have come to serve as a warning for professional athletes who undergo major injury as well as being an interesting case study for medical ethics. Bill Walton’s injuries, along with his 1978-1979 year-long protest, gave him an unpleasant, if not odd, record. Bill Walton holds the record for the most games missed during an NBA playing career, when taking into account the number of years he was officially listed as a player on a team roster.

Bill Walton was inducted into the Oregon Sports Hall of Fame in 1993, and had his number 32 retired by the Blazers in 1989. In 1996, he was named as one of the NBA’s 50 Greatest Players of all time.

Since his retirement as a player, Bill Walton has overcome a severe stuttering problem to become a successful and controversial NBA colour commentator for NBC
(1990-2002), Los Angeles Clippers (1990-2002) and ABC/ESPN (since 2002).

Bill Walton’s trademark catchphrases include, “That’s a terrible call! Terrible,” “Where in the world is [x]?” (for a player who has disappeared from a game), “What is a foul?”, “Dial a violation,” “He couldn’t even inbound the ball!”, “Throw it down, big man! Throw it down!”, and “Basketball is a game played by men competing for the ultimate prize”. In addition after a predominantly one-handed player makes a basket going to his strong hand Walton will summarize the action and then say, “He’s left-handed by the way Marv” or “Someone should tell player x that player y is left-handed and promises to be so for the remainder of the game,” intimating that perhaps the defender should defend that side of the player. Walton typically is paired up with Steve “Snapper” Jones for NBA games due to him and Jones having a point-counterpoint banter during games. Despite their frequent on-air argumentative banter they are actually good friends as was evidenced in Bill Walton’s short lived 2003 TV series Bill Walton’s Long Strange Trip.

In addition, his commentary during games is notable for his frequent use of hyperbole. In one instance where Tony Parker of the San Antonio Spurs had a pass deflected out of bounds by a defender, Bill Walton stated, “Tony Parker just made the worst pass in the history of Western civilization!” Often this is done to intentional or perhaps unintentional comedic effect. Bill Walton also is rumoured to have challenged Marv Albert to a wrestling cage match and was considered “out of line” for the provocation. During one game he announced, Bill Walton stated, “I am the hero, I am #1, I can go in there and shake and bake all those youngins and teach them some real basketball so they can stop their complaining”.

Bill Walton currently resides in his hometown of San Diego with his wife Lori. Bill Walton and his 1st wife, Susie, have 4 sons they are, Adam, Nathan, Luke, and Chris. Luke, although not as tall as his father, played collegiately for the University of Arizona and now plays for the Lakers as a forward. Another of Bill Walton’s sons, Chris, played for San Diego State University. Nate, his middle son, played basketball at Princeton University but then entered the corporate world and earned his MBA from Stanford University’s Graduate School of Business. (Bill Walton himself attended Stanford Law School for 2 years but never graduated.) Nate was also on the ballot for the 2003 California Recall Election, receiving 1,697 votes. Bill Walton’s other son, Adam, also played NCAA basketball at LSU.

Bill Walton is also a well-known fan of the Grateful Dead, Allman Brothers Band, Neil Young, Phish, and Bob Dylan. Bill Walton has attended more than 650 Grateful Dead concerts, including traveling with the band to Egypt for its famous 1978 performance before the Pyramids, quotes Dead lyrics in TV and radio interviews, and was once invited to play on-stage with the group. To fellow Deadheads, Bill Walton is fondly known as “Grateful Red” and the “Big Red Deadhead”. In the video for “Touch of Grey”, Grateful Dead drummer Mickey Hart is wearing a Celtics jacket that was given to him by Bill Walton. In 2001, Bill Walton was officially inducted into The Grateful Dead Hall of Honour.

Bill Walton expounds upon his music interests on his own satellite radio show, One More Saturday Night (named after the Dead song “One More Saturday Night”), heard during late prime time on Sirius Radio’s Jam On channel. Bill Walton has stated in his online introduction to his radio show column that he enjoys going to concerts alone because then he has fewer things in between him and reaching the omega point that all concert goers seek at shows.

Bill Walton still has a committed relationship with the Celtics, if not professionally, as a fan. Despite the area where he grew up, and the team his son Luke plays for, Bill Walton is careful to point out, “Even though I grew up in the heart of Laker country, the Celtics were always MY team”. Bill Walton also keeps a picture of the floor of the old Boston Garden in his kitchen.

In June 2008, he was asked by ESPN to predict the outcome of the NBA finals matchup between the Celtics and the Lakers, their 1st meeting in the finals since 1987, his 2nd and final as player for Boston. Bill Walton predicted the Celtics would take the series in 6 games, a prediction that came true on 17th of that month.

Bill Walton is mentioned in the comedy film Airplane! In one scene, a boy is invited into the cockpit of a jetliner, and claims that the co-pilot (played by Kareem Abdul-Jabbar) is in fact Kareem Abdul-Jabbar. Abdul-Jabbar, playing in character, denies being the basketball star, insisting instead that he is merely Roger Murdock, the plane’s co-pilot. The boy then states that he thinks Kareem is great, but that his father thinks the Lakers “don’t work hard on defense” and that Kareem “doesn’t try… except during the playoffs”. This causes Abdul-Jabbar to snarl “The hell I don’t!”, followed by “Tell your old man to drag Bill Walton and Lanier up and down the court for 48 minutes”.

Bill Walton has also been impersonated by Frank Caliendo on several occasions. Caliendo (in Bill Walton character) proclaims, “Unbelievable! I remember being in Berkeley. I could smell colours, I could feel sounds! Has there ever been a player better than Detlef Schrempf? I mean, watching a guy 6 foot 10, I don’t know where he’s from, I don’t know what country he’s about! But I will tell you what, watching him shoot from the outside is unbelievable! Fred Roberts look out! World B. Free! I don’t care who you are! I mean, Howard Eisley, does it matter?! I don’t think so! This is what basketball is all about! Luke, come to the dark side, I AM YOUR FATHER!”

Bill Walton also has cameo appearances in the films Celtic Pride, Little Nicky and Semi-Pro.

Bill Walton is a playable character in the 2003 video game NBA Street Volume 2.

Bill Walton has had a life long problem with his speech and communication skills.

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Speech Differences And Stutter Series-Disabled Legend Robert Merrill

Robert Merrill was born Morris (Moishe) Miller on 4 June, 1917 in the Williamsburg section of Brooklyn, New York, USA and died on 23 October, 2004 at home in New Rochelle, NY, while watching Game 1 of the 2004 World Series between the Boston Red Sox and the St. Louis Cardinals. Robert Merrill is interred at the Sharon Gardens Cemetery in Valhalla, NY, which is a subdivision of the Kensico Cemetery. Robert Merrill’s headstone features an opera curtain that has been drawn open. In keeping with Jewish tradition, small rocks rest on top of the headstone.

Robert Merrill was an American operatic baritone. While there has been dispute of his birth year (some claim he was born in 1919), the social security index, his family, and his gravestone state that he was born in 1917.

Robert Merrill was born to tailor Abraham Miller, originally Milstein, and his wife Lillian, née Balaban, immigrants from Warsaw, Poland. Lillian claimed to have had an operatic and concert career in Poland (a fact denied by her son in his biographies) and encouraged her son to have early voice training: he had a tendency to stutter, which disappeared when singing. Robert Merrill was inspired to pursue professional singing lessons when he saw the baritone Richard Bonelli singing Count Di Luna in a performance of Il Trovatore at the Metropolitan Opera, and paid for them with money earned as a semi-professional pitcher.

In his early radio appearances as a crooner he was sometimes billed as Merrill Miller. While singing at bar mitzvahs and weddings and Borscht Belt resorts, he met an agent, Moe Gale, who found him work at Radio City Music Hall and with the NBC Symphony Orchestra, conducted by Arturo Toscanini. With Arturo Toscanini conducting, he eventually sang in 2 of the famous maestro’s NBC broadcasts of famous operas, La traviata (with Licia Albanese, in 1946), and Un ballo in maschera (with Herva Nelli, in 1954). Both of those broadcasts were eventually released on both LP and CD.

Robert Merrill’s 1944 operatic debut was in Verdi’s Aida at Newark, New Jersey, with the famous tenor Giovanni Martinelli, then at the end of his long stage career.

Robert Merrill, who had continued his vocal studies under Samuel Margolis made his debut at the Metropolitan Opera in 1945, as Germont in La Traviata. Also in 1945, Robert Merrill recorded a 78rpm record set with Jeanette MacDonald featuring selections from the operetta Up In Central Park; MacDonald and Robert Merrill did 2 duets together on this album. In 1952, his role in the musical comedy film Aaron Slick from Punkin Crick led to conflict with Sir Rudolf Bing and a brief departure from the Met in 1951. Robert Merrill sang many different baritone roles, becoming, after the on-stage death of Leonard Warren in 1960, the Met’s principal baritone. In the late 1950s and early 1960s he appeared under the direction of Alfredo Antonini in performances of arias from the Italian operatic repertoire for the open air Italian Night concert series at Lewisohn Stadium in New York City. Robert Merrill was described by Time as “one of the Met’s best baritones”. The tenor-baritone duet “Au fond du temple saint” from the opera The Pearl Fishers by Georges Bizet, which he recorded with Jussi Bjorling, was always top of listener’s polls for the BBC’s Your Hundred Best Tunes. It was also No 1. in ABC’s “The Classic 100 Opera”, a poll in which Australians voted for the one moment in opera they could not live without. It is regarded as one of the most perfect tenor/baritone performances of all time. Robert Merrill also continued to perform on radio and television, in nightclubs and recitals. Robert Merrill retired from the Met in 1976. For many years, he led services, often in Borscht Belt hotels, on Rosh Hashana and Yom Kippur.

In honour of Robert Merrill’s vast influence on American vocal music, on 16 February,1981 he was awarded the prestigious University of Pennsylvania Glee Club Award of Merit. Beginning in 1964, this award “established to bring a declaration of appreciation to an individual each year that has made a significant contribution to the world of music and helped to create a climate in which our talents may find valid expression.”

Relatively late in his singing career, Robert Merrill also became known for singing “The Star-Spangled Banner” at Yankee Stadium. Robert Merrill 1st sang the national anthem to open the 1969 baseball season, and it became a tradition for the Yankees to bring him back each year on Opening Day and special occasions. Robert Merrill sang at various Old Timer’s Days (wearing his own pinstriped Yankee uniform with the number “1 1/2” on the back) and the emotional pre-game ceremony for Thurman Munson at Yankee Stadium on 3 August, 1979, the day after the catcher’s death in a plane crash. A recorded Robert Merrill version is sometimes used at Yankee Stadium today. Robert Merrill preferred a traditional approach to the song devoid of additional ornamentation, as he explained to Newsday in 2000, “When you sing the anthem, there’s a legitimacy to it. I’m extremely bothered by these different interpretations of it.” Robert Merrill received the National Medal of Arts in 1993.

Robert Merrill married soprano Roberta Peters in 1952. They parted amicably; he had 2children, a son David and a daughter Lizanne, with his second wife, Marion, née Machno, a pianist. Robert Merrill liked to play golf and was a member of the Westchester Country Club in Rye, New York, for many years.

Robert Merrill wrote 2 books of memoirs, Once More from the Beginning (1965) and Between Acts (1976), and he co-authored a novel, The Divas (1978). Robert Merrill toured all over the world with his arranger and conductor, the world famous Angelo DiPippo who wrote most of his act and performed at concert halls throughout the world. Robert Merrill always donated his time on the Cerebral Palsy telethon with Dennis James.

The opera show “La Traviata” inspired Robert to become an opera singer, this meant fighting his stuttering problems. Robert Merrill found that while he was singing his speech disorder would go away.

Robert Merrill’s epitaph states:

Like a bursting celestial star, he showered his family and the world with love, joy, and beauty.

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