Speech Differences And Stutter Series-Disabled Legend Enoch Bennett

Enoch Arnold Bennett was born on 27 May 1867 in a modest house in Hanley, one of a conurbation of 6 towns which joined together at the beginning of the 20th century as Stoke-on-Trent, in the Potteries district of Staffordshire. Enoch Bennett died on 27 March 1931 of typhoid at his home in Baker Street, London, England, UK. Enoch Bennett’s ashes are buried in Burslem cemetery. Their daughter Virginia Eldin lived in France and was president of the Arnold Bennett Society.

Enoch Bennett was an English novelist.

Enoch Bennett’s father, qualified as a solicitor in 1876, and the family were able to move to a larger house between Hanley and Burslem. The younger Enoch Bennett was educated locally in Newcastle-under-Lyme.

Enoch Bennett was employed by his father – his duties included rent collecting. Enoch Bennett was unhappy working for his father for little financial reward, and the theme of parental miserliness is important in his novels. In his spare time he was able to do a little journalism, but his breakthrough as a writer was to come after he had moved from his native Potteries. At the age of 21, he left his father’s practice and went to London as a solicitor’s clerk.

Enoch Bennett won a literary competition in Tit-Bits magazine in 1889 and was encouraged to take up journalism full time. In 1894, he became assistant editor of the periodical Woman. Enoch Bennett noticed that the material offered by a syndicate to the magazine was not very good, so he wrote a serial which was bought by the syndicate for £75.00. Enoch Bennett then wrote another. This became The Grand Babylon Hotel. Just over 4 years later, his 1st novel A Man from the North was published to critical acclaim and he became editor to the magazine.

From 1900 he devoted himself full time to writing, giving up the editorship and writing much serious criticism, and also theatre journalism, one of his special interests. Enoch Bennett moved to Trinity Hall Farm, Hockliffe, Bedfordshire, on Watling Street, which was the inspiration for his novel Teresa of Watling Street, which came out in 1904. Enoch Bennett’s father Enoch Bennett died there in 1902, and is buried in Chalgrove churchyard. In 1902, Anna of the 5 Towns, the 1st of a succession of stories which detailed life in the Potteries, appeared.

In 1903, he moved to Paris, where other great artists from around the world had converged on Montmartre and Montparnasse. Enoch Bennett spent the next 8 years writing novels and plays. In 1908 The Old Wives’ Tale was published, and was an immediate success throughout the English-speaking world. After a visit to America in 1911, where he had been publicised and acclaimed as no other visiting writer since Dickens, he returned to England where Old Wives’ Tale was reappraised and hailed as a masterpiece. During the First World War, he became Director of Propaganda at the War Ministry. Enoch Bennett refused a knighthood in 1918. Enoch Bennett won the 1923 James Tait Black Memorial Prize for his novel Riceyman Steps and in 1926, at the suggestion of Lord Beaverbrook, he began writing an influential weekly article on books for the Evening Standard newspaper.

Osbert Sitwell, in a letter to James Agate, notes that Enoch Bennett was not, despite current views, “the typical businessman, with his mean and narrow outlook”. Osbert Sitwell cited a letter from Enoch Bennett to a friend of James Agate, who remains anonymous, in Ego 5:

I find I am richer this year than last; so I enclose a cheque for £500.00 for you to distribute among young writers and artists and musicians who may need the money. You will know, better than I do, who they are. But I must make one condition, that you do not reveal that the money has come from me, or tell anyone about it.

Enoch Bennett separated from his French wife in 1922, and fell in love with the actress Dorothy Cheston, with whom he stayed for the rest of his life.

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Speech Differences And Stutter Series-Disabled Legend Alfred Kazin

Alfred Kazin was born on 5 June, 1915 and died on 5 June, 1998. Alfred Kazin was an American writer and literary critic, many of whose writings depicted the immigrant experience in early 20th century America.

Alfred Kazin is regarded as one of “The New York Intellectuals”, and like many other members of this group he was born in Brooklyn and attended the City College of New York. However, his politics were more moderate than most of the New York intellectuals, many of whom were socialists. Alfred Kazin wrote out of a great passion– or great disgust — for what he was reading and embedded his opinions in a deep knowledge of history, both literary history and politics and culture. Alfred Kazin was a friend of the political theorist Hannah Arendt. In 1996 he was awarded the 1st Truman Capote Lifetime Achievement Award for literary criticism.

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Speech Differences And Stutter Series-Disabled Legend Demosthenes

Demosthenes was born in 384 and died in 322 BC, Greek: Δημοσθένης, Dēmosthénēs) was a prominent Greek statesman and orator of ancient Athens. Demosthenes orations constitute a significant expression of ancient Athenian intellectual prowess and provide an insight into the politics and culture of ancient Greece during the 4th century BC. Demosthenes learned rhetoric by studying the speeches of previous great orators. Demosthenes delivered his 1st judicial speeches at the age of 20, in which he argued effectively to gain from his guardians what was left of his inheritance. For a time, Demosthenes made his living as a professional speech-writer (logographer) and a lawyer, writing speeches for use in private legal suits.

Demosthenes grew interested in politics during his time as a logographer, and in 354 BC he gave his 1st public political speeches. Demosthenes went on to devote his most productive years to opposing Macedon’s expansion. Demosthenes idealised his city and strove throughout his life to restore Athens’ supremacy and motivate his compatriots against Philip II of Macedon. Demosthenes sought to preserve his city’s freedom and to establish an alliance against Macedon, in an unsuccessful attempt to impede Philip’s plans to expand his influence southwards by conquering all the Greek states. After Philip’s death, Demosthenes played a leading part in his city’s uprising against the new King of Macedon, Alexander the Great. However, his efforts failed and the revolt was met with a harsh Macedonian reaction. To prevent a similar revolt against his own rule, Alexander’s successor in this region, Antipater, sent his men to track Demosthenes down. Demosthenes took his own life, in order to avoid being arrested by Archias, Antipater’s confidant.

The Alexandrian Canon compiled by Aristophanes of Byzantium and Aristarchus of Samothrace recognised Demosthenes as 1 of the 10 greatest Attic orators and logographers. According to Longinus, Demosthenes “perfected to the utmost the tone of lofty speech, living passions, copiousness, readiness, speed”. Cicero acclaimed him as “the perfect orator” who lacked nothing, and Quintilian extolled him as “lex orandi” (“the standard of oratory”) and that “inter omnes unus excellat” (“he stands alone among all the orators”).

During the last year of the 98th Olympiad or the 1st year of the 99th Olympiad. Demosthenes’s father—also named Demosthenes—who belonged to the local tribe, Pandionis, and lived in the deme of Paeania in the Athenian countryside, was a wealthy sword-maker. Aeschines, Demosthenes’ greatest political rival, maintained that his mother Kleoboule was a Scythian by blood—an allegation disputed by some modern scholars. Demosthenes was orphaned at the age of 7. Although his father provided well for him, his legal guardians, Aphobus, Demophon and Therippides, mishandled his inheritance.

As soon as Demosthenes came of age in 366 BC, he demanded they render an account of their management. According to Demosthenes, the account revealed the misappropriation of his property. Although his father left an estate of nearly 14talents,(very roughly 3,000 pounds in gold or 400,000 current United States dollars)Demosthenes asserted his guardians had left nothing “except the house, and 14 slaves and 30 silver minae” (30 minae = ½ talent). At the age of 20, Demosthenes sued his trustees in order to recover his patrimony and delivered 5 orations — 3 Against Aphobus during 363 BC and 362 BC and 2 Against Ontenor during 362 and 361 BC. The courts fixed Demosthenes’ damages at 10 talents. When all the trials came to an end, he only succeeded in retrieving a portion of his inheritance.

Between his coming of age in 366 BC and the trials that took place in 364 BC, Demosthenes and his guardians negotiated acrimoniously but were unable to reach an agreement, for neither side was willing to make concessions. At the same time, Demosthenes prepared himself for the trials and improved his oratory skill. As an adolescent, his curiosity had been noticed by the orator Callistratus, who was then at the height of his reputation, having just won a case of considerable importance. According to Friedrich Nietzsche, a German philologist and philosopher, and Constantine Paparregopoulus, a major Greek historian, Demosthenes was a student of Isocrates; according to Cicero, Quintillian and the Roman biographer Hermippus, he was a student of Plato. Lucian, a Roman-Syrian rhetorician and satirist, lists the philosophers Aristotle, Theophrastus and Xenocrates among his teachers. These claims are nowadays disputed. According to Plutarch, Demosthenes employed Isaeus as his master in Rhetoric, even though Isocrates was then teaching this subject, either because he could not pay Isocrates the prescribed fee or because Demosthenes believed Isaeus’ style better suited a vigorous and astute orator such as himself . Curtius, a German archaeologist and historian, likened the relation between Isaeus and Demosthenes to “an intellectual armed alliance”.

It has also been said that Demosthenes paid Isaeus 10,000 drachmae (somewhat over 1.5talents) on the condition that Isaeus should withdraw from a school of Rhetoric which he had opened, and should devote himself wholly to Demosthenes, his new pupil. Another version credits Isaeus with having taught Demosthenes without charge. According to Sir Richard C. Jebb, a British classical scholar, “the intercourse between Isaeus and Demosthenes as teacher and learner can scarcely have been either very intimate or of very long duration”. Konstantinos Tsatsos, a Greek professor and academician, believes that Isaeus helped Demosthenes edit his initial judicial orations against his guardians. Demosthenes is also said to have admired the historian Thucydides. In the Illiterate Book-Fancier, Lucian mentions 8 beautiful copies of Thucydides made by Demosthenes, all in Demosthenes’ own handwriting. These references hint at his respect for a historian he must have assiduously studied.

According to Pseudo-Plutarch, Demosthenes was married once. The only information about his wife, whose name is unknown, is that she was the daughter of Heliodorus, a prominent citizen. Demosthenes also had a daughter, “the first and only one who ever called him father”, according to Aeschines’ in a trenchant remark. Demosthenes’s daughter died young and unmarried a few days before Philip’s death.

In his speeches, Aeschines often uses the pederastic relations of Demosthenes to attack him. The essence of these attacks was not that Demosthenes had relations with boys, but that he had been an inadequate pederast, one whose attentions did not benefit the boys, as would have been expected, but harmed them instead. In the case of Aristion, a youth from Plataea who lived for a long time in Demosthenes’ house, Aeschines mocked him for lack of sexual restraint and possibly effeminate behavior: “Allegations about what [Aristion] was undergoing there, or doing what, vary, and it would be most unseemly for me to talk about it.” Another relationship which Aeschines brings up is that with Cnosion. Aeschines’s allegation, in this case, was also of a sexual nature. This time, however, he blamed Demosthenes for involving his wife by putting her in bed with the youth so as to get children by him. Athenaeus, however, presents matters in a different light, claiming that his wife bedded the boy in a fit of jealousy.

Aeschines often asserted that Demosthenes made money out of young rich men. Demosthenes claimed that he deluded Aristarchus, the son of Moschus, with the pretence that he could make him a great orator. Apparently, while still under Demosthenes’ tutelage, Aristarchus killed and mutilated a certain Nicodemus of Aphidna, gouging out his eyes and tongue. Aeschines accused Demosthenes of complicity in the murder, pointing out that Nicodemus had once pressed a lawsuit accusing Demosthenes of desertion. Aeschines also accused Demosthenes of having been such a bad erastes to Aristarchus so as not even to deserve the name. Aristarchus’s crime, according to Aeschines, was to have betrayed his eromenos by pillaging his estate, allegedly pretending to be in love with the youth so as to get his hands on the boy’s inheritance. This he is said to have squandered, having taken 3 talents upon Aristarchus’ fleeing into exile so as to avoid a trial. Thus, in payment for the trust that Aristarchus and his family put in him, “You entered a happy home […] you ruined it.” Nevertheless, the story of Demosthenes’ relations with Aristarchus is still regarded as more than doubtful, and no other pupil of Demosthenes is known by name.

“If you feel bound to act in the spirit of that dignity, whenever you come into court to give judgement on public causes, you must bethink yourselves that with his staff and his badge every one of you receives in trust the ancient pride of Athens.”
Demosthenes (On the Crown, 210) – The orator’s defense of the honour of the courts was in contrast to the improper actions of which Aeschines accused him.

To make his living, Demosthenes became a professional litigant and logographer, writing speeches for use in private legal suits. Demosthenes was so successful that he soon acquired wealthy and powerful clients. The Athenian logographer could remain anonymous, allowing him to serve personal interests, even if it prejudiced the client. Aeschines accused Demosthenes of unethically disclosing his clients’ arguments to their opponents. Aeschines queried of Demosthenes: “And the born traitor—how shall we recognise him? Will he not imitate you, Demosthenes, in his treatment of those whom chance throws in his way and who have trusted him? Will he not take pay for writing speeches for them to deliver in the courts, and then reveal the contents of these speeches to their opponents?”

As an example, Aeschines accused Demosthenes of writing a speech for Phormion, a wealthy banker, and then communicating it to Apollodorus, who was bringing a capital charge against Phormion. Plutarch supported this accusation, stating that Demosthenes “was thought to have acted dishonorably”.

Demosthenes used to study in an underground room he constructed himself. Demosthenes also used to talk with pebbles in his mouth and recited verses while running. To strengthen his voice, he spoke on the seashore over the roar of the waves. Even before he turned 21 in 363 BC, Demosthenes had already demonstrated an interest in politics. In 363, 359, and 357 BC, he assumed the office of the trierarch, being responsible for the outfitting and maintenance of a trireme. In 348 BC, he became a choregos, paying the expenses of a theatrical production.

Although Demosthenes said he never pleaded a single private case, it remains unclear when and if Demosthenes abandoned the profitable but not so prestigious profession of logography. According to Plutarch, when Demosthenes 1st addressed himself to the people, he was derided for his strange and uncouth style, “which was cumbered with long sentences and tortured with formal arguments to a most harsh and disagreeable excess”.

Some citizens however discerned his talent. When he first left the ecclesia (the Athenian Assembly) disheartened, an old man named Eunomus encouraged him, saying his diction was very much like that of Pericles. Another time, after the ecclesia had refused to hear him and he was going home dejected, an actor named Satyrus followed him and entered into a friendly conversation with him.

As a boy Demosthenes had a speech impediment — an inarticulate and stammering pronunciation. Aeschines taunted him and referred to him in his speeches by the nickname “Batalus”, apparently invented by Demosthenes’ pedagogues or by the little boys with whom he was playing. According to Plutarch, he had a weakness in his voice of “a perplexed and indistinct utterance and a shortness of breath, which, by breaking and disjointing his sentences much obscured the sense and meaning of what he spoke.” Demosthenes soon undertook a disciplined programme to overcome these shortcomings and improve his locution. Demosthenes worked on his diction, his voice and his gestures. Demosthenes’s zeal and perseverance have passed into proverb. It is however unknown whether these vignettes are factual accounts of events in Demosthenes’ life or merely anecdotes used to illustrate his perseverance and determination.

Demosthenes continued practicing law privately while he was becoming increasingly interested in public affairs. Demosthenes mostly remained a judicial orator, but started participating in the politics of the Athenian democracy. In 355 BC he wrote Against Androtion and, in 354 BC, Against Leptines — 2 fierce attacks on individuals who attempted to repeal certain tax exemptions. In Against Timocrates and Against Aristocrates he advocated eliminating corruption. Demosthenes denounced measures regarded as dishonest or unworthy of Athenian traditions. All these speeches offer early glimpses of his general principles on foreign policy, such as the importance of the navy, of alliances and of national honour.

“While the vessel is safe, whether it be a large or a small one, then is the time for sailor and helmsman and everyone in his turn to show his zeal and to take care that it is not capsized by anyone’s malice or inadvertence; but when the sea has overwhelmed it, zeal is useless.”

Demosthenes (Third Philippic, 69) – The orator warned his countrymen of the disasters Athens would suffer, if they continued to remain idle and indifferent to the challenges of their times.

In 354 BC, Demosthenes delivered his 1st political oration, On the Navy, in which he espoused moderation and proposed the reform of “symmories”(boards) as a source of funding for the Athenian fleet. In 352 BC, he delivered For the Megalopolitans and, in 351 BC, On the Liberty of the Rhodians. In both speeches he opposed Eubulus, the most powerful Athenian statesman of the period 355 to 342 BC, who was against any intervention in the internal affairs of the other Greek cities.

Although none of his early orations were successful, Demosthenes established himself as an important political personality and broke with Eubulus’ faction, a prominent member of which was Aeschines. Demosthenes laid the foundations for his future political successes and for becoming the leader of his own party. Demosthenes’s arguments revealed his desire to articulate Athens’ needs and interests.

In 351 BC, Demosthenes felt strong enough to express his view concerning the most important foreign policy issue facing Athens at that time: the stance his city should take towards Philip II of Macedon. According to Jacqueline de Romilly, a French philologist and member of the Académie française, the threat of Philip would give Demosthenes’ stances a focus and a raison d’être. Henceforth, Demosthenes’ career is virtually the history of Athenian foreign policy.

In 336–335 BC, the King of Macedon crippled any attempt of the Greek cities at resistance and shattered Demosthenes’ hopes for Athenian independence. After Chaeronea, Philip inflicted a harsh punishment upon Thebes, but made peace with Athens on very lenient terms. Demosthenes encouraged the fortification of Athens and was chosen by the ecclesia to deliver the Funeral Oration. In 337 BC, Philip created the League of Corinth, a confederation of Greek states under his leadership, and returned to Pella. In 336 BC, Philip was assassinated at the wedding of his daughter, Cleopatra of Macedonia, to King Alexander of Epirus. After Philip’s death, the army proclaimed Alexander, then aged 20, as the new King of Macedon. Greek cities like Athens and Thebes saw in this change of leadership an opportunity to regain their full independence. Demosthenes celebrated Philip’s assassination and played a leading part in his city’s uprising. According to Aeschines, “it was but the 7th day after the death of his daughter, and though the ceremonies of mourning were not yet completed, he put a garland on his head and white raiment on his body, and there he stood making thank-offerings, violating all decency.” Demosthenes also sent envoys to Attalus, whom he considered to be an internal opponent of Alexander. Nonetheless, Alexander moved swiftly to Thebes, which submitted shortly after his appearance at its gates. When the Athenians learned that Alexander had moved quickly to Boeotia, they panicked and begged the new King of Macedon for mercy. Alexander admonished them but imposed no punishment.

“You stand revealed in your life and conduct, in your public performances and also in your public abstinences. A project approved by the people is going forward. Aeschines is speechless. A regrettable incident is reported. Aeschines is in evidence. Aeschines reminds one of an old sprain or fracture: the moment you are out of health it begins to be active.”

Demosthenes (On the Crown, 198) – In On the Crown Demosthenes fiercely assaulted and finally neutralized Aeschines, his formidable political opponent.

In 335 BC Alexander felt free to engage the Thracians and the Illyrians. While he was campaigning in the north, the Thebans and the Athenians rebelled once again, believing in the rumors that Alexander was dead. Darius III of Persia financed the Greek cities that rose up against Macedon, and Demosthenes is said to have received about 300 talents on behalf of Athens and to have faced accusations of embezzlement. Alexander reacted immediately and razed Thebes to the ground. Demosthenes did not attack Athens, but demanded the exile of all anti-Macedonian politicians, Alexander first of all. According to Plutarch, a special Athenian embassy led by Phocion, an opponent of the anti-Macedonian faction, was able to persuade Alexander to relent.

Despite the unsuccessful ventures against Philip and Alexander, the Athenians still respected Demosthenes. In 336 BC, the orator Ctesiphon proposed that Athens honour Demosthenes for his services to the city by presenting him, according to custom, with a golden crown. This proposal became a political issue and, in 330 BC, Aeschines prosecuted Ctesiphon on charges of legal irregularities. In his most brilliant speech, On the Crown, Demosthenes effectively defended Ctesiphon and vehemently attacked those who would have preferred peace with Macedon. Demosthenes was unrepentant about his past actions and policies and insisted that, when in power, the constant aim of his policies was the honour and the ascendancy of his country; and on every occasion and in all business he preserved his loyalty to Athens. Demosthenes finally defeated Aeschines, although his enemy’s legal objections to the crowning were probably valid.

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Speech Differences And Stutter Series-Disabled Legend Washington Irving

Washington Irving was born on 3 April, 1783 and died on 28 November, 1859. Washington Irving was an American author, essayist, biographer and historian of the early 19th century. Washington Irving was best known for his short stories “The Legend of Sleepy Hollow” and “Rip Van Winkle”, both of which appear in his book The Sketch Book of Geoffrey Crayon, Gent. Washington Irving’s historical works include biographies of George Washington, Oliver Goldsmith and Muhammad, and several histories of 15th-century Spain dealing with subjects such as Christopher Columbus, the Moors, and the Alhambra. Washington Irving also served as the U.S. minister to Spain from 1842 to 1846.

Washington Irving made his literary debut in 1802 with a series of observational letters to the Morning Chronicle, written under the pseudonym Jonathan Oldstyle. After moving to England for the family business in 1815, he achieved international fame with the publication of The Sketch Book of Geoffrey Crayon, Gent. in 1819. Washington Irving continued to publish regularly—and almost always successfully—throughout his life, and completed a 5-volume biography of George Washington just 8months before his death, at age 76, in Tarrytown, New York.

Washington Irving, along with James Fenimore Cooper, was the 1st American writer to earn acclaim in Europe, and Washington Irving encouraged American authors such as Nathaniel Hawthorne, Herman Melville, Henry Wadsworth Longfellow, and Edgar Allan Poe. Washington Irving was also admired by some European writers, including Sir Walter Scott, Lord Byron, Thomas Campbell, Francis Jeffrey, and Charles Dickens. As America’s 1st genuine internationally best-selling author, Washington Irving advocated for writing as a legitimate profession, and argued for stronger laws to protect American writers from copyright infringement.

Washington Irving’s parents were William Irving, Sr., originally of Shapinsay, Orkney, and Sarah (née Sanders), Scottish-English immigrants. They married in 1761 while William was serving as a petty officer in the British Navy. They had 11 children, 8 of which survived to adulthood. Their 1st 2 sons, each named William, died in infancy, as did their 4th child, John. Their surviving children were: William, Jr. (1766), Ann (1770), Peter (1772), Catherine (1774), Ebenezer (1776), John Treat (1778), Sarah (1780), and Washington.

The Irving family was settled in Manhattan, New York City as part of the city’s small vibrant merchant class when Washington Irving was born on April 3, 1783, the same week city residents learned of the British ceasefire that ended the American Revolution. Consequently, Washington Irving’s mother named him after the hero of the revolution, George Washington. At age 6, with the help of a nanny, Washington Irving met his namesake, who was then living in New York after his inauguration as president in 1789. The president blessed young Washington Irving, an encounter Washington Irving later commemorated in a small watercolor painting, which still hangs in his home today. Several of Washington Irving’s older brothers became active New York merchants, and they encouraged their younger brother’s literary aspirations, often supporting him financially as he pursued his writing career.

A disinterested student, Washington Irving preferred adventure stories and drama and, by age 14, was regularly sneaking out of class in the evenings to attend the theater. The 1798 outbreak of yellow fever in Manhattan prompted his family to send him to healthier climes upriver, and Washington Irving was dispatched to stay with his friend James Kirke Paulding in Tarrytown, New York. It was in Tarrytown that Washington Irving became familiar with the nearby town of Sleepy Hollow, with its quaint Dutch customs and local ghost stories. Washington Irving made several other trips up the Hudson as a teenager, including an extended visit to Johnstown, New York, where he passed through the Catskill mountain region, the setting for “Rip Van Winkle”. ” of all the scenery of the Hudson”, Wshington Irving wrote later, “the Kaatskill Mountains had the most witching effect on my boyish imagination”.

The 19 year old Wshington Irving began writing letters to The Morning Chronicle in 1802, submitting commentaries on New York’s social and theater scene under the name of Jonathan Oldstyle. The name, which purposely evoked the writer’s Federalist leanings, was the 1st of many pseudonyms Washington Irving would employ throughout his career. The letters brought Wshington Irving some early fame and moderate notoriety. Aaron Burr, a co-publisher of the Chronicle, was impressed enough to send clippings of the Oldstyle pieces to his daughter, Theodosia, while writer Charles Brockden Brown made a trip to New York to recruit Oldstyle for a literary magazine he was editing in Philadelphia.

Concerned for his health, Washington Irving’s brothers financed an extended tour of Europe from 1804 to 1806. Washington Irving bypassed most of the sites and locations considered essential for the development of an upwardly-mobile young man, to the dismay of his brother William. William wrote that, though he was pleased his brother’s health was improving, he did not like the choice to “gallop through Italy… leaving Florence on your left and Venice on your right”. Instead, Washington Irving honed the social and conversational skills that would later make him one of the world’s most in-demand guests. “I endeavor to take things as they come with cheerfulness”, Washington Irving wrote, “and when I cannot get a dinner to suit my taste, I endeavor to get a taste to suit my dinner”. While visiting Rome in 1805, Washington Irving struck up a friendship with the American painter Washington Allston, and nearly allowed himself to be persuaded into following Washington Allston into a career as a painter. “My lot in life, however”, Washington Irving said later, “was differently cast”.

A younger Washington Irving returned from Europe to study law with his legal mentor, Judge Josiah Ogden Hoffman, in New York City. By his own admission, he was not a good student, and barely passed the bar in 1806. Washington Irving began actively socialising with a group of literate young men he dubbed “The Lads of Kilkenny”. Collaborating with his brother William and fellow Lad James Kirke Paulding, Washington Irving created the literary magazine Salmagundi in January 1807. Writing under various pseudonyms, such as William Wizard and Launcelot Langstaff, Washington Irving lampooned New York culture and politics in a manner similar to today’s Mad magazine. Salmagundi was a moderate success, spreading Washington Irving’s name and reputation beyond New York. In its 17th issue, dated 11 November, 1807, Washington Irving affixed the nickname “Gotham”—an Anglo-Saxon word meaning “Goat’s Town”—to New York City.

In late 1809, while mourning the death of his 17 year old fiancée Matilda Hoffman, Washington Irving completed work on his 1st major book, A History of New-York from the Beginning of the World to the End of the Dutch Dynasty, by Diedrich Knickerbocker(1809), a satire on self-important local history and contemporary politics. Prior to its publication, Washington Irving started a hoax akin to today’s viral marketing campaigns; he placed a series of missing person adverts in New York newspapers seeking information on Diedrich Knickerbocker, a crusty Dutch historian who had allegedly gone missing from his hotel in New York City. As part of the ruse, Washington Irving placed a notice—allegedly from the hotel’s proprietor—informing readers that if Mr. Knickerbocker failed to return to the hotel to pay his bill, he would publish a manuscript Knickerbocker had left behind.

Unsuspecting readers followed the story of Knickerbocker and his manuscript with interest, and some New York city officials were concerned enough about the missing historian that they considered offering a reward for his safe return. Riding the wave of public interest he had created with his hoax, Washington Irving—adopting the pseudonym of his Dutch historian—published A History of New York on 6 December, 1809, to immediate critical and popular success. “It took with the public”, Washington Irving remarked, “and gave me celebrity, as an original work was something remarkable and uncommon in America”. Today, the surname of Diedrich Knickerbocker, the fictional narrator of this and other Washington Irving works, has become a nickname for Manhattan residents in general.

After the success of A History of New York, Washington Irving searched for a job and eventually became an editor of Analectic magazine, where he wrote biographies of naval heroes like James Lawrence and Oliver Perry. Washington Irving was also among the 1st magazine editors to reprint Francis Scott Key’s poem “Defense of Fort McHenry”, which would later be immortalized as “The Star-Spangled Banner”, the national anthem of the United States.

Like many merchants and New Yorkers, Washington Irving originally opposed the War of 1812, but the British attack on Washington, D.C. in 1814 convinced him to enlist. Washington Irving served on the staff of Daniel Tompkins, governor of New York and commander of the New York State Militia. Apart from a reconnaissance mission in the Great Lakes region, he saw no real action. The war was disastrous for many American merchants, including Washington Irving’s family, and in mid-1815 he left for England to attempt to salvage the family trading company. Washington Irving remained in Europe for the next 17 years.

Washington Irving spent the next 2 years trying to bail out the family firm financially but was eventually forced to declare bankruptcy. With no job prospects, Washington Irving continued writing throughout 1817 and 1818. In the summer of 1817, he visited the home of novelist Walter Scott, marking the beginning of a lifelong personal and professional friendship for both men. Washington Irving continued writing prolifically—the short story “Rip Van Winkle” was written overnight while staying with his sister Sarah and her husband, Henry van Wart in Birmingham, England, a place that also inspired some of his other works. In October 1818, Washington Irving’s brother William secured for Washington Irving a post as chief clerk to the United States Navy, and urged him to return home. Washington Irving, however, turned the offer down, opting to stay in England to pursue a writing career.

In the spring of 1819, Washington Irving sent to his brother Ebenezer in New York a set of essays that he asked be published as The Sketch Book of Geoffrey Crayon, Gent. The 1st installment, containing “Rip Van Winkle”, was an enormous success, and the rest of the work, published in 7 installments in the United States and England throughout 1819 and 1820 (“The Legend of Sleepy Hollow” would appear in the 6th issue), would be equally as successful.

Like many successful authors of this era, Washington Irving struggled against literary bootleggers. While in England, his sketches were published in book form by British publishers without his permission, an entirely legal practice as there were no clear international copyright laws. Seeking an English publisher to protect his copyright, Washington Irving appealed to Walter Scott for help. Walter Scott referred Washington Irving to his own publisher, London powerhouse John Murray, who agreed to take on The Sketch Book. From then on, Washington Irving would publish concurrently in the United States and England to protect his copyright, with John Murray being his English publisher of choice.

Washington Irving’s reputation soared, and for the next 2 years, he led an active social life in Paris and England, where he was often feted as an anomaly of literature: an upstart American who dared to write English well.

With bothb Washington Irving and publisher John Murray eager to follow up on the success of The Sketch Book, Washington Irving spent much of 1821 travelling in Europe in search of new material, reading widely in Dutch and German folk tales. Hampered by writer’s block—and depressed by the death of his brother William—Irving worked slowly, finally delivering a completed manuscript to John Murray in March 1822. The book, Bracebridge Hall, or The Humorists, A Medley (the location was based loosely on Aston Hall, occupied by members of the Bracebridge family, near his sister’s home in Birmingham) was published in June 1822.

The format of Bracebridge was similar to that of The Sketch Book, with Washington Irving, as Crayon, narrating a series of more than 50 loosely connected short stories and essays. While some reviewers thought Bracebridge to be a lesser imitation of The Sketch Book, the book was well-received by readers and critics. “We have received so much pleasure from this book,” wrote critic Francis Jeffrey in the Edinburgh Review, “that we think ourselves bound in gratitude . . . to make a public acknowledgement of it.” Washington Irving was relieved at its reception, which did much to cement his reputation with European readers.

Still struggling with writer’s block, Washington Irving traveled to Germany, settling in Dresden in the winter of 1822. Here he dazzled the royal family and attached himself to Mrs. Amelia Foster, an American living in Dresden with her 5 children. Washington Irving was particularly attracted to Mrs. Foster’s 18-year-old daughter Emily, and vied in frustration for her hand. Emily finally refused his offer of marriage in the spring of 1823.

Washington Irving returned to Paris and began collaborating with playwright John Howard Payne on translations of French plays for the English stage, with little success. Washington Irving also learned through Payne that the novelist Mary Wollstonecraft Shelley was romantically interested in him, though Washington Irving never pursued the relationship.

In August 1824, Washington Irving published the collection of essays Tales of a Traveller—including the short story “The Devil and Tom Walker”—under his Geoffrey Crayon persona. “I think there are in it some of the best things I have ever written,” Washington Irving told his sister. But while the book sold respectably, Traveller largely bombed with critics, who panned both Traveller and its author. “The public have been led to expect better things,” wrote the United States Literary Gazette, while the New-York Mirror pronounced Washington Irving “overrated.” Hurt and depressed by the book’s reception, Washington Irving retreated to Paris where he spent the next year worrying about finances and scribbling down ideas for projects that never materialised.

While in Paris, Washington Irving received a letter from Alexander Hill Everett on 30January, 1826. Alexander Hill Everett, recently the American Minister to Spain, urged Washington Irving to join him in Madrid, noting that a number of manuscripts dealing with the Spanish conquest of the Americas had recently been made public. Washington Irving left for Madrid and enthusiastically began scouring the Spanish archives for colourful material.

The palace Alhambra, where Washington Irving briefly resided in 1829, inspired one of his most colourful books. With full access to the American consul’s massive library of Spanish history, Washington Irving began working on several books at once. The 1st offspring of this hard work, The Life and Voyages of Christopher Columbus, was published in January 1828. The book was popular in the United States and in Europe and would have 175 editions published before the end of the century. It was also the 1st project of Washington Irving’s to be published with his own name, instead of a pseudonym, on the title page. The Chronicles of the Conquest of Granada was published a year later, followed by Voyages and Discoveries of the Companions of Columbus in 1831.

Washington Irving’s writings on Columbus are a mixture of history and fiction, a genre now called romantic history. Washington Irving based them on extensive research in the Spanish archives, but also added imaginative elements aimed at sharpening the story. The 1st of these works is the source of the durable myth that medieval Europeans believed the Earth was flat.

In 1829, Washington Irving moved into Granada’s ancient palace Alhambra, “determined to linger here”, he said, “until I get some writings under way connected with the place”. Before he could get any significant writing underway, however, he was notified of his appointment as Secretary to the American Legation in London. Worried he would disappoint friends and family if he refused the position, Washington Irving left Spain for England in July 1829.

Arriving in London, Washington Irving joined the staff of American Minister Louis McLane. Louis McLane immediately assigned the daily secretary work to another man and tapped Washington Irving to fill the role of aide-de-camp. The 2 worked over the next year to negotiate a trade agreement between the United States and the British West Indies, finally reaching a deal in August 1830. That same year, Washington Irving was awarded a medal by the Royal Society of Literature, followed by an honourary doctorate of civil law from Oxford in 1831.

Following Louis McLane’s recall to the United States in 1831 to serve as Secretary of Treasury, Washington Irving stayed on as the legation’s chargé d’affaires until the arrival of Martin Van Buren, President Jackson’s nominee for British Minister. With Van Buren in place, Washington Irving resigned his post to concentrate on writing, eventually completing Tales of the Alhambra, which would be published concurrently in the United States and England in 1832.

Washington Irving was still in London when Van Buren received word that the United States Senate had refused to confirm him as the new Minister. Consoling Van Buren, Washington Irving predicted that the Senate’s partisan move would backfire. “I should not be surprised”, Washington Irving said, “if this vote of the Senate goes far toward elevating him to the presidential chair”.

Washington Irving arrived in New York, after 17 years abroad on 21 May, 1832. That September, he accompanied the U.S. Commissioner on Indian Affairs, Henry Ellsworth, along with companions Charles La Trobe and Count Albert-Alexandre de Pourtales, on a surveying mission deep in Indian Territory. At the completion of his western tour, Washington Irving traveled through Washington, D.C. and Baltimore, where he became acquainted with the politician and novelist John Pendleton Kennedy.

Frustrated by bad investments, Washington Irving turned to writing to generate additional income, beginning with A Tour on the Prairies, a work which related his recent travels on the frontier. The book was another popular success and also the 1st book written and published by Washington Irving in the United States since A History of New York in 1809. In 1834, he was approached by fur magnate John Jacob Astor, who convinced Washington Irving to write a history of his fur trading colony in the American Northwest, now known as Astoria, Oregon. Washington Irving made quick work of Astor’s project, shipping the fawning biographical account titled Astoria in February 1836.

During an extended stay at Astor’s, Washington Irving met the explorer Benjamin Bonneville, who intrigued Washington Irving with his maps and stories of the territories beyond the Rocky Mountains. When the 2 met in Washington, D.C. several months later, Bonneville opted to sell his maps and rough notes to Washington Irving for $1,000. Washington Irving used these materials as the basis for his 1837 book The Adventures of Captain Bonneville.

These 3 works made up Washington Irving’s “western” series of books and were written partly as a response to criticism that his time in England and Spain had made him more European than American. In the minds of some critics, especially James Fenimore Cooper and Philip Freneau, Washington Irving had turned his back on his American heritage in favour of English aristocracy. Washington Irving’s western books, particularly A Tour on the Prairies, were well-received in the United States, though British critics accused Washington Irving of “book-making”.

In 1835, Washington Irving purchased a “neglected cottage” and its surrounding riverfront property in Tarrytown, New York. The house, which Washington Irving named Sunnyside in 1841, would require constant repair and renovation over the next 20 years. With costs of Sunnyside escalating, Washington Irving reluctantly agreed in 1839 to become a regular contributor to Knickerbocker magazine, writing new essays and short stories under the Knickerbocker and Crayon pseudonyms.

Washington Irving was regularly approached by aspiring young authors for advice or endorsement, including Edgar Allan Poe, who sought Washington Irving’s comments “on William Wilson” and “The Fall of the House of Usher”. Washington Irving also championed America’s maturing literature, advocating for stronger copyright laws to protect writers from the kind of piracy that had initially plagued The Sketch Book. Writing in the January 1840 issue of Knickerbocker, he openly endorsed copyright legislation pending in the U.S. Congress. “We have a young literature”, Washington Irving wrote, “springing up and daily unfolding itself with wonderful energy and luxuriance, which… deserves all its fostering care”. The legislation did not pass.

Washington Irving at this time also began a friendly correspondence with the English writer Charles Dickens, and hosted the author and his wife at Sunnyside during Dickens’s American tour in 1842.

In 1842, after an endorsement from Secretary of State Daniel Webster, President John Tyler appointed Washington Irving as Minister to Spain. Washington Irving was surprised and honoured, writing, “It will be a severe trial to absent myself for a time from my dear little Sunnyside, but I shall return to it better enabled to carry it on comfortably”.

While Washington Irving hoped his position as Minister would allow him plenty of time to write, Spain was in a state of perpetual political upheaval during most of his tenure, with a number of warring factions vying for control of the 12-year-old Queen Isabella II. Washington Irving maintained good relations with the various generals and politicians, as control of Spain rotated through Espartero, Bravo, then Narvaez. However, the politics and warfare were exhausting, and Washington Irving—homesick and suffering from a crippling skin condition—grew quickly disheartened:

“I am wearied and at times heartsick of the wretched politics of this country. . . . The last 10 or 12 years of my life, passed among sordid speculators in the United States, and political adventurers in Spain, has shewn me so much of the dark side of human nature, that I begin to have painful doubts of my fellow man; and look back with regret to the confiding period of my literary career, when, poor as a rat, but rich in dreams, I beheld the world through the medium of my imagination and was apt to believe men as good as I wished them to be.”

With the political situation in Spain relatively settled, Washington Irving continued to closely monitor the development of the new government and the fate of Isabella. Washington Irving’s official duties as Spanish Minister also involved negotiating American trade interests with Cuba and following the Spanish parliament’s debates over slave trade. Washington Irving was also pressed into service by the American Minister to the Court of St. James’s in London, Louis McLane, to assist in negotiating the Anglo-American disagreement over the Oregon border that newly-elected president James K. Polk had vowed to resolve.

Returning from Spain in 1846, Washington Irving took up permanent residence at Sunnyside and began work on an “Author’s Revised Edition” of his works for publisher George Palmer Putnam. For its publication, Washington Irving had made a deal that guaranteed him 12% of the retail price of all copies sold. Such an agreement was unprecedented at that time. On the death of John Jacob Astor in 1848, Washington Irving was hired as an executor of Astor’s estate and appointed, by Astor’s will, as 1st chairman of the Astor library, a forerunner to the New York Public Library.

As he revised his older works for Putnam, Washington Irving continued to write regularly, publishing biographies of the writer and poet Oliver Goldsmith in 1849 and the prophet Muhammad in 1850. In 1855, he produced Wolfert’s Roost, a collection of stories and essays he had originally written for Knickerbocker and other publications, and began publishing at intervals a biography of his namesake, George Washington, a work which he expected to be his masterpiece. 5 volumes of the biography were published between 1855 and 1859. Washington Irving traveled regularly to Mount Vernon and Washington, D.C. for his research, and struck up friendships with Presidents Millard Fillmore and Franklin Pierce.

Washington Irving continued to socialise and keep up with his correspondence well into his 70s, and his fame and popularity continued to soar. “I don’t believe that any man, in any country, has ever had a more affectionate admiration for him than that given to you in America”, wrote Senator William C. Preston in a letter to Washington Irving. “I believe that we have had but one man who is so much in the popular heart”.

On the evening of 28 November, 1859, only 8 months after completing the final volume of his Washington biography, Washington Irving died of a heart attack in his bedroom at Sunnyside at the age of 76. Legend has it that his last words were: “Well, I must arrange my pillows for another night. When will this end?” Washington Irving was buried under a simple headstone at Sleepy Hollow cemetery on 1 December, 1859.

Washington Irving and his grave were commemorated by Henry Wadsworth Longfellow in his 1876 poem, “In The Churchyard at Tarrytown”, which concludes with:

How sweet a life was his; how sweet a death!
Living, to wing with mirth the weary hours,
Or with romantic tales the heart to cheer;
Dying, to leave a memory like the breath
Of summers full of sunshine and of showers,
A grief and gladness in the atmosphere.

Washington Irving is largely credited as the 1st American Man of Letters, and the 1st to earn his living solely by his pen. Eulogizing Washington Irving before the Massachusetts Historical Society in December 1859, his friend, the poet Henry Wadsworth Longfellow, acknowledged Washington Irving’s role in promoting American literature: “We feel a just pride in his renown as an author, not forgetting that, to his other claims upon our gratitude, he adds also that of having been the 1st to win for our country an honourable name and position in the History of Letters”.

Washington Irving perfected the American short story, and was the 1st American writer to place his stories firmly in the United States, even as he poached from German or Dutch folklore. Washington Irving is also generally credited as one of the first to write both in the vernacular, and without an obligation to the moral or didactic in his short stories, writing stories simply to entertain rather to enlighten.

Some critics, however—including Edgar Allan Poe—felt that while Washington Irving should be given credit for being an innovator, the writing itself was often unsophisticated. “Irving is much over-rated”, Poe wrote in 1838, ” and a nice distinction might be drawn between his just and his surreptitious and adventitious reputation—between what is due to the pioneer solely, and what to the writer”.

Other critics were inclined to be more forgiving of Washington Irving’s style. Henry Makepeace Thakeray was the 1st to refer to Washington Irving as the “ambassador whom the New World of Letters sent to the Old”, a banner picked up by writers and critics throughout the 19th and 20th centuries. “He is the first of the American humorists, as he is almost the first of the American writers”, wrote critic H.R. Hawless in 1881, “yet belonging to the New World, there is a quaint Old World flavour about him”.

Early critics often had difficulty separating Washington Irving the man from Irving the writer—”The life of Washington Irving was one of the brightest ever led by an author”, wrote Richard Henry Stoddard, an early Washington Irving biographer—but as years passed and Washington Irving’s celebrity personality faded into the background, critics often began to review his writings as all style, no substance. “The man had no message”, said critic Barrett Wendell. Yet, critics conceded that despite Washington Irving’s lack of sophisticated themes—Irving biographer Stanley T. Williams could be scathing in his assessment of Washington Irving’s work—most agreed he wrote elegantly.

Washington Irving popularised the nickname “Gotham” for New York City, later used in Batman comics and movies, and is credited with inventing the expression “the almighty dollar”.

The surname of his Dutch historian, Diedrich Knickerbocker, is generally associated with New York and New Yorkers, and can still be seen across the jerseys of New York’s professional basketball team, albeit in its more familiar, abbreviated form, reading simply Knicks.

One of Washington Irving’s most lasting contributions to American culture is in the way Americans perceive and celebrate Christmas. In his 1812 revisions to A History of New York, Washington Irving inserted a dream sequence featuring St. Nicholas soaring over treetops in a flying wagon—a creation others would later dress up as Santa Claus. Later, in his 5 Christmas stories in The Sketch Book, Washington Irving portrayed an idealised celebration of old-fashioned Christmas customs at a quaint English manor, which directly contributed to the revival and reinterpretation of the Christmas holiday in the United States. Charles Dickens later credited Washington Irving as a strong influence on his own Christmas writings, including the classic A Christmas Carol. The Community Area of Irving Park in Chicago was named in Washington Irving’s honour.

The Irving Trust Corporation (now the Bank of New York Mellon Corporation) was named after him. Since there was not yet a federal currency in 1851, each bank issued its own paper and those institutions with the most appealing names found their certificates more widely accepted. Washington Irving’s portrait appeared on the bank’s notes and contributed to their wide appeal.

Washington Irving’s home, Sunnyside, is still standing, just south of the Tappan Zee Bridge in Tarrytown, New York. The original house and the surrounding property were once owned by 18th-century colonialist Wolfert Acker, about whom Washington Irving wrote his sketch Wolfert’s Roost (the name of the house). The house is now owned and operated as a historic site by Historic Hudson Valley and is open to the public for tours. A memorial to him stands near the entrance to Sunnyside in the village of Irvington, which renamed itself in his memory, and visitors to Christ Episcopal Church in nearby Tarrytown, where he served as a vestryman in the last years of his life, can see his pew. Washington Irving’s name is also frequently mentioned in Joseph Heller’s novel Catch-22 in which his name is signed on papers.

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Speech Differences And Stutter Series-Disabled Legend Sir Winston Churchill

Sir Winston Leonard Spencer-Churchil was born on 30 November 1874. On 15 January 1965 Winston Churchill suffered a severe stroke that left him gravely ill.  Winston Churchill died at his home 9 days later, at age 90, on the morning of Sunday 24 January 1965, coincidentally 70 years to the day after his father’s death.

By decree of the Queen, his body lay in state for 3 days and a state funeral service was held at St Paul’s Cathedral. This was the 1st state funeral for a non-royal family member since 1914, and no other of its kind has been held since. As his coffin passed down the Thames on the Havengore, dockers lowered their crane jibs in a salute. The Royal Artillery fired a 19-gun salute (as head of government), and the RAF staged a fly-by of 16 English Electric Lightning fighters. The funeral also saw the largest assemblage of statesmen in the world until the 2005 funeral of Pope John Paul II, one of whom, President Luis Giannattasio of Uruguay, died shortly after representing his country at the event. In the fields along the route, and at the stations through which the train passed, thousands stood in silence to pay their last respects. At Winston Churchill’s request, he was buried in the family plot at St Martin’s Church, Bladon, near Woodstock, not far from his birthplace at Blenheim Palace.

Sir Winston Churchill was a British politician known chiefly for his leadership of the United Kingdom during World War II. Sir Winston Churchill served as Prime Minister of the United Kingdom from 1940 to 1945 and again from 1951 to 1955. A noted statesman and orator, Winston Churchill was also an officer in the British Army, a historian, a Nobel Prize-winning writer, and an artist.

During his army career, Winston Churchill saw combat in India, in the Sudan and the Second Boer War. Winston Churchill gained fame and notoriety as a war correspondent and through contemporary books he wrote describing the campaigns. Winston Churchill also served briefly in the British Army on the Western Front in World War I, commanding the 6th Battalion of the Royal Scots Fusiliers.

At the forefront of the political scene for almost 60 years, he held many political and cabinet positions. Before the First World War, he served as President of the Board of Trade, Home Secretary and First Lord of the Admiralty as part of the Asquith Liberal government. During the war he continued as First Lord of the Admiralty until the disastrous Battle of Gallipoli caused his departure from government. Winston Churchill returned as Minister of Munitions, Secretary of State for War and Secretary of State for Air. In the interwar years, he served as Chancellor of the Exchequer in the Conservative government.

After the outbreak of the Second World War, Winston Churchill was again appointed First Lord of the Admiralty. Following the resignation of Neville Chamberlain on 10 May 1940, he became Prime Minister of the United Kingdom and led Britain to victory against the Axis powers. Winston Churchill was always noted for his speeches, which became a great inspiration to the British people and embattled Allied forces.

After losing the 1945 election, he became Leader of the Opposition. In 1951, he again became Prime Minister before finally retiring in 1955. Upon his death the Queen granted him the honour of a state funeral, which saw one of the largest assemblies of statesmen in the world.

A descendant of the famous Spencer family, Winston Leonard Spencer-Churchill, like his father, used the surname Churchill in public life. Winston Churchill’s ancestor George Spencer had changed his surname to Spencer-Churchill in 1817 when he became Duke of Marlborough, to highlight his descent from John Churchill, 1st Duke of Marlborough. Winston Churchill’s father, Lord Randolph Churchill, the 3rd son of John Spencer-Churchill, 7th Duke of Marlborough, was a politician, while his mother, Lady Randolph Churchill (née Jennie Jerome) was the daughter of American millionaire, Leonard Jerome. Born 2 months premature on 30 November 1874 in a bedroom in Blenheim Palace, Woodstock, Oxfordshire; he arrived 8 months after his parents’ hasty marriage. Winston Churchill had 1 brother, John Strange Spencer-Churchill.

Independent and rebellious by nature, Winston Churchill generally did poorly in school, for which he was punished. Winston Churchill entered Harrow School on 17 April 1888, where his military career began. Within weeks of his arrival, he had joined the Harrow Rifle Corps. Winston Churchill earned high marks in English and history and was also the school’s fencing champion.

Winston Churchill was rarely visited by his mother (then known as Lady Randolph), and wrote letters begging her to either come to the school or to allow him to come home. Winston Churchill had a distant relationship with his father and once remarked that they barely spoke to each other. Due to his lack of parental contact he became very close to his nanny, Elizabeth Anne Everest, whom he used to call “Woomany”. Winston Churchill’s father died on 24 January 1895, leaving Winston Churchill with the conviction that he too would die young, so should be quick about making his mark on the world.

Winston Churchill described himself as having a “speech impediment” which he consistently worked to overcome. After many years, he finally stated, “My impediment is no hindrance.” Trainee speech therapists are often shown videotapes of Churchill’s mannerisms while making speeches and the Stuttering Foundation of America uses Churchill, pictured on its home page, as one of its role models of successful stutterers. This diagnosis is confirmed by contemporaries writing in the 1920s, 1930s and 1940s. The Churchill Centre, however, flatly refutes the claim that Winston Churchill stuttered while confirming that he did have difficulty pronouncing the letter ‘S’ and spoke with a lisp. Winston Churchill’s father also spoke with a lisp.

Winston Churchill met his future wife, Clementine Hozier, in 1904 at a ball in Crewe House, home of the Earl of Crewe and his wife Margaret Primrose (daughter of Archibald Primrose, 5th Earl of Rosebery). In 1908, they met again at a dinner party hosted by Lady St Helier. Winston Churchill found himself seated beside Clementine, and they soon began a lifelong romance. Winston Churchill proposed to Hozier during a house party at Blenheim Palace on 10 August 1908, in a small Temple of Diana. On 12September 1908, they were married in St. Margaret’s, Westminster. The church was packed; the Bishop of St Asaph conducted the service. In March 1909, the couple moved to a house at 33 Eccleston Square.

Their 1st child, Diana, was born in London on 11 July 1909. After the pregnancy, Clementine moved to Sussex to recover, while Diana stayed in London with her nanny. On 28 May 1911, their 2nd child, Randolph, was born at 33 Eccleston Square. Their 3rd child, Sarah, was born on 7 October 1914 at Admiralty House. The birth was marked with anxiety for Clementine, as Winston Churchill had been sent to Antwerp by the Cabinet to “stiffen the resistance of the beleaguered city” after news that the Belgians intended to surrender the town.

Clementine gave birth to her 4th child, Marigold Frances Churchill, on 15 November 1918, 4 days after the official end of World War I. In the early months of August, the Churchills’ children were entrusted to a French nursery governess in Kent named Mlle Rose. Clementine, meanwhile, travelled to Eaton Hall to play tennis with Hugh Grosvenor, 2nd Duke of Westminster and his family. While still under the care of Mlle Rose, Marigold had a cold, but was reported to have recovered from the illness. As the illness progressed with hardly any notice, it turned into septicaemia. Following advice from a landlady, Rose sent for Clementine. However the illness turned fatal on 23 August 1921, and Marigold was buried in the Kensal Green Cemetery 3 days later. On 15 September 1922, the Churchills’ last child was born, Mary. Later that month, the Churchills bought Chartwell, which would be Winston Churchill’s home until his death in 1965.

After Winston Churchill left Harrow in 1893, he applied to attend the Royal Military Academy, Sandhurst. It took 3 attempts before he passed the admittance exam; he applied for cavalry rather than infantry because the entrance requirement was lower and did not require him to learn mathematics, which he disliked. Winston Churchill graduated 8th out of a class of 150 in December 1894, and was then commissioned as a 2nd Lieutenant in the 4th Queen’s Own Hussars on 20 February 1895. In 1941, he received the honour of Colonel of the Hussars.

Winston Churchill’s pay as a 2nd lieutenant in the 4th Hussars was £300. However, he believed that he needed at least a further £500 (equivalent to £25,000 in 2001 terms) to support a style of life equal to other officers of the regiment. Winston Churchill’s mother provided an allowance of £400 per year, but this was repeatedly overspent. According to biographer Roy Jenkins, this is one reason he took an interest in war correspondence. Winston Churchill did not intend to follow a conventional career of promotion through army ranks, but to seek out all possible chances of military action and used his mother’s and family influence in high society to arrange postings to active campaigns. Winston Churchill’s writings both brought him to the attention of the public, and earned him significant additional income. Winston Churchill acted as a war correspondent for several London newspapers and wrote his own books about the campaigns.

In 1895, Winston Churchill travelled to Cuba to observe the Spanish fight the Cuban guerrillas; he had obtained a commission to write about the conflict from the Daily Graphic. To his delight, he came under fire for the first time on his 21st birthday. Winston Churchill had fond memories of Cuba as a “…large, rich, beautiful island…” While there, he soon acquired a taste for Havana cigars, which he would smoke for the rest of his life. While in New York, he stayed at the home of Bourke Cockran, an admirer of his mother’s. Bourke Cockran was an established American politician, member of the House of Representatives and potential presidential candidate. Bourke Cockran greatly influenced Winston Churchill, both in his approach to oratory and politics, and encouraging a love of America.

Winston Churchill soon received word that his nanny, Mrs Everest, was dying; he then returned to England and stayed with her for a week until she died. Winston Churchill wrote in his journal “She was my favourite friend.” In My Early Life he wrote: “She had been my dearest and most intimate friend during the whole of the 20 years I had lived.”

In early October 1896, he was transferred to Bombay, British India. Winston Churchill was considered one of the best polo players in his regiment and led his team to many prestigious tournament victories.

About this time Winston Churchill read William Winwood Reade’s Martyrdom of Man, a classic of Victorian atheism, which completed his loss of faith in Christianity and left him with a sombre vision of a godless universe in which humanity was destined, nevertheless, to progress through the conflict between the more advanced and the more backward races. When he was posted to India, and began to read avidly to make up for lost time, he was profoundly impressed by Darwinism. Winston Churchill lost whatever religious faith he may have had through reading Edward Gibbon, he stated, and took a particular dislike to the Catholic Church, as well as Christian missions. Winston Churchill became, in his own words, “a materialist to the tips of my fingers,” and he fervently upheld the worldview that human life is a struggle for existence, with the outcome the survival of the fittest. Winston Churchill expressed this philosophy of life and history in his 1st and only novel, Savrola.

In 1897, Winston Churchill attempted to travel to both report and, if necessary, fight in the Greco-Turkish War, but this conflict effectively ended before he could arrive. Later, while preparing for a leave in England, he heard that 3 brigades of the British Army were going to fight against a Pashtun tribe and he asked his superior officer if he could join the fight. Winston Churchill fought under the command of General Jeffery, who was the commander of the 2nd brigade operating in Malakand, in what is now Pakistan. General Jeffery sent him with 15 scouts to explore the Mamund Valley; while on reconnaissance, they encountered an enemy tribe, dismounted from their horses and opened fire. After an hour of shooting, their reinforcements, the 35th Sikhs arrived, and the fire gradually ceased and the brigade and the Sikhs marched on. Hundreds of tribesmen then ambushed them and opened fire, forcing them to retreat. As they were retreating four men were carrying an injured officer but the fierceness of the fight forced them to leave him behind. The man who was left behind was slashed to death before Winston Churchill’s eyes; afterwards he wrote of the killer, “I forgot everything else at this moment except a desire to kill this man”. However the Sikhs’ numbers were being depleted so the next commanding officer told Winston Churchill to get the rest of the men and boys to safety. Before he left he asked for a note so he would not be charged with desertion. Winston Churchill received the note, quickly signed, and headed up the hill and alerted the other brigade, whereupon they then engaged the army. The fighting in the region dragged on for another 2 weeks before the dead could be recovered. Winston Churchill wrote in his journal: “Whether it was worth it I cannot tell.” An account of the Siege of Malakand was published in December 1900 as The Story of the Malakand Field Force. Winston Churchill received £600 for his account. During the campaign, he also wrote articles for the newspapers The Pioneer and The Daily Telegraph. Winston Churchill’s account of the battle was 1 of his 1st published stories, for which he received £5 per column from The Daily Telegraph.

Winston Churchill was transferred to Egypt in 1898 where he visited Luxor before joining an attachment of the 21st Lancers serving in the Sudan under the command of General Herbert Kitchener. During his time he encountered 2 future military officers, whom he would later work with, during the First World War: Douglas Haig, then a captain and John Jellicoe, then a gunboat lieutenant. While in the Sudan, he participated in what has been described as the last meaningful British cavalry charge at the Battle of Omdurman in September 1898. Winston Churchill also worked as a war correspondent for the Morning Post. By October 1898, he had returned to Britain and begun his 2-volume work; The River War, an account of the reconquest of the Sudan published the following year. Winston Churchill resigned from the British Army effective from 5th May, 1899.

Winston Churchill stood for parliament as a Conservative candidate in Oldham in the by-election of 1899, which he lost, coming 3rd in the contest for 2 seats.

Having failed at Oldham, Winston Churchill looked about for some other opportunity to advance his career. On 12 October 1899, the Second Boer War between Britain and the Boer Republics broke out and he obtained a commission to act as war correspondent for the Morning Post with a salary of £250 per month. Winston Churchill rushed to sail on the same ship as the newly appointed British commander, Sir Redvers Buller. After some weeks in exposed areas he accompanied a scouting expedition in an armoured train, leading to his capture and imprisonment in a POW camp in Pretoria. Winston Churchill’s actions during the ambush of the train led to speculation that he would be awarded the Victoria Cross, Britain’s highest award for gallantry in the face of the enemy, but this did not occur. Writing in London to Ladysmith via Pretoria, a collected version of his war reports, he described the experience:

I have had, in the last 4 years, the advantage, if it be an advantage, of many strange and varied experiences, from which the student of realities might draw profit and instruction. But nothing was so thrilling as this: to wait and struggle among these clanging, rending iron boxes, with the repeated explosions of the shells and the artillery, the noise of the projectiles striking the cars, the hiss as they passed in the air, the grunting and puffing of the engine–poor, tortured thing, hammered by at least a dozen shells, any one of which, by penetrating the boiler, might have made an end of all–the expectation of destruction as a matter of course, the realisation of powerlessness, and the alternations of hope and despair–all this for 70 minutes by the clock with only 4 inches of twisted iron work to make the difference between danger, captivity, and shame on the one hand–safety, freedom, and triumph on the other.

Winston Churchill escaped from the prison camp and travelled almost 300 miles (480 km) to Portuguese Lourenço Marques in Delagoa Bay, with the assistance of an English mine manager. Winston Churchill’s escape made him a minor national hero for a time in Britain, though instead of returning home, he rejoined General Buller’s army on its march to relieve the British at the Siege of Ladysmith and take Pretoria. This time, although continuing as a war correspondent, he gained a commission in the South African Light Horse. Winston Churchill was among the 1st British troops into Ladysmith and Pretoria. Winston Churchill and his cousin, the Duke of Marlborough, were able to get ahead of the rest of the troops in Pretoria, where they demanded and received the surrender of 52 Boer prison camp guards.

In 1900, Winston Churchill returned to England on the RMS Dunottar Castle, the same ship on which he set sail for South Africa 8 months earlier. Winston Churchill here published London to Ladysmith and a 2nd volume of Boer war experiences, Ian Hamilton’s March. After standing again and winning in Oldham in the 1900 general election he embarked on a speaking tour of Britain, followed by tours of the United States and Canada, earning in excess of £5,000.

In 1900, he retired from regular army and in 1902 joined the Imperial Yeomanry where he was commissioned as a Captain in the Queen’s Own Oxfordshire Hussars on 4 January 1902. In April 1905, he was promoted to Major and appointed to command of the Henley Squadron of the Queen’s Own Oxfordshire Hussars. In September 1916, he transferred to the territorial reserves of officers where he remained till retiring in 1924.

Winston Churchill was First Lord of the Admiralty at the start of World War I, but was obliged to leave the war cabinet after the disastrous Battle of Gallipoli. Winston Churchill attempted to obtain a commission as a brigade commander, but settled for command of a battalion. After spending some time with the Grenadier Guards he was appointed Lieutenant-Colonel, commanding the 6th Battalion, Royal Scots Fusiliers, on 1 January 1916. Correspondence with his wife shows that his intent in taking up active service was to rehabilitate his reputation, but this was balanced by the serious risk of being killed. As a commander he continued to exhibit the reckless daring which had been a hallmark of all his military actions, although he disapproved strongly of the mass slaughter involved in many western front actions.

Lord Deedes explained to a gathering of the Royal Historical Society in 2001 why Winston Churchill went to the front line: “He was with Grenadier Guards, who were dry [without alcohol] at battalion headquarters. They very much liked tea and condensed milk, which had no great appeal to Winston Churchill, but alcohol was permitted in the front line, in the trenches. Winston Churchill suggested to the colonel that he really ought to see more of the war and get into the front line. This was highly commended by the colonel, who thought it was a very good thing to do.”

Winston Churchill stood again for the seat of Oldham at the 1900 general election. After winning the seat, he went on a speaking tour throughout Britain and the United States, raising £10,000 for himself. In Parliament, he became associated with a faction of the Conservative Party led by Lord Hugh Cecil; the Hughligans. During his first parliamentary session, he opposed the government’s military expenditure and Joseph Chamberlain’s proposal of extensive tariffs, which were intended to protect Britain’s economic dominance. Winston Churchill’s own constituency effectively deselected him, although he continued to sit for Oldham until the next general election. After the Whitsun recess in 1904 he crossed the floor to sit as a member of the Liberal Party. As a Liberal, he continued to campaign for free trade. When the Liberals took office with Henry Campbell-Bannerman as Prime Minister, in December 1905, Winston Churchill became Under-Secretary of State for the Colonies dealing mainly with South Africa after the Boer War. From 1903 until 1905, Winston Churchill was also engaged in writing Lord Randolph Churchill, a 2-volume biography of his father which was published in 1906 and received much critical acclaim.

Following his deselection in the seat of Oldham, Winston Churchill was invited to stand for Manchester North West. Winston Churchill won the seat at the 1906 general election with a majority of 1,214 and represented the seat for 2 years, until 1908. When Campbell-Bannerman was succeeded by Herbert Henry Asquith in 1908, Winston Churchill was promoted to the Cabinet as President of the Board of Trade. Under the law at the time, a newly appointed Cabinet Minister was obliged to seek re-election at a by-election; Winston Churchill lost his seat but was soon back as a member for Dundee constituency. As President of the Board of Trade he joined newly appointed Chancellor Lloyd George in opposing First Lord of the Admiralty, Reginald McKenna’s proposed huge expenditure for the construction of Navy dreadnought warships, and in supporting the Liberal reforms. In 1908, he introduced the Trade Boards Bill setting up the 1st minimum wages in Britain, In 1909, he set up Labour Exchanges to help unemployed people find work. Winston Churchill helped draft the 1st unemployment pension legislation, the National Insurance Act of 1911.

Winston Churchill also assisted in passing the People’s Budget becoming President of the Budget League, an organisation set up in response to the opposition’s “Budget Protest League”. The budget included the introduction of new taxes on the wealthy to allow for the creation of new social welfare programmes. After the budget bill was sent to the Commons in 1909 and passed, it went to the House of Lords, where it was vetoed. The Liberals then fought and won 2 general elections in January and December of 1910 to gain a mandate for their reforms. The budget was then passed following the Parliament Act of 1911 for which he also campaigned. In 1910, he was promoted to Home Secretary. Winston Churchill’s term was controversial, after his responses to the Siege of Sidney Street and the dispute at the Cambrian Colliery and the suffragettes.

In 1910, a number of coal miners in the Rhondda Valley began what has come to be known as the Tonypandy Riot. The Chief Constable of Glamorgan requested troops be sent in to help police quell the rioting. Winston Churchill, learning that the troops were already travelling, allowed them to go as far as Swindon and Cardiff but blocked their deployment. On 9 November, the Times criticised this decision. In spite of this, the rumour persists that Winston Churchill had ordered troops to attack, and his reputation in Wales and in Labour circles never recovered.

In early January 1911, Winston Churchill made a controversial visit to the Siege of Sidney Street in London. There is some uncertainty as to whether he attempted to give operational commands, and his presence attracted much criticism. After an inquest, Arthur Balfour remarked, “he [Churchill] and a photographer were both risking valuable lives. I understand what the photographer was doing, but what was the right honourable gentleman doing?” A biographer, Roy Jenkins, suggests that he went simply because “he could not resist going to see the fun himself” and that he did not issue commands.

Winston Churchill’s proposed solution to the suffragette issue was a referendum on the issue, but this found no favour with Herbert Henry Asquith and women’s suffrage remained unresolved until after the First World War.

In 1911, Winston Churchill was transferred to the office of the First Lord of the Admiralty, a post he held into World War I. Winston Churchill gave impetus to several reform efforts, including development of naval aviation (he undertook flying lessons himself), the construction of new and larger warships, the development of tanks, and the switch from coal to oil in the Royal Navy.

On 5 October 1914, Winston Churchill went to Antwerp which the Belgian government proposed to evacuate. The Royal Marine Brigade was there and at Winston Churchill’s urgings the 1st and 2nd Naval Brigades were also committed. Antwerp fell on 10 October with the loss of 2500 men. At the time he was attacked for squandering resources. It is more likely that his actions prolonged the resistance by a week (Belgium had proposed surrendering Antwerp on 3 October) and that this time saved Calais and Dunkirk.

Winston Churchill was involved with the development of the tank, which was financed from naval research funds. Winston Churchill then headed the Landships Committee which was responsible for creating the 1st tank corps and, although a decade later development of the battle tank would be seen as a tactical victory, at the time it was seen as misappropriation of funds. In 1915, he was one of the political and military engineers of the disastrous Gallipoli landings on the Dardanelles during World War I. Winston Churchill took much of the blame for the fiasco, and when Prime Minister Asquith formed an all-party coalition government, the Conservatives demanded his demotion as the price for entry.

For several months Winston Churchill served in the sinecure of Chancellor of the Duchy of Lancaster. However on 15 November 1915 he resigned from the government, feeling his energies were not being used and, though remaining an MP, served for several months on the Western Front commanding the 6th Battalion of the Royal Scots Fusiliers, under the rank of Colonel. In March 1916, Winston Churchill returned to England after he had become restless in France and wished to speak again in the House of Commons. In July 1917, Winston Churchill was appointed Minister of Munitions, and in January 1919, Secretary of State for War and Secretary of State for Air. Winston Churchill was the main architect of the 10 Year Rule, a principle that allows the Treasury to dominate and control strategic, foreign and financial policies under the assumption that “there would be no great European war for the next 5 or 10 years”.

A major preoccupation of his tenure in the War Office was the Allied intervention in the Russian Civil War. Winston Churchill was a staunch advocate of foreign intervention, declaring that Bolshevism must be “strangled in its cradle”. Winston Churchill secured, from a divided and loosely organised Cabinet, intensification and prolongation of the British involvement beyond the wishes of any major group in Parliament or the nation—and in the face of the bitter hostility of Labour. In 1920, after the last British forces had been withdrawn, Winston Churchill was instrumental in having arms sent to the Poles when they invaded Ukraine. Winston Churchill became Secretary of State for the Colonies in 1921 and was a signatory of the Anglo-Irish Treaty of 1921, which established the Irish Free State. Winston Churchill was involved in the length negotiations of the treaty and to protect British maritime interests, he engineered part of the Irish Free State agreement to include 3 Treaty Ports—Queenstown (Cobh), Berehaven and Lough Swilly—which could be used as Atlantic bases by the Royal Navy. Under the terms of the Anglo-Irish Trade Agreement the bases were returned to the newly renamed “Ireland” in 1938.

In September, the Conservative Party withdrew from the Coalition government following a meeting of backbenchers dissatisfied with the handling of the Chanak Crisis, a move that precipitated the looming October 1922 General Election. Winston Churchill fell ill during the campaign, and had to have an appendicectomy. This made it difficult for him to campaign, and a further setback was the internal division that continued to beset the Liberal Party. Winston Churchill came only 4th in the poll for Dundee, losing to the prohibitionist Edwin Scrymgeour. Winston Churchill later quipped that he left Dundee “without an office, without a seat, without a party and without an appendix”. Winston Churchill stood for the Liberals again in the 1923 general election, losing in Leicester, and then as an independent, first without success in a by-election in the Westminster Abbey constituency, and then successfully in the general election of 1924 for Epping. The following year, he formally rejoined the Conservative Party, commenting wryly that “anyone can rat, but it takes a certain ingenuity to re-rat.”

Winston Churchill was appointed Chancellor of the Exchequer in 1924 under Stanley Baldwin and oversaw Britain’s disastrous return to the Gold Standard, which resulted in deflation, unemployment, and the miners’ strike that led to the General Strike of 1926. Winston Churchill’s decision, announced in the 1924 Budget, came after long consultation with various economists including John Maynard Keynes, the Permanent Secretary to the Treasury, Sir Otto Niemeyer and the board of the Bank of England. This decision prompted Keynes to write The Economic Consequences of Winston Churchill, arguing that the return to the gold standard at the pre-war parity in 1925(£1=$4.86) would lead to a world depression. However, the decision was generally popular and seen as ‘sound economics’ although it was opposed by Lord Beaverbrook and the Federation of British Industries.

Winston Churchill later regarded this as the greatest mistake of his life. However in discussions at the time with former Chancellor McKenna, Winston Churchill acknowledged that the return to the gold standard and the resulting ‘dear money’ policy was economically bad. In those discussions he maintained the policy as fundamentally political – a return to the pre-war conditions in which he believed. In his speech on the Bill he said “I will tell you what it [the return to the Gold Standard] will shackle us to. It will shackle us to reality.”

The return to the pre-war exchange rate and to the Gold Standard depressed industries. The most affected was the coal industry. Already suffering from declining output as shipping switched to oil, as basic British industries like cotton came under more competition in export markets, the return to the pre-war exchange was estimated to add up to 10% in costs to the industry. In July 1925, a Commission of Inquiry reported generally favouring the miners, rather than the mine owners’ position. Baldwin, with Winston Churchill’s support proposed a subsidy to the industry while a Royal Commission prepared a further report.

That Commission solved nothing and the miners dispute led to the General Strike of 1926, Winston Churchill was reported to have suggested that machine guns be used on the striking miners. Winston Churchill edited the Government’s newspaper, the British Gazette, and, during the dispute, he argued that “either the country will break the General Strike, or the General Strike will break the country” and claimed that the fascism of Benito Mussolini had “rendered a service to the whole world,” showing, as it had, “a way to combat subversive forces”—that is, he considered the regime to be a bulwark against the perceived threat of Communist revolution. At one point, Winston Churchill went as far as to call Mussolini the “Roman genius… the greatest lawgiver among men.”

Later economists, as well as people at the time, also criticised Winston Churchill’s budget measures. These were seen as assisting the generally prosperous rentier banking and salaried classes (to which Winston Churchill and his associates generally belonged) at the expense of manufacturers and exporters which were known then to be suffering from imports and from competition in traditional export markets, and as paring the Armed Forces too heavily.

The Conservative government was defeated in the 1929 General Election. Winston Churchill did not seek election to the Conservative Business Committee, the official leadership of the Conservative MPs. Over the next 2 years, Winston Churchill became estranged from the Conservative leadership over the issues of protective tariffs and Indian Home Rule and by his political views and by his friendships with press barons, financiers and people whose characters were seen as dubious. When Ramsay MacDonald formed the National Government in 1931, Winston Churchill was not invited to join the Cabinet. Winston Churchill was at the low point in his career, in a period known as “the wilderness years”.

Winston Churchill spent much of the next few years concentrating on his writing, including Marlborough: His Life and Times—a biography of his ancestor John Churchill, 1st Duke of Marlborough—and A History of the English Speaking Peoples (though the latter was not published until well after World War II), Great Contemporaries and many newspaper articles and collections of speeches. Winston Churchill was one of the best paid writers of his time. Winston Churchill’s political views, set 4th in his 1930 Romanes Election and published as Parliamentary Government and the Economic Problem (republished in 1932 in his collection of essays “Thoughts and Adventures”) involved abandoning universal suffrage, a return to a property franchise, proportional representation for the major cities and an economic ‘sub parliament’.

Winston Churchill opposed Mohandas Gandhi’s peaceful disobedience revolt and the Indian Independence movement in the 1930s, arguing that the Round Table Conference “was a frightful prospect”. Later reports indicate that Winston Churchill favoured letting Gandhi die if he went on hunger strike. During the 1st 1/2 of the 1930s, Winston Churchill was outspoken in his opposition to granting Dominion status to India. Winston Churchill was one of the founders of the India Defence League, a group dedicated to the preservation of British power in India. In speeches and press articles in this period he forecast widespread British unemployment and civil strife in India should independence be granted. The Viceroy Lord Irwin who had been appointed by the prior Conservative Government engaged in the Round Table Conference in early 1931 and then announced the Government’s policy that India should be granted Dominion Status. In this the Government was supported by the Liberal Party and, officially at least, by the Conservative Party. Winston Churchill denounced the Round Table Conference.

At a meeting of the West Essex Conservative Association specially convened so Winston Churchill could explain his position he said, “It is alarming and also nauseating to see Mr Gandhi, a seditious Middle-Temple lawyer, now posing as a fakir of a type well-known in the East, striding half-naked up the steps of the Vice-regal palace…to parley on equal terms with the representative of the King-Emperor.” Winston Churchill called the Indian Congress leaders “Brahmins who mouth and patter principles of Western Liberalism.”

There were 2 incidents which damaged Winston Churchill’s reputation greatly within the Conservative Party in the period. Both were taken as attacks on the Conservative front bench. The 1st was his speech on the eve of the St George by-election in April 1931. In a secure Conservative seat, the official Conservative candidate Duff Cooper was opposed by an independent Conservative. The independent was supported by Lord Rothermere, Lord Beaverbrook and their respective newspapers. Although arranged before the by election was set, Winston Churchill’s speech was seen as supporting the independent candidate and as a part of the Press Baron’s campaign against Baldwin. Baldwin’s position was strengthened when Duff Cooper won and when the civil disobedience campaign in India ceased with the Gandhi-Irwin Pact. The 2nd issue was a claim that Sir Samuel Hoare and Lord Derby had pressured the Manchester Chamber of Commerce to change evidence it had given to the Joint Select Committee considering the Government of India Bill and in doing so had breached Parliamentary privilege. Winston Churchill had the matter referred to the House of Commons Privilege Committee which after investigations, in which Winston Churchill gave evidence reported to the House that there had been no breach. The report was debated on 13 June. Winston Churchill was unable to find a single supporter in the House and the debate ended without a division.

Winston Churchill permanently broke with Stanley Baldwin over Indian independence and never held any office while Stanley Baldwin was Prime Minister. Some historians see his basic attitude to India as being set out in his book My Early Life (1930). Historians also dispute his motives in maintaining his opposition. Some see him as trying to destabilise the National Government. Some also draw a parallel between Winston Churchill’s attitudes to India and those towards the Nazis.

Beginning in 1932, when he opposed those who advocated giving Germany the right to military parity with France, Winston Churchill spoke often of the dangers of Germany’s rearmament. Winston Churchill later, particularly in The Gathering Storm, portrayed himself as being for a time, a lone voice calling on Britain to strengthen itself to counter the belligerence of Germany. However Lord Lloyd was the 1st to so agitate. Winston Churchill’s attitude toward the fascist dictators was ambiguous. In 1931, he warned against the League of Nations opposing the Japanese in Manchuria “I hope we shall try in England to understand the position of Japan, an ancient state…. On the one side they have the dark menace of Soviet Russia. On the other the chaos of China, 4 or 5 provinces of which are being tortured under Communist rule”. In contemporary newspaper articles he referred to the Spanish Republican government as a Communist front, and Franco’s army as the “Anti-red movement”. Winston Churchill supported the Hoare-Laval Pact and continued up until 1937 to praise Benito Mussolini.

Speaking in the House of Commons in 1937, Winston Churchill said “I will not pretend that, if I had to choose between communism and Nazism, I would choose communism”. In a 1935 essay, entitled “Hitler and his Choice” as republished in Winston Churchill’s 1937 book Great Contemporaries, Winston Churchill expressed a hope that Hitler, if he so chose, and despite his rise to power through dictatorial action, hatred, and cruelty, he might yet “go down in history as the man who restored honour and peace of mind to the great Germanic nation and brought it back serene, helpful and strong, to the forefront of the European family circle.” Winston Churchill’s 1st major speech on defence on 7 February 1934 stressed the need to rebuild the Royal Air Force and to create a Ministry of Defence; his 2nd, on 13 July urged a renewed role for the League of Nations. These 3 topics remained his themes until early 1936. In 1935, he was one of the founding members of Focus which brought together people of differing political backgrounds and occupations who were united in seeking ‘the defence of freedom and peace’. Focus led to the formation of the much wider Arms and the Covenant Movement in 1936.

Winston Churchill was holidaying in Spain when the Germans reoccupied the Rhineland in February 1936, and returned to a divided England—Labour opposition was adamant in opposing sanctions and the National Government was divided between advocates of economic sanctions and those who said that even these would lead to a humiliating backdown by Britain as France would not support any intervention. Winston Churchill’s speech on 9 March was measured and praised by Neville Chamberlain as constructive. But within weeks Winston Churchill was passed over for the post of Minister for Co-ordination of Defence in favour of the Attorney General Sir Thomas Inskip. Alan Taylor called this; ‘An appointment rightly described as the most extraordinary since Caligula made his horse a consul.’ In June 1936, Winston Churchill organised a deputation of senior Conservatives who shared his concern to see Stanley Baldwin, Neville Chamberlain and Halifax. Winston Churchill had tried to have delegates from the other 2 parties and later wrote “If the leaders of the Labour and Liberal oppositions had come with us there might have been a political situation so intense as to enforce remedial action”. As it was the meeting achieved little, Stanley Baldwin arguing that the Government was doing all it could given the anti-war feeling of the electorate.

On 12 November Winston Churchill returned to the topic. Speaking in the Address in Reply debate after giving some specific instances of Germany’s war preparedness he said ‘’’The Government simply cannot make up their mind or they cannot get the Prime Minister to make up his mind. So they go on in strange paradox, decided only to be undecided, resolved to be irresolute, adamant for drift, solid for fluidity, all powerful for impotency. And so we go on preparing more months more years precious perhaps vital for the greatness of Britain for the locusts to eat.’’’

R.R. James called this one of Winston Churchill’s most brilliant speeches in this period, Stanley Baldwin’s reply sounding weak and disturbing the House. The exchange gave new encouragement to the Arms and the Covenant Movement.

In June 1936, Walter Monckton told Winston Churchill that the rumours that King Edward VIII intended to marry Mrs Wallis Simpson were true. Winston Churchill then advised against the marriage and said he regarded Mrs Wallis Simpson’s existing marriage as a ‘safeguard’. In November, he declined Lord Salisbury’s invitation to be part of a delegation of senior Conservative backbenchers who met with Stanley Baldwin to discuss the matter. On 25 November he, Attlee and Sinclair met with Stanley Baldwin and were told officially of the King’s intention and asked whether they would form an administration if Stanley Baldwin and the National Government resigned should the King not take the Ministry’s advice. Both Attlee and Sinclair said they would not take office if invited to do so. Winston Churchill’s reply was that his attitude was a little different but he would support the government.

The Abdication crisis became public, coming to head in the 1st fortnight of December 1936. At this time Winston Churchill publicly gave his support to the King. The 1st public meeting of the Arms and the Covenant Movement was on 3 December. Winston Churchill was a major speaker and later wrote that in replying to the Vote of Thanks he made a declaration ‘on the spur of the moment’ asking for delay before any decision was made by either the King or his Cabinet. Later that night Winston Churchill saw the draft of the King’s proposed wireless broadcast and spoke with Beaverbrook and the King’s solicitor about it. On 4 December, he met with the King and again urged delay in any decision about abdication. On 5 December, he issued a lengthy statement implying that the Ministry was applying unconstitutional pressure on the King to force him to make a hasty decision. On 7 December he tried to address the Commons to plead for delay. Winston Churchill was shouted down. Seemingly staggered by the unanimous hostility of all Members he left.

Winston Churchill’s reputation in Parliament and England as a whole was badly damaged. Some such as Alistair Cooke saw him as trying to build a King’s Party. Others like Harold Macmillan were dismayed by the damage Winston Churchill’s support for the King had done to the Arms and the Covenant Movement. Winston Churchill himself later wrote “I was myself smitten in public opinion that it was the almost universal view that my political life was ended.” Historians are divided about Winston Churchill’s motives in his support for Edward VIII. Some such as A J P Taylor see it as being an attempt to ‘overthrow the government of feeble men’. Others such as Rhode James see Winston Churchill’s motives as entirely honourable and disinterested, that he felt deeply for the King.

Winston Churchill later sought to portray himself as an isolated voice warning of the need to rearm against Germany. While it is true that he had little following in the House of Commons during much of the 1930s he was given considerable privileges by the Government. The “Churchill group” in the later half of the decade consisted only of himself, Duncan Sandys and Brendan Bracken. It was isolated from the other main factions within the Conservative Party pressing for faster rearmament and a stronger foreign policy. In some senses the ‘exile’ was more apparent than real. Winston Churchill continued to be consulted on many matters by the Government or seen as an alternative leader.

Winston Churchill giving his famous ‘V’ sign standing for “Victory”. Even during the time Winston Churchill was campaigning against Indian independence, he received official and otherwise secret information. From 1932, Winston Churchill’s neighbour, Major Desmond Morton with Ramsay MacDonald’s approval, gave Winston Churchill information on German air power. From 1930 onwards Major Desmond Morton headed a department of the Committee of Imperial Defence charged with researching the defence preparedness of other nations. Lord Swinton as Secretary of State for Air, and with Stanley Baldwin’s approval, in 1934 gave Winston Churchill access to official and otherwise secret information.

Lord Swinton did so, knowing Winston Churchill would remain a critic of the government but believing that an informed critic was better than one relying on rumour and hearsay. Winston Churchill was a fierce critic of Neville Chamberlain’s appeasement of Adolf Hitler and in a speech to the House of Commons, he bluntly and prophetically stated, “You were given the choice between war and dishonour. You chose dishonour, and you will have war.

After the outbreak of World War II, on 3 September 1939 the day Britain declared war on Germany, Winston Churchill was appointed First Lord of the Admiralty and a member of the War Cabinet, just as he had been during the first part of World War I. When they were informed, the Board of the Admiralty sent a signal to the Fleet: “Winston is back”. In this job, he proved to be one of the highest-profile ministers during the so-called “Phony War”, when the only noticeable action was at sea. Winston Churchill advocated the pre-emptive occupation of the neutral Norwegian iron-ore port of Narvik and the iron mines in Kiruna, Sweden, early in the war. However, Neville Chamberlain and the rest of the War Cabinet disagreed, and the operation was delayed until the successful German invasion of Norway.

On 10 May 1940, hours before the German invasion of France by a lightning advance through the Low Countries, it became clear that, following failure in Norway, the country had no confidence in Neville Chamberlain’s prosecution of the war and so Neville Chamberlain resigned. The commonly accepted version of events states that Lord Halifax turned down the post of Prime Minister because he believed he could not govern effectively as a member of the House of Lords instead of the House of Commons. Although the Prime Minister does not traditionally advise the King on the former’s successor, Neville Chamberlain wanted someone who would command the support of all 3 major parties in the House of Commons. A meeting between Neville Chamberlain, Lord Halifax, Winston Churchill and David Margesson, the government Chief Whip, led to the recommendation of Winston Churchill, and, as a constitutional monarch, George VI asked Winston Churchill to be Prime Minister and to form an all-party government. Winston Churchill’s 1st act was to write to Neville Chamberlain to thank him for his support.

Winston Churchill had been among the 1st to recognise the growing threat of Hitler long before the outset of the Second World War, and his warnings had gone largely unheeded. Although there was an element of British public and political sentiment favouring negotiated peace with a clearly ascendant Germany, among them the Foreign Secretary Lord Halifax, Winston Churchill nonetheless refused to consider an armistice with Hitler’s Germany. Winston Churchill’s use of rhetoric hardened public opinion against a peaceful resolution and prepared the British for a long war. Coining the general term for the upcoming battle, Winston Churchill stated in his “finest hour” speech to the House of Commons on 18 June 1940, “I expect that the Battle of Britain is about to begin.” By refusing an armistice with Germany, Winston Churchill kept resistance alive in the British Empire and created the basis for the later Allied counter-attacks of 1942-45, with Britain serving as a platform for the supply of Soviet Union and the liberation of Western Europe.

In response to previous criticisms that there had been no clear single minister in charge of the prosecution of the war, Winston Churchill created and took the additional position of Minister of Defence. Winston Churchill immediately put his friend and confidant, the industrialist and newspaper baron Lord Beaverbrook, in charge of aircraft production. It was Lord Beaverbrook’s business acumen that allowed Britain to quickly gear up aircraft production and engineering that eventually made the difference in the war.

Winston Churchill’s speeches were a great inspiration to the embattled British. Winston Churchill’s 1st speech as Prime Minister was the famous “I have nothing to offer but blood, toil, tears, and sweat”. Winston Churchill followed that closely with 2 other equally famous ones, given just before the Battle of Britain. One included the words:

we shall fight in France, we shall fight on the seas and oceans, we shall fight with growing confidence and growing strength in the air, we shall defend our island, whatever the cost may be, we shall fight on the beaches, we shall fight on the landing grounds, we shall fight in the fields and in the streets, we shall fight in the hills; we shall never surrender.

The other:

Let us therefore brace ourselves to our duties, and so bear ourselves, that if the British Empire and its Commonwealth last for a thousand years, men will still say, ‘This was their finest hour’.

At the height of the Battle of Britain, his bracing survey of the situation included the memorable line “Never in the field of human conflict was so much owed by so many to so few”, which engendered the enduring nickname “The Few” for the Allied fighter pilots who won it. One of his most memorable war speeches came on 10 November 1942 at the Lord Mayor’s Luncheon at Mansion House in London, in response to the Allied victory at the Second Battle of El Alamein. Winston Churchill stated:

This is not the end. It is not even the beginning of the end. But it is, perhaps, the end of the beginning.

Without having much in the way of sustenance or good news to offer the British people, he took a political risk in deliberately choosing to emphasise the dangers instead.

“Rhetorical power,” wrote Winston Churchill, “is neither wholly bestowed, nor wholly acquired, but cultivated.” Not all were impressed by his oratory. Robert Menzies, who was the Prime Minister of Australia, said during World War II of Winston Churchill: “His real tyrant is the glittering phrase so attractive to his mind that awkward facts have to give way.” Another associate wrote: “He is . . . the slave of the words which his mind forms about ideas. . . . And he can convince himself of almost every truth if it is once allowed thus to start on its wild career through his rhetorical machinery.”

Winston Churchill’s good relationship with Franklin D. Roosevelt secured vital food, oil and munitions via the North Atlantic shipping routes. It was for this reason that Winston Churchill was relieved when Franklin D. Roosevelt was re-elected in 1940. Upon re-election, Franklin D. Roosevelt immediately set about implementing a new method of providing military hardware and shipping to Britain without the need for monetary payment. Put simply, Franklin D. Roosevelt persuaded Congress that repayment for this immensely costly service would take the form of defending the US; and so Lend-lease was born. Winston Churchill had 12 strategic conferences with franklin D. Roosevelt which covered the Atlantic Charter, Europe 1st strategy, the Declaration by the United Nations and other war policies. After Pearl Harbour was attacked, Winston Churchill’s first thought in anticipation of US help was, “We have won the war!” On 26 December 1941, Winston Churchill addressed a joint meeting of the US Congress, asking of Germany and Japan, “What kind of people do they think we are?” Winston Churchill initiated the Special Operations Executive (SOE) under Hugh Dalton’s Ministry of Economic Warfare, which established, conducted and fostered covert, subversive and partisan operations in occupied territories with notable success; and also the Commandos which established the pattern for most of the world’s current Special Forces. The Russians referred to him as the “British Bulldog”.

Winston Churchill’s health was fragile, as shown by a mild heart attack he suffered in December 1941 at the White House and also in December 1943 when he contracted pneumonia. Despite this, he travelled over 100,000 miles (160,000 km) throughout the war to meet other national leaders. For security, he usually travelled using the alias Colonel Warden. Winston Churchill was party to treaties that would redraw post-World War II European and Asian boundaries. These were discussed as early as 1943. Proposals for European boundaries and settlements were officially agreed to by Harry S Truman, Winston Churchill, and Stalin at Potsdam. At the 2nd Quebec Conference in 1944 he drafted and, together with US President Franklin D. Roosevelt, signed a toned-down version of the original Morgenthau Plan, in which they pledged to convert Germany after its unconditional surrender “into a country primarily agricultural and pastoral in its character.” Winston Churchill’s strong relationship with Harry Truman was also of great significance to both countries. While he clearly regretted the loss of his close friend and counterpart Franklin D. Roosevelt, Winston Churchill was enormously supportive of Harry Truman in his 1st days in office, calling him, “the type of leader the world needs when it needs him most.”

When Hitler invaded the Soviet Union, Winston Churchill, a vehement anti-Communist, famously stated “If Hitler were to invade Hell, I should find occasion to make a favourable reference to the Devil,” regarding his policy toward Stalin. Soon, British supplies and tanks were flowing to help the Soviet Union.

The settlement concerning the borders of Poland, that is, the boundary between Poland and the Soviet Union and between Germany and Poland, was viewed as a betrayal in Poland during the post-war years, as it was established against the views of the Polish government in exile. It was Winston Churchill, who tried to motivate Mikołajczyk, who was Prime Minister of the Polish government in exile, to accept Stalin’s wishes, but Mikołajczyk refused. Winston Churchill was convinced that the only way to alleviate tensions between the 2 populations was the transfer of people, to match the national borders.

As he expounded in the House of Commons on 15 December 1944, “Expulsion is the method which, insofar as we have been able to see, will be the most satisfactory and lasting. There will be no mixture of populations to cause endless trouble… A clean sweep will be made. I am not alarmed by these transferences, which are more possible in modern conditions.” However the resulting expulsions of Germans was carried out by the Soviet Union in a way which resulted in much hardship and, according to a 1966 report by the West German Ministry of Refugees and Displaced Persons, the death of over 2.1,000,000. Winston Churchill opposed the effective annexation of Poland by the Soviet Union and wrote bitterly about it in his books, but he was unable to prevent it at the conferences.

During October 1944, he and Eden were in Moscow to meet with the Russian leadership. At this point, Russian forces were beginning to advance into various eastern European countries. Winston Churchill held the view that until everything was formally and properly worked out at the Yalta conference, there had to be a temporary, war-time, working agreement with regard to who would run what. The most significant of these meetings were held on 9 October 1944 in the Kremlin between Winston Churchill and Stalin. During the meeting, Poland and the Balkan problems were discussed. Winston Churchill recounted his speech to Stalin on the day:

Let us settle about our affairs in the Balkans. Your armies are in Rumania and Bulgaria. We have interests, missions, and agents there. Don’t let us get at cross-purposes in small ways. So far as Britain and Russia are concerned, how would it do for you to have 90% predominance in Rumania, for us to have 90% of the say in Greece, and go 50/50 about Yugoslavia?

Stalin agreed to this Percentages Agreement, ticking a piece of paper as he heard the translation. In 1958, 5 years after the recount of this meeting was published (in The Second World War), authorities of the Soviet denied that Stalin accepted the “imperialist proposal”.

Between 13 February and 15 February 1945, British and the US bombers attacked the German city of Dresden, which was crowded with German wounded and refugees. Because of the cultural importance of the city, and of the number of civilian casualties close to the end of the war, this remains one of the most controversial Western Allied actions of the war. Following the bombing Winston Churchill stated in a top secret telegram:

It seems to me that the moment has come when the question of bombing of German cities simply for the sake of increasing the terror, though under other pretexts, should be reviewed … I feel the need for more precise concentration upon military objectives such as oil and communications behind the immediate battle-zone, rather than on mere acts of terror and wanton destruction, however impressive.

On reflection, under pressure from the Chiefs of Staff and in response to the views expressed by Sir Charles Portal (Chief of the Air Staff,) and Arthur Harris (AOC-in-C of Bomber Command,) among others, Churchill withdrew his memo and issued a new one. This final version of the memo completed on 1 April 1945, stated:

It seems to me that the moment has come when the question of the so called ‘area-bombing’ of German cities should be reviewed from the point of view of our own interests. If we come into control of an entirely ruined land, there will be a great shortage of accommodation for ourselves and our allies … We must see to it that our attacks do no more harm to ourselves in the long run than they do to the enemy’s war effort.

Ultimately, responsibility for the British part of the attack lay with Winston Churchill, which is why he has been criticised for allowing the bombings to happen. The German historian Jörg Friedrich, claims that “Winston Churchill’s decision to [area] bomb a shattered Germany between January and May 1945 was a war crime” and writing in 2006 the philosopher A. C. Grayling questioned the whole strategic bombing campaign by the RAF presenting the argument that although it was not a war crime it was a moral crime and undermines the Allies contention that they fought a just war.

On the other hand, it has also been asserted that Winston Churchill’s involvement in the bombing of Dresden was based on the strategic and tactical aspects of winning the war. The destruction of Dresden, while immense, was designed to expedite the defeat of Germany. As the historian Max Hastings said in an article subtitled, “the Allied Bombing of Dresden”: “I believe it is wrong to describe strategic bombing as a war crime, for this might be held to suggest some moral equivalence with the deeds of the Nazis. Bombing represented a sincere, albeit mistaken, attempt to bring about Germany’s military defeat.” Furthermore British historian, Frederick Taylor asserts that “All sides bombed each other’s cities during the war. Half a million Soviet citizens, for example, died from German bombing during the invasion and occupation of Russia. That’s roughly equivalent to the number of German citizens who died from Allied raids. But the Allied bombing campaign was attached to military operations and ceased as soon as military operations ceased.”

In June 1944, the Allied Forces invaded Normandy and pushed the Nazi forces back into Germany on a broad front over the coming year. After being attacked on 3 fronts by the Allies, Germany was soon defeated. On 7 May 1945 at the SHAEF headquarters in Rheims the Allies accepted Germany’s surrender. On the same day in a BBC news flash John Snagge announced that 8 May would be Victory in Europe Day. On Victory in Europe Day, Winston Churchill broadcast to the nation that Germany had surrendered and that a final cease fire on all fronts in Europe would come into effect at 1 minute past midnight that night. Afterwards Winston Churchill told a huge crowd in Whitehall: “This is your victory.” The people shouted: “No, it is yours”, and Winston Churchill then conducted them in the singing of Land of Hope and Glory. In the evening he made another broadcast to the nation asserting the defeat of Japan in the coming months. The Japanese later surrendered on 15 August 1945.

As Europe celebrated peace at the end of 6 years of war, Winston Churchill was concerning on the possibility that the celebrations would soon be brutally interrupted. Winston Churchill concluded that the UK and the US must prepare for the Red Army ignoring previously-agreed frontiers and agreements in Europe “to impose upon Russia the will of the United States and the British Empire.” According to the Operation Unthinkable plan ordered by Winston Churchill and developed by the British Armed Forces, the Third World War could have started on 1 July 1945 with a sudden attack against the allied Soviet troops. The plan was rejected by the British Chiefs of Staff Committee as militarily unfeasible. However this decision didn’t stop the further development of the war plans: with the beginning Arms race the militarily unfeasible Third World War was developed into the Cold War doctrine.

Although Winston Churchill’s role in World War II had generated him much support from the British population, he was defeated in the 1945 election. Many reasons for this have been given, key among them being that a desire for post-war reform was widespread amongst the population and that the man who had led Britain in war was not seen as the man to lead the nation in peace.

For 6 years he was to serve as the Leader of the Opposition. During these years Winston Churchill continued to have an impact on world affairs. In 1946, he gave his Iron Curtain speech which spoke of the USSR and the creation of the Eastern Bloc. He declared:

Winston Churchill with American General Dwight D. Eisenhower and Field Marshal Bernard Law Montgomery at a meeting of NATO in October 1951, shortly before Winston Churchill was to become Prime Minister for a 2nd time. From Stettin in the Baltic to Trieste in the Adriatic, an Iron Curtain has descended across the continent. Behind that line lie all the capitals of the ancient states of Central and Eastern Europe. Warsaw, Berlin, Prague, Vienna, Budapest, Belgrade, Bucharest and Sofia, all these famous cities and the populations around them lie in what I must call the Soviet sphere.

Winston Churchill also argued strongly for British independence from the European Coal and Steel Community, which he saw as a Franco-German project. Winston Churchill saw Britain’s place as separate from the continent, much more in-line with the countries of the Commonwealth and the Empire and with the United States, the so-called Anglosphere.

After the General Election of 1951, Winston Churchill again became Prime Minister. Winston Churchill’s 3rd government—after the wartime national government and the brief caretaker government of 1945—lasted until his resignation in 1955. Winston Churchill’s domestic priorities in his last government were overshadowed by a series of foreign policy crises, which were partly the result of the continued decline of British military and imperial prestige and power. Being a strong proponent of Britain as an international power, Winston Churchill would often meet such moments with direct action. One example was his dispatch of British troops to Kenya to deal with the Mau Mau rebellion. Trying to retain what he could of the Empire, he once stated that, “I will not preside over a dismemberment.”

This was followed by events which became known as the Malayan Emergency. In Malaya, a rebellion against British rule had been in progress since 1948. Once again, Winston Churchill’s government inherited a crisis, and Winston Churchill chose to use direct military action against those in rebellion while attempting to build an alliance with those who were not. While the rebellion was slowly being defeated, it was equally clear that colonial rule from Britain was no longer sustainable.

Winston Churchill also devoted much of his time in office to Anglo-American relations and although Winston Churchill did not get on well with President Dwight D. Eisenhower, Winston Churchill attempted to maintain the special relationship with the United States. Winston Churchill made 4 official transatlantic visits to America during his 2nd term as Prime Minister.

In June 1953, when he was 78, Winston Churchill suffered a stroke at 10 Downing Street. News of this was kept from the public and from Parliament, who were told that Winston Churchill was suffering from exhaustion. Winston Churchill went to his country home, Chartwell, to recuperate from the effects of the stroke which had affected his speech and ability to walk. Winston Churchill returned to public life in October to make a speech at a Conservative Party conference at Margate. However, aware that he was slowing down both physically and mentally, Winston Churchill retired as Prime Minister in 1955 and was succeeded by Anthony Eden.

Winston Churchill spent much of his retirement at his home Chartwell in Kent. Winston Churchill purchased it in 1922 after his daughter Mary was born. After leaving the premiership, Winston Churchill spent less time in parliament until he stood down at the 1964 General Election. As a mere “back-bencher,” Winston Churchill spent most of his retirement at Chartwell and at his home in Hyde Park Gate, in London. As his mental and physical faculties decayed, he began to lose the battle he had fought for so long against the “black dog” of depression. In 1963, US President John F. Kennedy, acting under authorisation granted by an Act of Congress, proclaimed him an Honourary Citizen of the United States, but he was unable to attend the White House ceremony.

Winston Churchill was also an accomplished artist and took great pleasure in painting, especially after his resignation as First Lord of the Admiralty in 1915. Winston Churchill found a haven in art to overcome the spells of depression—or as he termed it, the “Black Dog”—which he suffered throughout his life. As William Rees-Mogg has stated, “In his own life, he had to suffer the ‘black dog’ of depression. In his landscapes and still lives there is no sign of depression”. Winston Churchill is best known for his impressionist scenes of landscape, many of which were painted while on holiday in the South of France or Morocco. Winston Churchill continued his hobby throughout his life and painted dozens of paintings, many of which are on show in the studio at Chartwell.

Winston Churchill as a historian and writer.

Despite his lifelong fame and upper-class origins Winston Churchill always struggled to keep his income at a level that would fund his extravagant lifestyle. MPs before 1946 received only a nominal salary (and in fact did not receive anything at all until the Parliament Act of 1911) so many had secondary professions from which to earn a living. From his 1st book in 1898 until his 2nd stint as Prime Minister, Winston Churchill’s income was almost entirely made from writing books and opinion pieces for newspapers and magazines. The most famous of his newspaper articles are those that appeared in the Evening Standard from 1936 warning of the rise of Hitler and the danger of the policy of appeasement.

Winston Churchill was also a prolific writer of books, writing a novel, 2 biographies, 3 volumes of memoirs, and several histories in addition to his many newspaper articles. Winston Churchill was awarded the Nobel Prize in Literature “for his mastery of historical and biographical description as well as for brilliant oratory in defending exalted human values”. 2 of his most famous works, published after his 1st premiereship brought his international fame to new heights, were his 6-volume memoir The Second World War and A History of the English-Speaking Peoples; a 4-volume history covering the period from Caesar’s invasions of Britain (55 BC) to the beginning of the First World War (1914).

Honours:

Aside from receiving the great honour of a state funeral, Winston Churchill also received numerous awards and honours, including being made the 1st Honourary Citizen of the United States. Winston Churchill received the Nobel Prize in Literature for his numerous published works, especially his 6-edition set The Second World War. In a 2002 BBC poll of the “100 Greatest Britons”, he was proclaimed “The Greatest of Them All” based on approximately a million votes from BBC viewers. Winston Churchill was also rated as one of the most influential leaders in history by Time magazine.

The Winston Churchill Memorial Trust:

When Winston Churchill was 88 he was asked by the Duke of Edinburgh how he would like to be remembered. Winston Churchill replied with a scholarship like the Rhodes scholarship but for the wider masses. After his death, the Winston Churchill Memorial Trust was established in Great Britain and Australia. A Churchill Trust Memorial Day was held in Australia, raising $AUD4.3,000,000. Since that time the Churchill Trust in Australia has supported over 3,000 scholarship recipients in a diverse variety of fields, where merit, either on the basis of past experience, or potential, and the propensity to contribute to the community have been the only criteria. The Churchill Trust is today one of the most prestigious fellowships in the Commonwealth.

It is alleged that while Home Secretary in 1910, Winston Churchill proposed the sterilisation of 100,000 “mental degenerates”, and the dispatch of tens of thousands of others to state-run labor camps, so as to save the “British race” from inevitable decline as its “inferior” members were allowed to breed.

Poison gas:

It is sometimes claimed that Winston Churchill advocated the use of poison gas on Kurdish tribesmen in Mesopotamia. This accusation is based almost entirely on a War Office minute of 12 May 1919, in which Winston Churchill argued for the use of tear gas:

I do not understand this squeamishness about the use of gas. We have definitely adopted the position at the Peace Conference of arguing in favour of the retention of gas as a permanent method of warfare. It is sheer affectation to lacerate a man with the poisonous fragment of a bursting shell and to boggle at making his eyes water by means of lachrymatory gas. I am strongly in favour of using poisoned gas against uncivilised tribes. The moral effect should be so good that the loss of life should be reduced to a minimum. It is not necessary to use only the most deadly gasses: gasses can be used which cause great inconvenience and would spread a lively terror and yet would leave no serious permanent effects on most of those affected.

If British forces did consider the use of poison gas in putting down Kurdish rebellions, there is no evidence that it was ever used.

Winston Churchill was well known for his interest in Bezique, a 2 player game. On a trip to the United States of America in March 1946, he famously lost a lot of money in a game with Harry Truman and his advisors. Winston Churchill revealed that he learnt to play while serving in the Boer War. Following on Winston Churchill’s interests, the Churchill Regular Association for Poker exists to this day at Churchill College, Cambridge. In a recent interview, Donald Trump listed Winston Churchill as one of the people he would most like to play poker with.

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Speech Differences And Stutter Series-Disabled Legend Rowan Atkinson

Rowan Atkinson was born on 6 January 1955 in Consett, County Durham. Rowan Atkinson is an English comedian, actor and writer, famous for his title roles in the British television comedies Blackadder, The Thin Blue Line, and Mr. Bean. Rowan Atkinson has been listed in The Observer as 1 of the 50 funniest acts in British comedy, and amongst the top 50 comedy acts ever in a 2005 poll of fellow comedians.

Rowan Atkinson’s parents were Eric Atkinson, a farmer and company director, and his wife Ella May (née Bambridge), who married on 29 June 1945. Rowan Atkinson has 2 elder brothers, Rodney Atkinson, a eurosceptic economist who narrowly lost the United Kingdom Independence Party leadership election in 2000, and Rupert Atkinson.

Rowan Atkinson was raised Anglican. Rowan Atkinson was educated at Durham Choristers School, followed by St Bees School, and studied electrical engineering at Newcastle University. Rowan Atkinson continued with an MSc at The Queen’s College, Oxford, first achieving notice at the Edinburgh Fringe Festival in 1976. At Oxford, he also acted and performed early sketches for the Oxford University Dramatic Society (OUDS), the Oxford Revue and the Experimental Theatre Club (ETC), meeting writer Richard Curtis and composer Howard Goodall, with whom he would continue to collaborate during his career.

After he went to university, Rowan Atkinson toured with Angus Deayton as his straight man in an act that was eventually filmed for a television show. After the success of the show, he did a one-off pilot for ITV in 1979 called Canned Laughter. Rowan Atkinson then went on to do Not the Nine O’Clock News, produced by his friend John Lloyd. Rowan Atkinson starred on the show along with Pamela Stephenson, Griff Rhys Jones and Mel Smith, and was one of the main sketch writers.

The success of Not the Nine O’Clock News led to his starring in the medieval sitcom The Black Adder, which he also co-wrote with Richard Curtis, in 1983. Despite a mixed reception, a 2nd series was written, this time by Curtis and Ben Elton, and 1st screened in 1985. Blackadder II followed the fortunes of one of the descendants of Rowan Atkinson’s original character, this time in the Elizabethan era. The same pattern was repeated in 2 sequels Blackadder the 3rd (1987) (set in the Regency era), and Blackadder Goes 4th(1989) (set in World War I). The Blackadder series went on to become one of the most successful BBC situation comedies of all time, spawning television specials including Blackadder’s Christmas Carol (1988) and Blackadder: The Cavalier Years (1988).

Rowan Atkinson’s other famous creation, the hapless Mr. Bean, 1st appeared on New Years Day in 1990 in a 30 special for Thames Television. The character of Mr. Bean has been likened somewhat to a modern-day Charlie Chaplin. During this time, Rowan Atkinson appeared at the Just for Laughs comedy festival in Montreal in 1987 and 1989. Several sequels to Mr. Bean appeared on television in the 1990s, and it eventually made into a major motion picture in 1997. Entitled Bean, it was directed by Mel Smith, his former co-star from Not the Nine O’Clock News. A 2nd movie was released in 2007 entitled Mr. Bean’s Holiday.

Rowan Atkinson has fronted campaigns for Hitachi electrical goods, Fujifilm, and Give Blood. Most famously, he appeared as a hapless and error-prone espionage agent in a long-running series for Barclaycard, on which character his title role in Johnny English was based. In May 2008 he appeared in the BBC documentary series Comedy Map of Britain.

Rowan Atkinson’s film career began in 1983 with a supporting part in the James Bond movie Never Say Never Again and a leading role in Dead on Time with Nigel Hawthorne. Rowan Atkinsappeared in former Not the Nine O’Clock News co-star Mel Smith’s directorial debut The Tall Guy in 1989. He also appeared alongside Anjelica Huston and Mai Zetterling in Roald Dahl’s The Witches in 1990. In 1993 he played the part of Dexter Hayman in Hot Shots! Part Deux, a parody of Rambo III starring Sylvester Stallone.

Rowan Atkinson, with his turn as a verbally bumbling vicar, gained further recognition in the 1994 hit 4 Weddings and a Funeral. That same year he featured in Walt Disney’s The Lion King as Zazu the Hornbill. Rowan Atkinson continued to appear in supporting roles in successful comedies, including Rat Race (2001), Scooby-Doo
(2002), and Love Actually (2003).

In addition to his supporting roles, Rowan Atkinson has also had success as a leading man. Rowan Atkinson’s television character Mr. Bean debuted on the big screen in 1997 with Bean to international success. A sequel, Mr. Bean’s Holiday, was released in March 2007 and may be the last time he plays the character. Rowan Atkinson has also starred in the James Bond parody Johnny English in 2003. Keeping Mum (2005, released in the U.S. in 2006) was a departure for Rowan Atkinson, starring in a straight role.

One of his better-known trademark comic devices is over-articulation of the “B” sound, such as his pronunciation of “Bob” in a Blackadder episode.

Rowan Atkinson’s style is often visually-based. This visual style, which has been compared to Charlie Chaplin, sets Rowan Atkinson apart as most modern television and film comedies rely heavily on dialogue, and stand-up comedy is mostly based on monologues. This talent for visual comedy has led to Rowan Atkinson being called “the man with the rubber face”.

In early 2008 it was confirmed that Rowan Atkinson would fulfil a lifelong ambition and take on the role of Fagin in Lionel Bart’s musical Oliver! which will be produced by Andrew Lloyd Webber and Cameron Mackintosh. Rowan Atkinson was quoted as saying, “In the 1980s I enjoyed doing a lot of West End theatre and since then have been distracted very much by Mr Bean and film-making. I had been thinking for some time about returning to the stage, and the idea of the role of Fagin has long intrigued me. I even had the part in a school production.” The production will open in early December 2008. The roles of Nancy and Oliver were selected by the British public in a TV reality competition on the show. Jodie Prenger.

Rowan Atkinson married Sunetra Sastry in 1990, having met her professionally on the set of Blackadder. They married quietly at the Russian Tea Room in New York City, U.S., with Stephen Fry acting as the best man. The couple have 2 children, Lily and Benjamin, and live in England in the Northamptonshire village of Apethorpe.

In June 2005, Rowan Atkinson led a coalition of the UK’s most prominent actors and writers, including Nicholas Hytner, Stephen Fry and Ian McEwan, to the British Parliament in an attempt to force a review of the controversial Racial and Religious Hatred Bill — on the grounds that the bill would give religious groups a “weapon of disproportionate power” whose threat would engender a culture of self-censorship among artists.

With an estimated wealth of £100,000,000, Rowan Atkinson is able to indulge his passion for cars that began with driving his mother’s Morris Minor around the family farm. Rowan Atkinson has written for the British magazines Car and Evo.

Rowan Atkinson also holds a UK LGV licence, gained because lorries held a fascination for him, and to ensure employment as a young actor.

A lover of and participant in car racing, he appeared as racing driver Henry Birkin in the television play Full Throttle in 1995. In 1991, he starred in the self-penned The Driven Man, a series of sketches featuring Rowan Atkinson driving around London trying to solve his car-fetish, and discussing it with taxi drivers, policemen, used-car salesmen and psychotherapists.

Rowan Atkinson’s car collection is dominated by Aston Martins, including the DB7 Vantage used in Johnny English. Rowan Atkinson’s Aston Martin V8 Zagato, featuring a novelty registration plate, was driven by his character Dexter in the film The Tall Guy. Rowan Atkinson was cited for speeding in the car, just as his character was in the movie. Rowan Atkinson also received a driving ban as a result of the incident. Rowan Atkinson also races in his V8 Zagato, from which he escaped unhurt after crashing it into a barrier at an Aston Martin Owners Club event in Croft Circuit in 2001. Rowan Atkinson is reported to have placed an advanced order for a Morgan Aero Max, which costs £110,000.

Rowan Atkinson has raced in other cars, including a Renault 5 GT Turbo for 2 seasons for its 1 make series. Rowan Atkinson owns one McLaren F1, which was involved in an accident with an Austin Metro. Other cars he owns include an Audi A8, and a Honda Civic Hybrid.

The Conservative Party politician Alan Clark, himself a devotee of classic motor cars, recorded in his published Diaries this chance meeting with a man he later realised was Rowan Atkinson while driving through Oxfordshire in May 1984: “Just after leaving the motorway at Thame I noticed a dark red DBS V8 Aston Martin on the slip road with the bonnet up, a man unhappily bending over it. I told Jane to pull in and walked back. A DV8 in trouble is always good for a gloat.” Alan Clark writes that he gave Rowan Atkinson a lift in his Rolls Royce to the nearest telephone box, but was disappointed in his bland reaction to being recognised, noting that: “he didn’t sparkle, was rather disappointing and chetif.”

1 car Rowan Atkinson will not own is a Porsche: “I have a problem with Porsches. They’re wonderful cars, but I know I could never live with one. Somehow, the typical Porsche people — and I wish them no ill — are not, I feel, my kind of people. I don’t go around saying that Porsches are a pile of dung, but I do know that psychologically I couldn’t handle owning one.”

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Speech Differences And Stutter Series-Disabled Legend Anthony Quinn

Anthony Quinn was born Antonio Rodolfo Oaxaca Quinn in Chihuahua, Mexico, during the Mexican Revolution. Anthony Quinn was born on 21 April, 1915 and died on 3 June, 2001.

Anthony Quinn was a 2-time Academy Award-winning Mexican-American actor, as well as a painter and writer.  Anthony Quinn starred in numerous critically acclaimed and commercially successful films, including Zorba the Greek and Federico Fellini’s La strada. Anthony Quinn also appeared in Lawrence of Arabia, Viva Zapata!, Lust for Life, Barabbas, Requiem for a Heavyweight, Mohammad, Messenger of God, The Shoes of the Fisherman, and The Guns of Navarone.

Anthony Quinn’s mother, Manuela “Nellie” Oaxaca, was of Aztec ancestry. Anthony Quinn’s father, Francisco Quinn, was born in Mexico to an Irish father and a Mexican mother. Frank Quinn rode with Pancho Villa, but later moved to Los Angeles and became an assistant cameraman at a movie studio. In Anthony Quinn’s autobiography The Original Sin: A Self-Portrait by Anthony Quinn he denied being the son of an “Irish adventurer” and attributed that tale to Hollywood publicists.

When he was 6 years old, Anthony Quinn attended a Catholic church (even thinking he wanted to become a priest). At the age of 11, however, he joined the Pentecostals in the International Church of the Foursquare Gospel (the Pentecostal followers of Aimee Semple McPherson).

Anthony Quinn grew up first in El Paso, Texas, and later the Boyle Heights and the Echo Park areas of Los Angeles, California. Anthony Quinn attended Hammel St. Elementary School, Belvedere Junior High School, Polytechnic High School and finally Belmont High School but left before graduating. Tucson High School in Arizona years many later awarded him an honourary high school diploma.

As a young man Anthony Quinn boxed professionally to earn money, then studied art and architecture under Frank Lloyd Wright, both at Frank Lloyd Wright’s Arizona residence and his Wisconsin studio, Taliesin. The 2 very different men became friends. When Anthony Quinn mentioned he was drawn to acting, Frank Lloyd Wright encouraged him. Anthony Quinn said he had been offered $800 a week by a film studio and didn’t know what to do. Frank Lloyd Wright replied, “Take it, you’ll never make that much with me.”

After a short time performing on the stage, Anthony Quinn launched his film career performing character roles in the 1936 films Parole (his debut) and The Milky Way. Anthony Quinn played “ethnic” villains in Paramount films such as Dangerous to Know (1938) and Road to Morocco. By 1947, he had appeared in over 50 films and had played Indians, Mafia dons, Hawaiian chiefs, Filipino freedom-fighters, Chinese guerrillas, and Arab sheiks, but was still not a major star. Anthony Quinn returned to the theater, even playing Stanley Kowalski in A Streetcar Named Desire on Broadway.

In 1947, he became a naturalized citizen of the United States. Anthony Quinn came back to Hollywood in the early 1950s, specialising in tough roles. Anthony Quinn was cast in a series of B-adventures such as Mask of the Avenger (1951). Anthony Quinn’s big break cane from playing opposite Marlon Brando in Elia Kazan’s Viva Zapata! (1952). Anthony Quinn’s supporting role as Zapata’s brother won Anthony Quinn an Oscar. Anthony Quinn was the 1st Mexican-American to win any Academy Award. Anthony Quinn appeared in several Italian films starting in 1953, turning in one of his best performances as a dim-witted, thuggish and volatile strongman in Federico Fellini’s La strada (1954) opposite Giulietta Masina. Anthony Quinn won his 2nd Oscar for Best Supporting Actor by portraying the painter Gauguin in Vincente Minnelli’s Van Gogh biopic, Lust for Life (1956). The award was remarkable as he was onscreen for only 8 minutes. The following year, he received a Oscar nomination for his part in George Cukor’s Wild Is the Wind. In The River’s Edge (1957), he played the husband of the former girlfriend (played by Debra Paget) of a killer (Ray Milland), who turns up with a stolen fortune and forces Anthony Quinn and Paget at gunpoint to guide him safely to Mexico. Anthony Quinn starred in The Savage Innocents 1959 (film) as Inuk, an Eskimo who finds himself caught between 2 clashing cultures.

Anthony Quinn as Wogan in the trailer for The Black Swan(1942)as the decade ended, Anthony Quinn allowed his age to show and began his transformation into a major character actor. Anthony Quinn’s physique filled out, his hair grayed, and his once smooth, swarthy face weathered became more rugged. Anthony Quinn’s demeanor made him a convincing Greek resistance fighter in The Guns of Navarone (1961), an ideal ex-boxer in Requiem for a Heavyweight, and a natural for the role of Auda ibu Tayi in Lawrence of Arabia (both 1962). That year he also played the title role in Barabbas, based on a novel by Pär Lagerkvist. The success of Zorba the Greek in 1964 was the high water mark of his career and resulted in another Oscar nomination. Other successes include La Vingt-cinquième heure (1967, The Twenty Fifth Hour), with Virna Lisi; The Magus (1968), with Michael Caine and Candice Bergen, and based on the novel by John Fowles; and The Shoes of the Fisherman, where he played a Russian pope. In 1969, he starred in The Secret of Santa Vittoria with Anna Magnani.

Anthony Quinn appeared on Broadway to great acclaim in Becket, as King Henry II to Laurence Olivier’s Thomas Becket in 1960. An erroneous story arose in later years that during the run, Anthony Quinn and Laurence Olivier switched roles and Anthony Quinn played Becket to Laurence Olivier’s King. In fact, Anthony Quinn left the production for a film, never having played Becket, and director Peter Glenville suggested a road tour with Laurence Olivier as Henry. Laurence Olivier happily acceded and Arthur Kennedy took on the role of Becket for the tour and brief return to Broadway.

In 1971, after the success of a TV movie named The City, where Anthony Quinn played Albuquerque Mayor Thomas Jefferson Alcala, he starred in the short-lived (1-season) television drama spin-off The Man in the City. Anthony Quinn’s subsequent television appearances were sporadic (among them Jesus of Nazareth).

In 1977, Anthony Quinn starred in the movie Mohammad, Messenger of God (aka The Message), about the origin of Islam, as Hamzah, a highly revered warrior instrumental in the early stages of Islam. In 1982, he starred in the Lion of the Desert, together with Irene Papas, Oliver Reed, Rod Steiger, and John Gielgud. Anthony Quinn played the real-life Bedouin leader Omar Mukhtar who fought Mussolini’s Italian troops in the deserts of Libya. The film, produced and directed by Moustapha Akkad, is now critically acclaimed, but performed poorly at the box office because of negative publicity in the West at the time of its release, stemming from its having been partially funded by Libya’s Muammar al-Gaddafi. In 1983, he reprised his most famous role, playing Zorba the Greek for 362 performances in a successful revival of the Kander and Ebb musical Zorba.

Anthony Quinn’s film career slowed during the 1990s, but Anthony Quinn nonetheless continued to work steadily, appearing in Revenge (1990), Jungle Fever (1991), Last Action Hero (1993), and A Walk in the Clouds (1995). In 1994, he played Zeus in the five TV movies that led to the syndicated series Hercules: The Legendary Journeys. (However, he did not continue in the actual series, and the role was eventually filled by several other actors).

Throughout his teenage years he won various art competitions in California and focused his studies at Polytechnic High School in Los Angeles on drafting. Later, Anthony Quinn studied briefly under Frank Lloyd Wright through the Taliesin Fellowship—an opportunity created by winning 1st prize in an architectural design contest. Through Frank Lloyd Wright’s recommendation, Anthony Quinn took acting lessons as a form of post-operative speech therapy, which led to an acting career that spanned over 6 decades.

Apart from art classes taken in Chicago during the 1950s, Anthony Quinn never attended art school; nonetheless, taking advantage of books, museums, and amassing a sizable collection, he managed to give himself an effective education in the language of modern art. Although Anthony Quinn remained mostly self-taught, intuitively seeking out and exploring new ideas, there is observable history in his work because he had assiduously studied the modernist masterpieces on view in the galleries of New York, Mexico City, Paris, and London. When filming on location around the world, Anthony Quinn was exposed to regional contemporary art styles exhibited at local galleries and studied art history in each area.

In an endless search for inspiration, he was influenced by his Mexican ancestry, decades of residency in Europe, and lengthy stays in Africa and the Middle East while filming in the 1970s and 1980s.

By the early 1980s, his work had caught the eyes of various gallery owners and was exhibited internationally, in New York, Los Angeles, Paris, and Mexico City. Anthony Quinn’s work is now represented in both public and private collections throughout the world.

Anthony Quinn wrote 2 memoirs, The Original Sin (1972) and One Man Tango (1997), a number of scripts, and a series of unpublished stories currently in the collection of his archive.

Anthony Quinn’s personal life was as volatile and passionate as the characters he played in films. anthony Quinn’s 1st wife was the adopted daughter of Cecil B. DeMille, the actress Katherine DeMille, whom he married in 1937. The couple had 5 children, they are Christopher (born 1939), Christina (born 1 December, 1941), Catalina (born 21 November, 1942), Duncan (born 4 August, 1945), and Valentina (born 26 December, 1952). One of their sons, Christopher, age 2, drowned in the swimming pool of next-door neighbor W.C. Fields. Anthony Quinn and DeMille were divorced in 1965.

The next year, he married costume designer Iolanda Quinn (Jolanda Addolori). They had 3 children they are Francesco (born 22 March, 1962), Danny (born 16 April, 1964), and Lorenzo (born 7 May, 1966). The union ended in 1997, after Anthony Quinn fathered a child with his secretary, Kathy Benvin. Anthony Quinn then married Benvin, with whom he had 2 children, Antonia (born 23 July, 1993) and Ryan Nicholas (born 5 July, 1996). Anthony Quinn and Kathy Benvin remained together until his death.

Anthony Quinn also fathered 3 other children out of wedlock: Alexander Anthony (born 30 December, 1976), Valentina, and Sean Quinn, a New Jersey real estate agent.

Anthony Quinn spent his last years in Bristol, Rhode Island. Anthony Quinn died aged 86 in Boston, Massachusetts from pneumonia and respiratory failure while suffering from throat cancer shortly after completing his role in his last film, Avenging Angelo (2002).

Anthony Quinn’s funeral was held in a Baptist church; late in life, he had joined the Foursquare evangelical Christian community. Anthony Quinn is buried in a family plot near Bristol.

On 5 January, 1982, the Belvedere County Public Library in East Los Angeles was renamed in honour of Anthony Quinn. The present library sits on the site of his family’s former home.

There is an Anthony Quinn Bay and Beach in Rhodes, Dodecanese, Greece, just 2.7 miles (4.3 km) south of the village of Faliraki (aka Falirakion or Falirákion).

The National Council of La Raza gives the Anthony Quinn Award for excellence in motion pictures as an ALMA Award.

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