Speech Differences And Stutter Series-Disabled Legend James Stewart

James Maitland Stewart was born on 20 May 1908 and died on 2 July 1997, at the age of 89, at his home in Beverly Hills, of cardiac arrest and a pulmonary embolism following a long illness from respiratory problems. James Stewart had also suffered from Alzheimer’s disease. James Stewart’s death came just 1 day after fellow screen legend and The Big Sleep co-star Robert Mitchum had died of lung cancer and emphysema. James Stewart is interred in Forest Lawn Memorial Park Cemetery in Glendale, California. James Stewart was 6’3″ (191 cm) tall.

James Stewart, is popularly known as Jimmy Stewart. James Stewart was an American film and stage actor best known for his self-effacing screen persona. Over the course of his career, he starred in many films widely considered classics and was nominated for 5 Academy Awards, winning 1 in competition and 1 Lifetime Achievement award. James Stewart also had a noted military career, rising to the rank of Brigadier General in the United States Air Force.

Throughout his 7 decades in Hollywood, James Stewart cultivated a versatile career and recognised screen image in such classics as Mr. Smith Goes to Washington, The Philadelphia Story, Harvey, It’s a Wonderful Life, Rear Window, Rope and Vertigo. James Stewart is the most represented leading actor on the AFI’s 100 Years… 100 Movies (10th Anniversary Edition) and AFI’s 10 Top 10 lists. James Stewart is also the most represented leading actor on the 100 Greatest Movies of All Time list presented by Entertainment Weekly. As of 2007, 10 of his films have been inducted into the United States National Film Registry.

James Stewart left his mark on a wide range of film genres, including screwball comedies, westerns, biographies, suspense thrillers and family films. James Stewart worked for a number of renowned directors later in his career, most notably Alfred Hitchcock, John Ford, Billy Wilder, Frank Capra and Anthony Mann. James Stewart won many of the industry’s highest honours and earned Lifetime Achievement awards from every major film organisation. James Stewart died in 1997, leaving behind a legacy of classic performances, and is considered 1 of the finest actors of the “Golden Age of Hollywood.” James Stewart was named the 3rd Greatest Male Star of All Time by the American Film Institute.

James Stewart is the son of Elizabeth Ruth (née Jackson) and Alexander Maitland Stewart, who owned a hardware store. James Stewart’s parents were Presbyterian and of Scottish origin. James Stewart’s Jackson ancestors served in the American Revolution, War of 1812 and the Civil War. The eldest of 3 children (he had 2 younger sisters, Virginia and Mary), he was expected to continue his father’s business, which had been in the family for 3 generations.

James Stewart’s mother was an excellent pianist but his father discouraged James Stewart’s request for lessons. But when his father accepted a gift of an accordion from a guest, young James Stewart quickly learned to play the instrument, which became a fixture off-stage during his acting career. As the family grew, music continued to be an important part of family life.

James Stewart attended Mercersburg Academy prep school, graduating in 1928. At Mercersburg, James Stewart was active in a variety of activities. James Stewart played on the football team and track team. James Stewart was art editor for the KARUX yearbook and member of the choir club, glee club, and John Marshall Literary Society. During his 1st summer break, James Stewart returned to Indiana Pennsylvania to work as a brick loader for a local construction company and on highway and road construction jobs where he painted lines on the roads. Over the following 2 summers, he took a job as an assistant with a professional magician. James Stewart also made his 1st appearance on the stage at Mercersburg, as Buquet in the play The Wolves.

A shy child, James Stewart spent much of his after school time in the basement working on model airplanes, mechanical drawing and chemistry — all with a dream of going into aviation. But he abandoned visions of being a pilot when his father insisted that instead of the Naval Academy he attend Princeton University.

James Stewart enrolled at Princeton in 1928 as a member of the Class of 1932. There, he excelled at studying architecture, so impressing his professors with his thesis on an airport design that he was awarded a scholarship for graduate studies, but he gradually became attracted to the school’s drama and music clubs, including the famous Princeton Triangle Club. James Stewart was a member of the Princeton Charter Club as well as a head cheerleader. In his spare time, he enjoyed going to the movies at the time when “talkies” were just displacing silent films.

James Stewart’s acting and accordion talents at Princeton led him to be invited to the University Players, an intercollegiate summer stock company in West Falmouth a town on Cape Cod, Massachusetts. This company had been organised in 1928 and would run until 1932, with Joshua Logan, Bretaigne Windust, and Charles Leatherbee as the directors. James Stewart performed in bit parts in the Players’ productions in Cape Cod during the Summer of 1932 after he graduated. The troupe had previously included Henry Fonda, who married Margaret Sullavan on Christmas Day 1931 while the University Players were located in Baltimore for an 18-week winter season. Margaret Sullavan, who had rejoined the University Players in Baltimore in November 1931 at the close of the post-Broadway tour of A Modern Virgin, left the Players for good at the end of The Trial of Mary Dugan in Baltimore in March 1932. By the time James Stewart joined the University Players on Cape Cod after his graduation from Princeton in 1932, Henry Fonda and Margaret Sullavan’s brief marriage had ended. James Stewart and Henry Fonda became great friends over the summer of 1932 when they shared an apartment with Joshua Logan and Myron McCormick. When he came to New York at the end of the summer stock season, which had included the Broadway try-out of Goodbye Again, he shared an apartment with Henry Fonda, who had by then finalised his divorce from Margaret Sullavan. Along with fellow University Players, Alfred Dalrymple and Myron McCormick, James Stewart had his Broadway debut as a chauffeur in the comedy Goodbye Again, in which he had 2 lines. The New Yorker noted, “Mr. James Stewart’s chauffeur… comes on for 3 minutes and walks off to a round of spontaneous applause.”

The play was a moderate success but times were hard. Many Broadway theaters had been converted to movie houses and the Depression was reaching bottom. “From 1932 through 1934″, James Stewart later recalled, “I’d only worked 3 months. Every play I got into folded.” By 1934, he got more substantial stage roles, including the hit, Page Miss Glory, and his 1st dramatic stage role in Sidney Howard’s Yellow Jack, which convinced him to continue his acting career. However, James Stewart and Henry Fonda, still roommates, were both struggling.

In the fall of 1934, Henry Fonda’s success in The Farmer Takes a Wife took him to Hollywood. Finally, James Stewart attracted the interest of MGM scout Bill Grady who saw James Stewart on the opening night of Divided by 3, a glittering première with many luminaries in attendance including Irving Berlin and Moss Hart and his buddy Henry Fonda who had returned to New York for the show. With Henry Fonda’s encouragement, James Stewart agreed to take the screen test and signed a contract with MGM in April 1935, as a contract player for up to 7 years at $350 a week.

On his arrival by train to Los Angeles, Henry Fonda greeted James Stewart at the station and took him to Henry Fonda’s studio-supplied lodging, right next door to Greta Garbo. James Stewart’s 1st job at the studio was as a participant in the screen tests done for newly arrived starlets. At first, he had trouble being cast in Hollywood films due to his gangling looks and shy, humble screen presence. James Stewart’s 1st film was the poorly received Spencer Tracy vehicle, The Murder Man, but Rose Marie, an adaptation of a popular operetta, was more successful. After mixed success in films, he received his 1st substantial part in 1936’s After the Thin Man.

On the romantic front, he found himself dating newly-divorced Ginger Rogers, whom he had revered while a student at Princeton only a few years earlier. The romance soon cooled, however, and by chance James Stewart encountered Margaret Sullavan again. James Stewart found his footing in Hollywood thanks largely to Margaret Sullavan who campaigned for James Stewart to be her leading man in the 1936 romantic comedy Next Time We Love. Margaret Sullavan rehearsed extensively with him, having a noticeable effect on his confidence. Margaret Sullavan encouraged James Stewart to feel comfortable with his unique mannerisms and boyish charm and use them naturally as his own style. In the meantime, roommate Henry Fonda continued to arrange parties with starlets, who found James Stewart different from the other young actors and irresistible in his own way. James Stewart was enjoying Hollywood life and had no regrets about giving up the stage, as he worked 6 days a week in the MGM factory. In 1936, he acquired big-time agent Leland Hayward, who would eventually marry Margaret Sullavan. Leland Hayward started to chart James Stewart’s career, deciding the best path for him was through loan-outs to other studios.

In 1938, James Stewart had a brief, tumultuous, and well-publicised romance with Hollywood queen Norma Shearer whose husband Irving Thalberg, head of production at MGM, had died 2 years earlier. James Stewart began a successful partnership with director Frank Capra in 1938, when he was loaned out to Columbia Pictures to star in You Can’t Take It With You. Frank Capra had been impressed by James Stewart’s minor role in Navy Blue and Gold (1937). The director had recently completed several popular movies including It Happened One Night and was looking for the right type of actor to suit his needs—which other recent actors in his films such as Clark Gable, Ronald Colman and Gary Cooper did not quite fit. Not only was James Stewart just what he was looking for, but Frank Capra also found James Stewart understood that prototype intuitively and required very little directing. Later Frank Capra commented, “I think he’s probably the best actor who’s ever hit the screen.”

This heart-warming Depression-era film (You Can’t Take It With You), starring Frank Capra’s “favorite actress”, comedienne Jean Arthur, went on to win the 1938 Best Picture Academy Award. The following year saw James Stewart team with Frank Capra and Jean Arthur again for the political comedy-drama Mr. Smith Goes to Washington. James Stewart replaced intended star Gary Cooper in the film about an idealistic man thrown into the political arena. Upon the film’s October release, it garnered critical praise and became a box office success. For his performance, James Stewart was nominated for the 1st of 5 Academy Awards for Best Actor. Even after this great success, James Stewart’s parents were still trying to talk him into leaving Hollywood and its sinful ways and to return to his home town to lead a decent life. Instead, he took a secret trip to Europe to take a break and returned home just as Germany invaded Poland.

Destry Rides Again, also released that year, became James Stewart’s 1st western film, a genre for which he would become famous later in his career. In this Western parody, James Stewart is a pacifist lawman and Marlene Dietrich the saloon dancing girl who comes to love him, but doesn’t get him. In it she sings her famous song The Boys In the Back Room. Off-screen, Marlene Dietrich did get her man, but the romance was short-lived. Made for Each Other (1939) had James Stewart sharing the screen with irrepressible Carole Lombard in a melodrama that garnered good reviews for both stars, but did less well with the public. Newsweek wrote that they were “perfectly cast in the leading roles.” Between movies, James Stewart began a radio career and became a distinctive voice on the “Lux Radio Hour,” the “Screen Guild Theater” and other radio shows. So well known had his slow drawl become that comedians started to impersonate him, a form of flattery which continued for most of his life.

from the film The Philadelphia Story (1940)In 1940, James Stewart and Margaret Sullavan teamed again for 2 films. The 1st, the Ernst Lubitsch romantic comedy, The Shop Around the Corner, starred James Stewart and Margaret Sullavan as co-workers unknowingly involved in a pen-pal romance who cannot stand each other in real life (this was later remade into the romantic comedy You’ve Got Mail with Tom Hanks and Meg Ryan). It was James Stewart’s 5th film of the year and that rare film shot in the story’s sequence; it was completed in only 27 days. The Mortal Storm, directed by Frank Borzage, was 1 of the 1st blatantly anti-Nazi films to be produced in Hollywood and featured the pair as a husband and wife caught in turmoil upon Hitler’s rise to power.

James Stewart also starred opposite Katharine Hepburn and Cary Grant in George Cukor’s classic The Philadelphia Story (1940). James Stewart’s performance as an intrusive, fast-talking reporter earned him his only Academy Award in a competitive category (Best Actor, 1941) and he beat out his good friend Henry Fonda (The Grapes of Wrath). James Stewart thought his performance “entertaining and slick and smooth” but lacking the “guts” of “Mr. Smith.” James Stewart gave the Oscar statuette to his father, who displayed it in a case just inside the front door of his hardware store for many years, alongside other family awards and military medals.

During the months before he began military service, James Stewart went on to appear in a series of screwball comedies with varying levels of success. James Stewart followed the mediocre No Time for Comedy (1940) and Come Live with Me (1941) with the Judy Garland musical Ziegfeld Girl and the George Marshall romantic comedy Pot o’ Gold. James Stewart was drafted in late 1940 and it coincided with the lapse in his MGM contract, marking a turning point in James Stewart’s career, with 28 movies to his credit at that point.

The Stewart family had deep military roots as both grandfathers had fought in the Civil War, and his father had served during both the Spanish-American War and World War I. Since James Stewart considered his father to be the biggest influence on his life, it was not surprising that when another war eventually came, he too served. Unlike his family’s previous infantry service, James Stewart chose to become a military flyer.

An early interest in flying led James Stewart to gain his Private Pilot License in 1935 and Commercial Pilot Certificate in 1938. James Stewart often flew cross country to visit his parents in Pennsylvania, navigating by the railroad tracks. Nearly 2 years before the December 1941 attack on Pearl Harbour, James Stewart had accumulated over 400 hours of flying time.

Considered a highly proficient pilot, he even entered a cross-country race as a co-pilot in 1939. Along with musician/composer Hoagy Carmichael, seeing the need for trained war pilots, James Stewart teamed with other Hollywood moguls and put their own money into creating a flying school in Glendale, Arizona, which they named Thunderbird Field. This airfield trained more than 200,000 pilots during the War, became the origin of the Flying Thunderbirds, and is now the home of Thunderbird School of Global Management.

Later in 1940, James Stewart was drafted into the United States Army Air Corps (USAAC) but was rejected due to a weight problem. The USAAC had strict height and weight requirements for new recruits and James Stewart was 5lb under the standard. To get up to 148lbs he sought out the help of Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer’s muscle man, Don Loomis, who was legendary for his ability to add or subtract pounds in his studio gymnasium. James Stewart subsequently attempted to enlist in the USAAC but still came in under the weight requirement although he persuaded the AAC enlistment officer to run new tests, this time passing the weigh-in, with the result that James Stewart successfully enlisted in the Army in March 1941. James Stewart became the 1st major American movie star to wear a military uniform in World War II.

James Stewart enlisted as a private and began pilot training in the renamed United States Army Air Forces (USAAF). During this time the Japanese attacked Pearl Harbour, bringing the US into direct involvement in the war. James Stewart continued his military training and earned a commission as a 2nd lieutenant in January, 1942. James Stewart was posted to Moffett Field and then Mather Field as an instructor pilot in single- and twin-engine aircraft.

Public appearances by James Stewart were limited engagements scheduled by the Army Air Forces. “Stewart appeared several times on network radio with Edgar Bergen and Charlie McCarthy. Shortly after Pearl Harbour, he performed with Orson Welles, Edward G. Robinson, Walter Huston and Lionel Barrymore in an all-network radio programme called We Hold These Truths, dedicated to the 150th anniversary of the Bill of Rights.” In early 1942, James Stewart was asked to appear in a propaganda film to help recruit the anticipated 100,000 airmen the USAAF would need to win the war. The USAAF’s 1st Motion Picture Unit shot scenes of Lieutenant Stewart in his pilot’s flight suit and recorded his voice for narration. The short film, Winning Your Wings, appeared nationwide beginning in late May and was very successful, resulting in 150,000 new recruits.

James Stewart was concerned that his expertise and celebrity status would relegate him to instructor duties “behind the lines.” James Stewart’s fears were confirmed when he was stationed for 6 months at Kirtland Air Force Base in Albuquerque, New Mexico to train bombardiers. James Stewart was transferred to Hobbs AAF to become an instructor pilot for the 4-engined B-17 Flying Fortress. James Stewart trained B-17 pilots for 9 months at Gowen Field.

“Still, the war was moving on. For the 36-year-old James Stewart, combat duty seemed far away and unreachable and he had no clear plans for the future. But then a rumour that James Stewart would be taken off flying status and assigned to making training films or selling bonds called for his immediate and decisive action, because what he dreaded most was the hope-shattering spectre of a dead end.” James Stewart appealed to his commander, a pre-war aviator, who understood the situation and reassigned him to a unit going overseas.

Col. Stewart being awarded the Croix de guerre with palm by Lt. Gen. Henri Valin, Chief of Staff of the French Air Force, for his role in the liberation of France. In August 1943 he was finally assigned to the 445th Bombardment Group at Sioux City AAB, Iowa, first as Operations Officer of the 703rd Bombardment Squadron and then as its commander, at the rank of Captain. In December, the 445th Bombardment Group flew its B-24 Liberator bombers to RAF Tibenham, England and immediately began combat operations. While flying missions over Germany, James Stewart was promoted to Major. In March 1944, he was transferred as group operations officer to the 453rd Bombardment Group, a new B-24 unit that had been experiencing difficulties. As a means to inspire his new group, James Stewart flew as command pilot in the lead B-24 on numerous missions deep into Nazi-occupied Europe. These missions went uncounted at James Stewart’s orders. James Stewart’s “official” total is listed as 20 and is limited to those with the 445th. In 1944, he twice received the Distinguished Flying Cross for actions in combat and was awarded the Croix de Guerre. James Stewart also received the Air Medal with 3 oak leaf clusters. In July 1944, after flying 20 combat missions, James Stewart was made Chief of Staff of the 2nd Combat Bombardment Wing of the Eighth Air Force. Before the war ended, he was promoted to colonel, one of very few Americans to rise from private to colonel in 4 years.

At the beginning of June 1945, James Stewart was the presiding officer of the court-martial of a pilot and navigator who were charged with dereliction of duty when they accidentally bombed the Swiss city of Zurich the previous March – the 1st instance of U.S. personnel being tried over an attack on a neutral country. The Court acquitted the accused.

James Stewart continued to play an active role in the United States Air Force Reserve after the war, achieving the rank of Brigadier General on 23 July 1959. James Stewart did not often talk of his wartime service, perhaps due to his desire to be seen as a regular soldier doing his duty instead of as a celebrity. James Stewart did appear on the TV series, The World At War to discuss the 14 October 1943, bombing mission to Schweinfurt, which was the center of the German ball bearing manufacturing industry. This mission is known in USAF history as Black Thursday due to the high casualties it sustained; in total, 60 aircraft were lost out of 291 dispatched, as the raid consisting entirely of B-17s was unescorted all the way to Schweinfurt and back due to the contemporary escort aircraft available lacking the range. Fittingly, he was identified only as “James Stewart, Squadron Commander” in the documentary.

James Stewart served as Air Force Reserve commander of Dobbins Air Reserve Base in the early 1950s. In 1966, Brigadier General James Stewart flew as a non-duty observer in a B-52 on a bombing mission during the Vietnam conflict. At the time of his B-52 flight, he refused the release of any publicity regarding his participation as he did not want it treated as a stunt, but as part of his job as an officer in the Air Force Reserve. After 27 years of service, James Stewart retired from the Air Force on 31 May 1968.

James Stewart, Karolyn Grimes and Donna Reed in It’s a Wonderful Life (1946).

Right after the war, James Stewart took some time to reassess his career and spent much time with friend Henry Fonda. James Stewart was an early investor in Southwest Airways, started by Leland Hayward, and he considered going into the aviation industry if his re-started film career didn’t pan out. Upon James Stewart’s return to Hollywood in fall 1945, he decided not to renew his MGM contract. James Stewart signed with an MCA talent agency. James Stewart’s former agent Leland Hayward got out of the talent business in 1944 after selling his A-list of stars, including James Stewart, to MCA. The move made James Stewart 1 of the 1st independently contracted actors, and gave him more freedom to choose the roles he wished to play. For the remainder of his career, James Stewart was able to work without limits to director and studio availability.

For his 1st film in 5 years, James Stewart appeared in his 3rd and final Frank Capra production, It’s a Wonderful Life. Frank Capra paid RKO the rights for the story and formed his own production company. The female lead went to Donna Reed, after Frank Capra’s perennial 1st choice, Jean Arthur was unavailable, and after turn downs by Ginger Rogers, Olivia de Havilland, Ann Dvorak and Martha Scott. James Stewart appeared as George Bailey, a small-town man and upstanding citizen, who becomes increasingly frustrated by his ordinary existence and financial troubles. Driven to suicide on Christmas Eve, he is led to reassess his life by Clarence Odbody AS2, an “angel, second class,” played by Henry Travers.

After viewing It’s a Wonderful Life, President Harry S. Truman concluded, “If Bess and I had a son, we’d want him to be just like Jimmy Stewart.”

Although the film was nominated for 5 Academy Awards, including James Stewart’s 3rd Best Actor nomination, it received mixed reviews and only moderate success at the box office, possibly due to its dark nature. However, in the decades since the film’s release, it grew to define James Stewart’s film persona and is widely considered as a sentimental Christmas film classic and, according to the American Film Institute, one of the best movies ever made.

In the aftermath of the film, Frank Capra’s production company went into bankruptcy and it effectively ended his movie career. James Stewart started to have doubts about his ability to act after his military hiatus. James Stewart’s father kept insisting he come home and marry a local girl. Meanwhile in Hollywood, his generation of actors were fading and a new wave of actors would soon remake the town, including Marlon Brando, Montgomery Clift and James Dean.

from the film Harvey (1950)After a poorly received Magic Town (1947) and after the completion of the shooting of Rope, James Stewart decided to return to the stage for the Mary Chase-penned comedy, Harvey, which had opened to nearly universal praise in November 1944. Elwood P. Dowd, the protagonist and James Stewart’s character, is a wealthy eccentric whose best friend is an invisible rabbit, living with his sister and niece. James Stewart’s eccentricity, especially the friendship with the rabbit, is ruining the niece’s hopes of finding a husband. While trying to have Dowd committed to a sanatorium, his sister is committed herself while the play follows Dowd on an ordinary day in his not-so-ordinary life. James Stewart took over the role from Frank Fay and gained an increased Broadway following in the unconventional play. The play, which ran for nearly 3 years with James Stewart as its star, was successfully adapted into a 1950 film, directed by Henry Koster, with James Stewart playing Dowd and Josephine Hull as his sister, Veta. Bing Crosby was the 1st choice for the movie but he declined. For his performance in the film, James Stewart received his 4th Best Actor nomination.

After Harvey, the comedic adventure film Malaya with Spencer Tracy and the conventional but highly successful biographical film The Stratton Story in 1949, his 1st pairing with “on-screen wife” June Allyson, his career took another turn. During the 1950s, he expanded into the western and suspense genres, thanks largely to collaborations with directors Anthony Mann and Alfred Hitchcock.

Other notable performances by James Stewart during this time include the critically acclaimed 1950 Delmer Daves western Broken Arrow, which featured James Stewart as an ex-soldier and Indian agent making peace with the Apache; a troubled clown in the 1952 Best Picture The Greatest Show on Earth; and James Stewart’s role as Charles Lindbergh in Billy Wilder’s 1957 film The Spirit of St. Louis. James Stewart also starred in the Western radio show The 6 Shooter for its 1 season run from 1953-1954.

James Stewart’s collaborations with director Anthony Mann expanded James Stewart’s popularity and expanded his career into the realm of the western. James Stewart’s 1st appearance in a film helmed by Anthony Mann came with the 1950 western classic, Winchester ’73. In choosing Anthony Mann (after 1st choice Fritz Lang declined), James Stewart cemented a powerful partnership. The film, which became a massive box office hit upon its release, set the pattern for their future collaborations. In it, James Stewart is a tough, revengeful sharpshooter, the winner of a prized rifle which is stolen and then passes through many hands, until the showdown between James Stewart and his brother (Stephen McNally).

Other James Stewart-Anthony Mann westerns, such as Bend of the River (1952), The Naked Spur (1953), The Far Country (1954) and The Man from Laramie (1955) were perennial favorites among young audiences entranced by the American West. Frequently, the films featured James Stewart as a troubled cowboy seeking redemption, while facing corrupt cattlemen, ranchers and outlaws—a man who knows violence first hand and struggles to control it. Their collaborations laid the foundation for many of the westerns of the 1950s and remain popular today for their grittier, more realistic depiction of the classic movie genre. Audiences saw James Stewart’s screen persona evolve into a more mature, more ambiguous, and edgier presence.

James Stewart and Anthony Mann also collaborated on other films outside the western genre. 1953’s The Glenn Miller Story was critically acclaimed, garnering James Stewart a BAFTA Award nomination, and (together with The Spirit of St. Louis) cemented the popularity of James Stewart’s portrayals of “American heroes.” Thunder Bay, released the same year, transplanted the plot arch of their western collaborations in the present day, with James Stewart as a Louisiana oil-driller facing corruption. Strategic Air Command, released in 1955, allowed James Stewart to use his experiences in the United States Air Force on film.

from the trailer for Rope (1948) James Stewart’s starring role in Winchester ’73 was also a turning point in Hollywood. Universal Studios, who wanted James Stewart to appear in both that film and Harvey, balked at his $200,000 asking price. James Stewart’s agent, Lew Wasserman, brokered an alternate deal, in which James Stewart would appear in both films for no pay, in exchange for a percentage of the profits and cast and director approval. It wasn’t the 1st such deal at Universal; Abbott and Costello also had a profit participation contract, but they were no longer top-flight moneymakers by 1950. James Stewart ended up earning about $600,000 for Winchester ’73 alone. Hollywood’s other stars quickly capitalised on this new way of doing business, which further undermined the decaying “studio system.”

The 2nd collaboration to define James Stewart’s career in the 1950s was with acclaimed mystery and suspense director Alfred Hitchcock. Like Anthony Mann, Alfred Hitchcock uncovered new depths to James Stewart’s acting, showing a protagonist confronting his fears and his repressed desires. James Stewart’s 1st movie with Alfred Hitchcock was the technologically innovative 1948 film Rope, shot in long “real time” takes.

The 2 collaborated for the 2nd of 4 times on the 1954 hit Rear Window, 1 of Alfred Hitchcock’s masterpieces. James Stewart portrays photographer L.B. “Jeff” Jeffries, loosely based on Life photographer Robert Capa, who projects his fantasies and fears onto the people he observes out his apartment window while on hiatus due to a broken leg. L.B. Jeff Jeffries gets into more than he can handle, however, when he believes he has witnessed a salesman (Raymond Burr) commit a murder, and when his glamorous girlfriend (Grace Kelly), at first disdainful of his voyeurism and skeptical about any crime, eventually is drawn in and tries to help solve the mystery. Limited by his wheelchair, James Stewart is masterfully led by Alfred Hitchcock to react to what his character sees with mostly facial responses. It was a landmark year for James Stewart, becoming the highest grossing actor of 1954 and the most popular Hollywood star in the world, displacing John Wayne.

from the trailer for Vertigo (1958)After starring in Alfred Hitchcock’s remake of the director’s own production, The Man Who Knew Too Much, with co-star Doris Day, James Stewart starred in what many consider Alfred Hitchcock’s most personal film, Vertigo. The movie starred James Stewart as “Scottie”, a former police investigator suffering from acrophobia, who develops an obsession with a woman he is shadowing. Scottie’s obsession inevitably leads to the destruction of everything he once had and believed in. Though the film is widely considered a classic today, and the pairing with Kim Novak, one of the screen’s most perfect, Vertigo met with negative reviews and poor box office receipts upon its release, and marked the last collaboration between James Stewart and Alfred Hitchcock. James Stewart was also disappointed. The director blamed the film’s failure on James Stewart looking too old to still attract audiences, and cast Cary Grant as Roger Thornhill in North by Northwest (1959), a role James Stewart had very much wanted. In reality, Cary Grant was actually 4 years older than James Stewart.

In 1960, James Stewart was awarded the New York Film Critics Circle Award for Best Actor and received his 5th and final Academy Award for Best Actor nomination, for his role in the 1959 Otto Preminger film Anatomy of a Murder. The early courtroom drama starred James Stewart as Paul Biegler, the lawyer of a hot-tempered soldier Ben Gazzara who claims temporary insanity after murdering a tavern owner who raped his wife Lee Remick. The film featured a career-making performance by George C. Scott as the prosecutor. The film was sexually frank for its time (some thought it sordid), and its provocative promotional campaign helped gain it box office success, though Ben-Hur outgrossed all movies by a huge margin and swept the Academy Awards that year. James Stewart’s nomination was 1 of 7 for the film (Charlton Heston was the winner), and saw his transition into the final decades of his career.

On 1 January 1960 James Stewart received the devastating news that Margaret Sullavan had committed suicide, most likely over despondency from her loss of hearing and its impact on her stage career. As a friend, mentor, and focus of his early romantic urges, she had a unique impact on James Stewart’s life.

from the trailer for How the West Was Won (1962)In the early 1960s James Stewart took leading roles in 3 John Ford films, his 1st work with the acclaimed director. The 1st, 2 Rode Together, paired him with Richard Widmark in a Western with thematic echoes of John Ford’s The Searchers. The next, 1962’s The Man Who Shot Liberty Valance (with John Wayne), is a classic “psychological” western, with James Stewart featured as an Eastern attorney who goes against his non-violent principles when he is forced to confront a psychopathic outlaw (played by Lee Marvin) in a small frontier town. At story’s end, James Stewart’s character — now a rising political figure — faces a difficult ethical choice as he attempts to reconcile his actions with his personal integrity. The film’s billing is unusual in that James Stewart was given top billing over John Wayne in the trailers and on the posters but John Wayne had top billing in the film itself, a system later repeated by Robert Redford and Dustin Hoffman in All the President’s Men. The film garnered so-so reviews and fared poorly at the box office, but is now considered a late John Ford classic.

How the West Was Won (which John Ford co-directed, though without directing James Stewart’s scenes) and Cheyenne Autumn were western epics released in 1962 and 1964 respectively. While the Cinerama production How the West Was Won went on to win 3 Oscars and reaped massive box office figures, Cheyenne Autumn, in which a white-suited James Stewart played Wyatt Earp in a long sequence in the middle of the movie, failed domestically and was quickly forgotten. It was John Ford’s final Western and James Stewart’s last feature film with John Ford.

Having played his last romantic lead in 1958’s Bell, Book and Candle, and silver-haired (although not all was his – he had begun wearing a hairpiece in the early 1950s), James Stewart transitioned into more family-related films in the 1960s when he signed a multi-movie deal with 20th Century Fox. These included the successful Henry Koster outing Mr. Hobbs Takes a Vacation (1962), and the less memorable films Take Her, She’s Mine (1963) and Dear Brigitte (1965), which featured French model Brigitte Bardot as the object of James Stewart’s son’s mash notes. The Civil War period film Shenandoah (1965) and the western family film The Rare Breed fared better at the box office; the Civil War movie was a smash hit in the South.

As an aviator, James Stewart was particularly interested in aviation films and had pushed to appear in several in the 1950s. James Stewart continued in this vein in the 1960s, most notably in a role as a hard-bitten pilot in Flight of the Phoenix (1965). Subbing for James Stewart, famed stunt pilot and air racer Paul Mantz was killed when he crashed the “Tallmantz Phoenix P-1″, the specially-made, single-engine movie model, in an abortive “touch-and-go”. It’s little known, but James Stewart was the narrator in the X-15 film (1961).

After a progression of lesser western films in the late ’60s and early ’70s, James Stewart transitioned from cinema to television. In the 1950s he had made guest appearances on the Jack Benny Programme (Benny was his real life neighbor and good friend). James Stewart 1st starred in the NBC comedy The Jimmy Stewart Show, which featured James Stewart as a college professor. James Stewart followed it with the CBS mystery Hawkins, in which he played a small town lawyer investigating his cases. The series garnered James Stewart a Golden Globe for Best Actor in a Dramatic TV Series, but failed to gain a wide audience and was cancelled after 1 season. (Andy Griffith fared much better later in Matlock, based on a similar formula.) During this time, James Stewart periodically appeared on Johnny Carson’s The Tonight Show, sharing poems he had written at different times in his life. James Stewart’s poems were later compiled into a short collection titled Jimmy Stewart and His Poems
(1989).

James Stewart returned to films after an absence of 5 years with a major role in John Wayne’s final film, The Shootist (1976) where James Stewart played a doctor giving John Wayne’s gunfighter a terminal cancer diagnosis. At one point, both John Wayne and James Stewart were flubbing their lines repeatedly and James Stewart turned to director Don Siegel and said, “You’d better get 2 better actors.” James Stewart also appeared in supporting roles in Airport ’77, the 1978 remake of The Big Sleep with Robert Mitchum and The Magic of Lassie (1978). The latter film received poor reviews and flopped at the box office. Some critics expressed their dismay at seeing the 70-year-old veteran singing as the grandfather. James Stewart responded it was the only script he had been offered without any sex, profanity and graphic violence.

James Stewart was presented an Academy Honourary Award in 1985, “for his 50 years of memorable performances, for his high ideals both on and off the screen, with respect and affection of his colleagues.”

James Stewart’s best friend Henry Fonda died in 1982 and his long-time friend Grace Kelly, his favourite female co-star, died shortly afterwards. A few months later, James Stewart starred with Bette Davis in Right of Way, which had the distinction of being the 1st made-for-cable movie. After filming several television movies in the 1980s, including Mr. Krueger’s Christmas, James Stewart, still receiving considerable offers to play “grandfather” roles, retired from acting to spend time with his family. James Stewart made frequent visits to the Reagan White House and traveled on the lecture circuit. The re-release of his Alfred Hitchcock films gained James Stewart renewed recognition. Rear Window and Vertigo were particularly praised by film critics, which helped bring these films to the attention of younger movie-goers.

James Stewart became a real life “Mr. Smith Goes to Washington” in 1988, when he made an impassioned plea in Congressional hearings, along with aging superstars Burt Lancaster and Katharine Hepburn, and film purist Martin Scorsese, against Ted Turner’s decision to “colourise” classic black and white films, including It’s a Wonderful Life. James Stewart stated, “the colouring of black-and-white films is wrong. It’s morally and artistically wrong and these profiteers should leave our film industry alone”. The traditionalists eventually prevailed.

1 of Hollywood’s most shrewd businessmen, James Stewart had diversified investments including real estate, oil wells, a charter-plane company and membership on major corporate boards. James Stewart became a multimillionaire. In the 1980s and 1990s, he did voiceovers for commercials for Campbell’s Soups.

In 1989, James Stewart joined Peter F. Paul in founding the American Spirit Foundation to apply entertainment industry resources to developing innovative approaches to public education and to assist the emerging democracy movements in the former Iron Curtain countries and Russia. Peter F. Paul arranged for James Stewart, through the offices of President Boris Yeltsin, to send a special print of It’s a Wonderful Life, translated by Moscow University, to Russia as the 1st American programme ever to be broadcast on Russian television. On 5 January 1992, coinciding with the 1st day of the existence of the democratic Commonwealth of Independent States and Russia, and the 1st free Russian Orthodox Christmas Day, Russian TV Channel 2 broadcast It’s a Wonderful Life to 200,000,000 Russians who celebrated an American holiday tradition with the American people for the 1st time in Russian history.

In association with politicians and celebrities that included President Ronald Reagan, Supreme Court Chief Justice Warren Burger, California Governor George Deukmejian, Bob Hope and Charlton Heston, James Stewart worked from 1987 to 1993 on projects that enhanced the public appreciation and understanding of the U.S. Constitution and Bill of Rights.

In 1991, James Stewart voiced the character of Sheriff Wylie Burp in the movie “An American Tail: Fievel Goes West”, which was his final role in a film before his death.

Right before his 80th birthday, he was asked how he wanted to be remembered. “As someone who ‘believed in hard work and love of country, love of family and love of community.'”

“America lost a national treasure today,” President Bill Clinton said on the day James Stewart died. “Jimmy Stewart was a great actor, a gentleman and a patriot.”

James Stewart was almost universally described by his collaborators as a kind, soft spoken man and a true professional.

Joan Crawford, James Stewart’s co-star in early period, praised him as an “endearing perfectionist” with “a droll sense of humour and a shy way of watching you to see if you react to that humour.”

When Henry Fonda moved to Hollywood in 1934, he was again a roommate with James Stewart in an apartment in Brentwood and the 2 gained a reputation as playboys. Once married, both men’s children noted that their favourite activity when not working seemed to be quietly sharing time together while building and painting model airplanes, a hobby they had taken up in New York, years earlier.

After World War II, James Stewart settled down, at the age of 41, marrying former model Gloria Hatrick McLean (1918-1994) on 9 August 1949. As James Stewart loved to recount in self-mockery, “I, I, I pitched the big question to her last night and to my surprise she, she, she said yes!”.

James Stewart adopted her 2 sons, Michael and Ronald, and together they had twin daughters, Judy and Kelly, on 7 May 1951. They remained devotedly married until her death on 16 February 1994, due to lung cancer. Ronald McLean was killed in action on 8 June 1969, at the age of 24, while serving as a Marine Corps Lieutenant in Vietnam. Dr. Kelly Stewart is an anthropologist at the University of California, Davis.

A plaque in honour of James Stewart’s spirit of humanitarianism in Griffith Park, Los Angeles, California. While visiting India in 1959, James Stewart reportedly smuggled the remains of a supposed yeti, the so-called Pangboche Hand, by hiding them in his luggage (specifically, in his wife, Gloria’s underwear) when he flew from India to London, as a favour to Tom Slick.

James Stewart was active in philanthropic affairs over the years. James Stewart’s signature charity event, “The Jimmy Stewart Relay Marathon Race”, held each year since 1982, has raised millions of dollars for the Child and Family Development Center at St. John’s Health Center in Santa Monica, California.

James Stewart was a lifelong supporter of Scouting. James Stewart was a 2nd Class Scout when he was a youth, an adult Scout leader, and a recipient of the prestigious Silver Buffalo Award from the Boy Scouts of America (BSA). In later years, he made advertisements for BSA, which led to him sometimes incorrectly being identified as an Eagle Scout. (Jefferson Smith in Mr. Smith Goes to Washington, was also the leader of the “Boy Rangers”, a fictional organisation patterned after cub scouts.) An award for Boy Scouts, “The James M. Stewart Good Citizenship Award” has been presented since 17 May 2003.

1 little-known talent of James Stewart’s was his homespun poetry. Once on The Tonight Show with Johnny Carson, James Stewart read from his poem, “My Dog, Beau.” By the end of his reading, Johnny Carson’s eyes were welling with tears. This was later parodied on a late 1980s episode of the NBC sketch show Saturday Night Live, with Dana Carvey as James Stewart reciting the poem on Weekend Update and bringing then anchor Dennis Miller to tears.

In addition to poetry, James Stewart would talk during Tonight Show appearances about his avid gardening. James Stewart purchased the house next door to his own home at 918 North Roxbury Drive, razed the house, and installed his garden in the lot.

Politically, James Stewart was a staunch supporter of the Republican Party and actively campaigned for Richard Nixon and Ronald Reagan.

1 of his best friends was Henry Fonda, despite the fact that the 2 men had very different political ideologies. A political argument in 1947 resulted in a fist fight between them, but the 2 apparently maintained their friendship by never discussing politics again. There is brief reference to their political differences in character in their movie The Cheyenne Social Club.

James Stewart’s star on the Hollywood Walk of Fame. It was once stolen but was subsequently replaced.

Awards & Honours

James Stewart was presented various kinds of film industry awards, military and civilian medals, honourary degrees, memorials and tributes over the years for his contribution to performing arts, humanitarianism, and military service.

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Speech Differences And Stutter Series-Disabled Legend Anthony Quinn

Anthony Quinn was born Antonio Rodolfo Oaxaca Quinn in Chihuahua, Mexico, during the Mexican Revolution. Anthony Quinn was born on 21 April, 1915 and died on 3 June, 2001.

Anthony Quinn was a 2-time Academy Award-winning Mexican-American actor, as well as a painter and writer.  Anthony Quinn starred in numerous critically acclaimed and commercially successful films, including Zorba the Greek and Federico Fellini’s La strada. Anthony Quinn also appeared in Lawrence of Arabia, Viva Zapata!, Lust for Life, Barabbas, Requiem for a Heavyweight, Mohammad, Messenger of God, The Shoes of the Fisherman, and The Guns of Navarone.

Anthony Quinn’s mother, Manuela “Nellie” Oaxaca, was of Aztec ancestry. Anthony Quinn’s father, Francisco Quinn, was born in Mexico to an Irish father and a Mexican mother. Frank Quinn rode with Pancho Villa, but later moved to Los Angeles and became an assistant cameraman at a movie studio. In Anthony Quinn’s autobiography The Original Sin: A Self-Portrait by Anthony Quinn he denied being the son of an “Irish adventurer” and attributed that tale to Hollywood publicists.

When he was 6 years old, Anthony Quinn attended a Catholic church (even thinking he wanted to become a priest). At the age of 11, however, he joined the Pentecostals in the International Church of the Foursquare Gospel (the Pentecostal followers of Aimee Semple McPherson).

Anthony Quinn grew up first in El Paso, Texas, and later the Boyle Heights and the Echo Park areas of Los Angeles, California. Anthony Quinn attended Hammel St. Elementary School, Belvedere Junior High School, Polytechnic High School and finally Belmont High School but left before graduating. Tucson High School in Arizona years many later awarded him an honourary high school diploma.

As a young man Anthony Quinn boxed professionally to earn money, then studied art and architecture under Frank Lloyd Wright, both at Frank Lloyd Wright’s Arizona residence and his Wisconsin studio, Taliesin. The 2 very different men became friends. When Anthony Quinn mentioned he was drawn to acting, Frank Lloyd Wright encouraged him. Anthony Quinn said he had been offered $800 a week by a film studio and didn’t know what to do. Frank Lloyd Wright replied, “Take it, you’ll never make that much with me.”

After a short time performing on the stage, Anthony Quinn launched his film career performing character roles in the 1936 films Parole (his debut) and The Milky Way. Anthony Quinn played “ethnic” villains in Paramount films such as Dangerous to Know (1938) and Road to Morocco. By 1947, he had appeared in over 50 films and had played Indians, Mafia dons, Hawaiian chiefs, Filipino freedom-fighters, Chinese guerrillas, and Arab sheiks, but was still not a major star. Anthony Quinn returned to the theater, even playing Stanley Kowalski in A Streetcar Named Desire on Broadway.

In 1947, he became a naturalized citizen of the United States. Anthony Quinn came back to Hollywood in the early 1950s, specialising in tough roles. Anthony Quinn was cast in a series of B-adventures such as Mask of the Avenger (1951). Anthony Quinn’s big break cane from playing opposite Marlon Brando in Elia Kazan’s Viva Zapata! (1952). Anthony Quinn’s supporting role as Zapata’s brother won Anthony Quinn an Oscar. Anthony Quinn was the 1st Mexican-American to win any Academy Award. Anthony Quinn appeared in several Italian films starting in 1953, turning in one of his best performances as a dim-witted, thuggish and volatile strongman in Federico Fellini’s La strada (1954) opposite Giulietta Masina. Anthony Quinn won his 2nd Oscar for Best Supporting Actor by portraying the painter Gauguin in Vincente Minnelli’s Van Gogh biopic, Lust for Life (1956). The award was remarkable as he was onscreen for only 8 minutes. The following year, he received a Oscar nomination for his part in George Cukor’s Wild Is the Wind. In The River’s Edge (1957), he played the husband of the former girlfriend (played by Debra Paget) of a killer (Ray Milland), who turns up with a stolen fortune and forces Anthony Quinn and Paget at gunpoint to guide him safely to Mexico. Anthony Quinn starred in The Savage Innocents 1959 (film) as Inuk, an Eskimo who finds himself caught between 2 clashing cultures.

Anthony Quinn as Wogan in the trailer for The Black Swan(1942)as the decade ended, Anthony Quinn allowed his age to show and began his transformation into a major character actor. Anthony Quinn’s physique filled out, his hair grayed, and his once smooth, swarthy face weathered became more rugged. Anthony Quinn’s demeanor made him a convincing Greek resistance fighter in The Guns of Navarone (1961), an ideal ex-boxer in Requiem for a Heavyweight, and a natural for the role of Auda ibu Tayi in Lawrence of Arabia (both 1962). That year he also played the title role in Barabbas, based on a novel by Pär Lagerkvist. The success of Zorba the Greek in 1964 was the high water mark of his career and resulted in another Oscar nomination. Other successes include La Vingt-cinquième heure (1967, The Twenty Fifth Hour), with Virna Lisi; The Magus (1968), with Michael Caine and Candice Bergen, and based on the novel by John Fowles; and The Shoes of the Fisherman, where he played a Russian pope. In 1969, he starred in The Secret of Santa Vittoria with Anna Magnani.

Anthony Quinn appeared on Broadway to great acclaim in Becket, as King Henry II to Laurence Olivier’s Thomas Becket in 1960. An erroneous story arose in later years that during the run, Anthony Quinn and Laurence Olivier switched roles and Anthony Quinn played Becket to Laurence Olivier’s King. In fact, Anthony Quinn left the production for a film, never having played Becket, and director Peter Glenville suggested a road tour with Laurence Olivier as Henry. Laurence Olivier happily acceded and Arthur Kennedy took on the role of Becket for the tour and brief return to Broadway.

In 1971, after the success of a TV movie named The City, where Anthony Quinn played Albuquerque Mayor Thomas Jefferson Alcala, he starred in the short-lived (1-season) television drama spin-off The Man in the City. Anthony Quinn’s subsequent television appearances were sporadic (among them Jesus of Nazareth).

In 1977, Anthony Quinn starred in the movie Mohammad, Messenger of God (aka The Message), about the origin of Islam, as Hamzah, a highly revered warrior instrumental in the early stages of Islam. In 1982, he starred in the Lion of the Desert, together with Irene Papas, Oliver Reed, Rod Steiger, and John Gielgud. Anthony Quinn played the real-life Bedouin leader Omar Mukhtar who fought Mussolini’s Italian troops in the deserts of Libya. The film, produced and directed by Moustapha Akkad, is now critically acclaimed, but performed poorly at the box office because of negative publicity in the West at the time of its release, stemming from its having been partially funded by Libya’s Muammar al-Gaddafi. In 1983, he reprised his most famous role, playing Zorba the Greek for 362 performances in a successful revival of the Kander and Ebb musical Zorba.

Anthony Quinn’s film career slowed during the 1990s, but Anthony Quinn nonetheless continued to work steadily, appearing in Revenge (1990), Jungle Fever (1991), Last Action Hero (1993), and A Walk in the Clouds (1995). In 1994, he played Zeus in the five TV movies that led to the syndicated series Hercules: The Legendary Journeys. (However, he did not continue in the actual series, and the role was eventually filled by several other actors).

Throughout his teenage years he won various art competitions in California and focused his studies at Polytechnic High School in Los Angeles on drafting. Later, Anthony Quinn studied briefly under Frank Lloyd Wright through the Taliesin Fellowship—an opportunity created by winning 1st prize in an architectural design contest. Through Frank Lloyd Wright’s recommendation, Anthony Quinn took acting lessons as a form of post-operative speech therapy, which led to an acting career that spanned over 6 decades.

Apart from art classes taken in Chicago during the 1950s, Anthony Quinn never attended art school; nonetheless, taking advantage of books, museums, and amassing a sizable collection, he managed to give himself an effective education in the language of modern art. Although Anthony Quinn remained mostly self-taught, intuitively seeking out and exploring new ideas, there is observable history in his work because he had assiduously studied the modernist masterpieces on view in the galleries of New York, Mexico City, Paris, and London. When filming on location around the world, Anthony Quinn was exposed to regional contemporary art styles exhibited at local galleries and studied art history in each area.

In an endless search for inspiration, he was influenced by his Mexican ancestry, decades of residency in Europe, and lengthy stays in Africa and the Middle East while filming in the 1970s and 1980s.

By the early 1980s, his work had caught the eyes of various gallery owners and was exhibited internationally, in New York, Los Angeles, Paris, and Mexico City. Anthony Quinn’s work is now represented in both public and private collections throughout the world.

Anthony Quinn wrote 2 memoirs, The Original Sin (1972) and One Man Tango (1997), a number of scripts, and a series of unpublished stories currently in the collection of his archive.

Anthony Quinn’s personal life was as volatile and passionate as the characters he played in films. anthony Quinn’s 1st wife was the adopted daughter of Cecil B. DeMille, the actress Katherine DeMille, whom he married in 1937. The couple had 5 children, they are Christopher (born 1939), Christina (born 1 December, 1941), Catalina (born 21 November, 1942), Duncan (born 4 August, 1945), and Valentina (born 26 December, 1952). One of their sons, Christopher, age 2, drowned in the swimming pool of next-door neighbor W.C. Fields. Anthony Quinn and DeMille were divorced in 1965.

The next year, he married costume designer Iolanda Quinn (Jolanda Addolori). They had 3 children they are Francesco (born 22 March, 1962), Danny (born 16 April, 1964), and Lorenzo (born 7 May, 1966). The union ended in 1997, after Anthony Quinn fathered a child with his secretary, Kathy Benvin. Anthony Quinn then married Benvin, with whom he had 2 children, Antonia (born 23 July, 1993) and Ryan Nicholas (born 5 July, 1996). Anthony Quinn and Kathy Benvin remained together until his death.

Anthony Quinn also fathered 3 other children out of wedlock: Alexander Anthony (born 30 December, 1976), Valentina, and Sean Quinn, a New Jersey real estate agent.

Anthony Quinn spent his last years in Bristol, Rhode Island. Anthony Quinn died aged 86 in Boston, Massachusetts from pneumonia and respiratory failure while suffering from throat cancer shortly after completing his role in his last film, Avenging Angelo (2002).

Anthony Quinn’s funeral was held in a Baptist church; late in life, he had joined the Foursquare evangelical Christian community. Anthony Quinn is buried in a family plot near Bristol.

On 5 January, 1982, the Belvedere County Public Library in East Los Angeles was renamed in honour of Anthony Quinn. The present library sits on the site of his family’s former home.

There is an Anthony Quinn Bay and Beach in Rhodes, Dodecanese, Greece, just 2.7 miles (4.3 km) south of the village of Faliraki (aka Falirakion or Falirákion).

The National Council of La Raza gives the Anthony Quinn Award for excellence in motion pictures as an ALMA Award.

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Speech Differences And Stutter Series-Disabled Legend Bruce Willis

Walter Bruce Willis was born on 19 March, 1955 in Idar-Oberstein, West Germany. Bruce Willis is an American actor and singer-songwriter. Bruce Willis came to fame in the late 1980s and has since retained a career as both a Hollywood leading man and a supporting actor, in particular for his role as John McClane in the Die Hard series. Bruce Willis was married to actress Demi Moore and they had 3 daughters before their divorce in 2000 after 13 years of marriage. Bruce Willis has released several albums and has appeared in several television shows. Bruce Willis has also starred in over 60 films, including Pulp Fiction, Sin City, Die Hard, Unbreakable, Armageddon and The Sixth Sense

Motion pictures featuring Bruce Willis have grossed US$2.55 to US$3.04,000,000,000 at North American box offices, making him the 7th highest-grossing actor in a leading role, and 8th highest including supporting roles. Bruce Willis is a 2-time Emmy Award-winning, Golden Globe Award-winning, and 4-time Saturn Award-nominated actor and has publicly shown his support for the United States armed forces.

Bruce Willis is the son of a Kassel-born German mother, Marlene, who worked in a bank, and David Willis, an American soldier. Bruce Willis was the oldest of 4 children (his siblings are Florence, David, and Robert). After being discharged from the military in 1957, Bruce Willis’ father took his family back to Penns Grove, New Jersey, USA where he worked as a welder and factory worker. Bruce Willis’ parents separated in 1972 while Bruce Willis was in his teens. Bruce Willis was always an outgoing youngster, although he grew up with a stutter. Bruce Willis attended Penns Grove High School in his hometown. Finding it easy to express himself on stage and losing his stutter in the process, Bruce Willis began performing on stage and his high school activities were marked by such things as the drama club and school council president.

After high school, Bruce Willis took a job as a security guard and he also transported work crews at the DuPont Chambers Works factory in Deepwater, New Jersey, USA. Bruce Willis quit after a colleague was killed on the job,and became a regular at several bars. Bruce Willis learned to play the harmonica and joined an R&B band called Loose Goose. After a stint as a private investigator (a role he would play in the television series Moonlighting as well as in the 1991 film, The Last Boy Scout), Bruce Willis returned to acting. Bruce Willis enrolled in the drama programme at Montclair State University, where he was cast in the class production of Cat on a Hot Tin Roof. Bruce Willis left school in his junior year and moved to New York City, USA.

Bruce Willis returned to the bar scene, only this time for a part-time job. After countless auditions, Bruce Willis made his theater debut in the off-Broadway production of Heaven and Earth. Bruce Willis gained more experience and exposure in Fool for Love, an appearance on television’s Miami Vice, and in a Levi’s commercial.

Bruce Willis left New York City and headed to California to audition for several television shows. Bruce Willis auditioned for the TV series Moonlighting (1985–89), while competing against 3,000 other actors for the position and was selected to play David Addison Jr. The starring role helped to establish him as a comedic actor, with the show lasting 5 seasons. During the height of the show’s success, beverage maker Seagram hired Bruce Willis as the pitchman for their Golden Wine Cooler products. The memorable ad campaign paid the rising star between $5 and $7,000,000 over 2 years. In spite of that, Bruce Willis chose not to renew his contract with the company when he decided to stop drinking alcohol in 1988. One of his 1st major film roles was in the 1987 Blake Edwards film Blind Date alongside Kim Basinger and John Laroquette. However, it was his then-unexpected turn in the film Die Hard that catapulted him to fame. Bruce Willis performed most of his own stunts in the film, and the film grossed US$138,708,852 worldwide. Due to its box office success, the film would eventually tender 3 sequels, with the most recent entry, Live Free or Die Hard,released in June 2007. Following his success with Die Hard, he had a supporting role in the drama In Country as Vietnam veteran Emmett Smith, for which he received a Golden Globe Award nomination for “Best Performance by an Actor in Supporting Role in a Motion Picture”. Bruce Willis also provided his voice for a talking baby in Look Who’s Talking and its sequel.

In the late-1980s, Bruce Willis enjoyed moderate success as a recording artist, recording an album of pop-blues entitled The Return of Bruno, which included the hit single “Respect Yourself”, promoted by a Spinal Tap-like rockumentary parody featuring scenes of him performing at famous events including Woodstock. Follow-up recordings were not as successful, though Bruce Willis has returned to the recording studio several times. In the early 1990s, Bruce Willis’ career suffered a moderate slump starring in flops such as The Bonfire of the Vanities, Striking Distance and a film he co-wrote entitled Hudson Hawk, among others. Bruce Willis starred in a leading role in the highly sexualized thriller Colour of Night (1994), which was very poorly received by critics but has become popular on video. However, in 1994 he had a supporting role in Quentin Tarantino’s acclaimed Pulp Fiction, which gave a new boost to his career. In 1996, he was the executive producer of the cartoon Bruno the Kid which featured a CGI representation of himself. Bruce Willis went on to play the lead roles in 12 Monkeys and The 5th Element. However, by the end of the 1990s, his career had fallen into another slump with critically panned films like The Jackal, Mercury Rising, and Breakfast of Champions, saved only by the success of the Michael Bay-directed Armageddon which was the highest grossing film of 1998 worldwide. The same year his voice and likeness were featured in the PlayStation video game Apocalypse.

In 1999, Bruce Willis then went on to the starring role in M. Night Shyamalan’s film, The Sixth Sense. The film was both a commercial and critical success and helped to increase interest in his acting career. Bruce Willis once had to appear in the sitcom Friends without pay, because he lost a bet to Matthew Perry, his co-star in the comedy The Whole 9 Yards and its sequel The Whole 10 Yards. Bruce Willis won a 2000 Emmy for Outstanding Guest Actor in a Comedy Series for his work on Friends (in which he played the father of Ross Geller’s much-younger girlfriend). Bruce Willis was also nominated for a 2001 American Comedy Award (in the Funniest Male Guest Appearance in a TV Series category) for his work on Friends. Bruce Willis was originally cast as Terry Benedict in Ocean’s Eleven (2001) but dropped out to work on recording an album. In Ocean’s Twelve (2004), he makes a cameo appearance as himself. Bruce Willis recently appeared in the Planet Terror half of the double feature Grindhouse as the villain, a mutant soldier. This marks Bruce Willis’ 2nd collaboration with director Robert Rodriguez, following Sin City.

Bruce Willis has appeared on The Late Show with David Letterman several times throughout his career. Bruce Willis filled in for an ill David Letterman on his show 26 February, 2003, when he was supposed to be a guest. Bruce Willis interviewed Dan Rather in what he would later call “the most serious conversation of my entire life”. On many of his appearances on the show, Bruce Willis stages elaborate jokes, such as wearing a day-glo orange suit in honour of the Central Park gates, having one side of his face made up with simulated buckshot wounds after the Harry Whittington shooting, or trying to break a record (parody of David Blaine) of staying underwater for only 20 seconds. On 12 April, 2007, he appeared again, this time wearing a Sanjaya Malakar wig. Bruce Willis’ most recent appearance was on 25 June, 2007 when he appeared wearing a mini-turbine strapped to his head to accompany a joke about his own fictional documentary entitled An Unappealing Hunch (a wordplay of An Inconvenient Truth). Bruce Willis also appeared on Japanese Subaru Legacy television commercials, optimizing the car for sale, with the backing music of Jade from Sweetbox, “Addicted” and “Hate Without Frontiers”. Tying in with this, Subaru did a limited run of Legacys, badged “Subaru Legacy Touring Bruce”, in honour of Bruce Willis. Bruce Willis has appeared in 4 movies with Samuel L. Jackson (National Lampoon’s Loaded Weapon 1, Pulp Fiction, Die Hard with a Vengeance, and Unbreakable) and both actors were slated to work together in Black Water Transit before dropping out. Bruce Willis also worked alongside his eldest daughter, Rumer, in the 2005 film Hostage. In 2007, he appeared in the thriller Perfect Stranger, opposite Halle Berry, the crime/drama film Alpha Dog, opposite Sharon Stone, and marked his return to the role of John McClane in Live Free or Die Hard.

Bruce Willis appeared on the 2008 Blues Traveler album North Hollywood Shootout, giving a spoken word performance over an instrumental blues-rock jam on the track “Free Willis (Ruminations from Behind Uncle Bob’s Machine Shop)”.

Bruce Willis’ future projects include 3 other films that will debut between 2008 and 2009. Bruce Willis will join the Assassination of a High School President, which is a 2008 comedy where he will be a Catholic school principal and his real-life eldest daughter, Rumer, will star as a student investigating missing SAT tests. Bruce Willis’ 2 2009 films will include the drama Morgan’s Summit, where he will depict a late night radio host who promotes kindness, but changes his demeanor after a brutal crime causes him to seek revenge and The Last Full Measure, a drama film based on a true story about a Vietnam War veteran. Bruce Willis has also signed on to play Kane in a film adaptation of the game Kane & Lynch: Dead Men.

Bruce Willis was slated to play U.S. Army general William R. Peers in director Oliver Stone’s Pinkville, a drama about the investigation of the 1968 My Lai massacre. However, due to the 2007 Writers Guild of America strike, the film was cancelled and Bruce Willis instead joined the film, The Surrogates, which is based on the comic books of the same name.

At the premiere for the film Stakeout, Bruce Willis met actress Demi Moore who was dating actor Emilio Estevez at the time. Bruce Willis married Demi Moore on 21 November, 1987 and had 3 daughters (Rumer Glenn Willis (born 1988), Scout LaRue Willis (1991) and Tallulah Belle Willis (1994)) before the couple divorced on 18 October, 2000. The couple gave no public reason for their breakup. Bruce Willis reacting on his divorce stated “I felt I had failed as a father and a husband by not being able to make it work” and credited actor Will Smith for helping him get through the divorce. Bruce Willis and Demi Moore currently share custody of the 3 daughters they had during their 13 year union. Since their breakup, rumors persisted that the couple planned to re-marry, but Demi Moore has since married the younger actor Ashton Kutcher. Bruce Willis has maintained a close relationship with both Demi Moore and Ashton Kutcher, even attending their wedding. Since his divorce he has dated models Maria Bravo Rosado and Emily Sandberg and also was engaged to Brooke Burns, until they broke up in 2004 after dating for 10 months. In 2007, he was spotted dating Playboy Playmates Tamara Witmer and Karen McDougal on different occasions. Bruce Willis is currently dating girlfriend Emma Heming. Bruce Willis has expressed interest in getting married again and having more children.

Bruce Willis was, at one point, Lutheran (specifically Lutheran Church – Missouri Synod); but no longer practices, based on a statement he made in the July 1998 issue of George magazine:

“Organized religions in general, in my opinion, are dying forms”, he says. “They were all very important when we didn’t know why the sun moved, why weather changed, why hurricanes occurred, or volcanoes happened”, he continues. “Modern religion is the end trail of modern mythology. But there are people who interpret the Bible literally. Literally!” he says incredulously. “I choose not to believe that’s the way. And that’s what makes America cool, you know?”

In early 2006, Bruce Willis, who usually lives in Los Angeles, moved into an apartment located in the Trump Tower in New York City. Bruce Willis also has a home in Malibu, California, a ranch in Montana, a beach home on Parrot Cay in the Turks and Caicos, and multiple properties in Sun Valley, Idaho.

Bruce Willis owns his own motion picture production company called Cheyenne Enterprises which he started with his business parter Arnold Rifkin in 2000. Bruce Willis also owns several small businesses in Hailey, Idaho including The Mint Bar and The Liberty Theater and is a co-founder of Planet Hollywood along with actors Arnold Schwarzenegger and Sylvester Stallone. Bruce Willis’ dog, a Yorkshire Terrier is named Wolf Fishbein (“Wolfie”) after a character in the Woody Allen movie Deconstructing Harry.

Bruce Willis, an avid New Jersey Nets fan, made controversial comments on 29 April, 2007 during a live broadcast of a Nets home playoff game vs. the Toronto Raptors on TSN by saying a catch phrase from his Die Hard films, “Yipee-ki-yay motherfucker”, at the end of the interview. Reacting to the backlash, he later blamed his actions on jet lag, stating: “Sometimes I overestimate my ability to function under duress with less than enough sleep”.

On 5 May, 2007, someone using the screen name “Walter_B” started posting detailed responses onto Ain’t it Cool News, where people were discussing the fact that Live Free or Die Hard received a PG-13 rating, instead of an R rating like the earlier 3 Die hard films.The responses included detailed information on Live Free or Die Hard, which was yet to be released; the theme of the Die Hard film series, direct criticisms of other movie crews and casts, and many movie trivia answers. “Walter_B” was Bruce Willis himself, directly posting his opinions. Many people were skeptical that “Walter_B” was indeed Bruce Willis, but on 9 May, Bruce Willis revealed his identity on a video chat session.

Bruce Willis is an avid fight fan and often attends boxing matches. Bruce Willis has attended both the Floyd Mayweather, Jr. v Ricky Hatton and Joe Calzaghe v Bernard Hopkins fights, which have come to be known as the ‘British Invasion’ fights, after the popularity of the ‘British Invasion’ bands of the 1960s to the late 1970s in America.

Having begun to suffer from Male Pattern Baldness at a relatively young age (his receding hairline is visibly starting by Die Hard), Bruce Willis chose to shave his head once the loss was too severe to stylistically hide. However, he has worn a hairpiece or a toupee for several of his roles – but only when the character is known to have hair (such as in Sin City). Bruce Willis is one of the very few actors in Hollywood who has not pursued hair replacement in his personal life, and this has endeared him to the millions of men who themselves suffer from hair loss.

Bruce Willis is close friends with Matthew Perry.

In 2007, Bruce Willis stated he was not in favour of war in Iraq, but instead liked, “to support the young men and women who are over there participating in the war.” Bruce Willis has endorsed every Republican presidential candidate except Bob Dole in 1996, because Dole had criticized Demi Moore for her role in the movie Striptease. Bruce Willis was an invited speaker at the 2000 Republican National Convention,and continues to vocally support gun ownership. Bruce Willis has criticized the religious right and its influence on the Republican party. In February 2006, Bruce Willis appeared in Manhattan to talk about 16 Blocks with reporters. One reporter attempted to ask Bruce Willis about his opinion on current events but was interrupted by Bruce Willis in mid-sentence:

“ I’m sick of answering this fucking question. I’m a Republican only as far as I want a smaller government, I want less government intrusion. I want them to stop shitting on my money and your money and tax dollars that we give 50 percent of… every year. I want them to be fiscally responsible and I want these goddamn lobbyists out of Washington. Do that and I’ll say I’m a Republican… I hate the government, OK? I’m apolitical. Write that down. I’m not a Republican.”

In several June 2007 interviews, he declared that he still maintains some Republican ideologies but is currently an independent. In an interview for the June 2007 issue of Vanity Fair, Bruce Willis said he was skeptical that Lee Harvey Oswald acted alone in the assassination of John F. Kennedy, and suggested that some people involved in the assassination are still in power today.

In 2006, he proposed that the United States should invade Colombia in order to end the drug trafficking. In several interviews with USA Weekend, Bruce Willis has said that he supports large salaries for teachers, and says that he is disappointed in the United States’ foster care and treatment of Native Americans. Bruce Willis also stated that he is a big supporter of gun rights:

“Everyone has a right to bear arms. If you take guns away from legal gun owners, then the only people who have guns are the bad guys.” Even a pacifist, he insists, would get violent if someone were trying to kill him. “You would fight for your life.”

Throughout his film career, Bruce Willis has depicted several military characters in films such as The Siege, Hart’s War, Tears of the Sun, and Grindhouse. Growing up in a military family, Bruce Willis has been publicly supportive of the United States armed forces. In 2002, Bruce Willis’ youngest daughter, Tallulah, suggested that he purchase Girl Scout cookies to send to troops. Bruce Willis purchased 12,000 boxes of cookies, and they were distributed to sailors aboard USS John F. Kennedy and other troops stationed throughout the Middle East at the time. In 2003, Bruce Willis visited Iraq as part of the USO tour, singing to the troops with his band, The Accelerators. Some reports from military officials suggest that Bruce Willis tried to enlist in the military to help fight the 2nd Iraq war, but he was turned away because of his age. It was believed he offered $1,000,000 to any civilian who turns in terrorist leaders Osama bin Laden, Ayman al-Zawahiri, or Abu Musab al-Zarqawi; in the June 2007 issue of Vanity Fair, however, he clarified that the statement was made hypothetically and not meant to be taken literally. Bruce Willis has also criticized the media for its coverage of the war, complaining that the press were more likely to focus on the negative aspects of the war:

“I went to Iraq because what I saw when I was over there was soldiers — young kids for the most part — helping people in Iraq; helping getting the power turned back on, helping get hospitals open, helping get the water turned back on and you don’t hear any of that on the news. You hear, ‘X number of people were killed today,’ which I think does a huge disservice. It’s like spitting on these young men and women who are over there fighting to help this country.”

Bruce Willis has said that he wants to “make a pro-war film in which American soldiers will be depicted as brave fighters for freedom and democracy.” The film will follow members of Deuce 4,the 1st Battalion, 24th Infantry, who spent considerable time in Mosul and were decorated heavily for it. The film is to be based on the writings of blogger Michael Yon, a former United States Army Special Forces Green Beret who was embedded with Deuce 4 and sent regular dispatches about their activities. Bruce Willis described the plot of the film as “these guys who do what they are asked for very little money to defend and fight for what they consider to be freedom.” Bruce Willis does not appear to have spoken publicly about his plans for this movie since 2005.

Since March 2008,Bruce Willis has been playing the role of the ‘Child Catcher’ in Chitty Chitty Bang Bang at the London Palladium.

In 1996, Roger Director, a writer and producer from Moonlighting wrote a roman à clef on Willis titled A Place to Fall. Cybill Shepherd wrote in her 2000 autobiography, Cybill Disobedience, that Bruce Willis was angry at Director, because the character was written as a “neurotic, petulant actor.”

In 1998 Bruce Willis participated in Apocalypse, a Sony Playstation game. The game was originally announced to feature Bruce Willis but was soon discovered he appeared as a sidekick, not as the main character. The company reworked the game using Bruce Willis’ likeness and voice and changed the game to use him as the main character.

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Schizophrenia Series-Disabled Legend Antoine Artaud

Antoine Marie Joseph Artaud, better known as Antonin Artaud was born on 4 September, 1896, in Marseille, France and died on 4 March, 1948 in Paris, France. Antoine Artaud was a French playwright, poet, actor and director. Antonin Artaud is a diminutive form of Antoine (little Anthony), and was among a long list of names which Antoine Artaud used throughout his life.

Antoine Artaud’s parents, Euphrasie Nalpas and Antoine-Roi Artaud, were of Greek origin (Smyrna), and he was much affected by this background. Although his mother had 9 children, only Antoine Artaud and 2 siblings survived infancy.

At the age of 4, Antoine Artaud had a severe attack of meningitis. The virus gave Antoine Artaud a nervous, irritable temperament throughout adolescence. Antoine Artaud also suffered from neuralgia, stammering and severe bouts of depression. As a teenager, he was allegedly stabbed in the back by a pimp for apparently no reason, similar to the experience of playwright Samuel Beckett.

Antoine Artaud’s parents arranged a long series of sanatorium stays for their disruptive son, which were both prolonged and expensive. They lasted 5 years, with a break of 2 months, June and July 1916, when Antoine Artaud was conscripted into the army. Antoine Artaud was allegedly discharged due to his self-induced habit of sleepwalking. During Antoine Artaud’s “rest cures” at the sanatorium, he read Rimbaud, Baudelaire, and Poe. In May 1919, the director of the sanatorium prescribed laudanum for Antoine Artaud, precipitating a lifelong addiction to that and other opiates.

In March 1920, Antoine Artaud moved to Paris. At the age of 27, Antoine Artaud sent some of his poems to the journal La Nouvelle Revue Française; they were rejected, but the editor wrote back seeking to understand him, and a relationship in letters was born. This epistolary work, “Correspondence avec Jacques Rivière,” is Antoine Artaud’s 1st major publication. In November 1926, Antoine Artaud was expelled from the surrealist movement, in which he had participated briefly, for refusing to renounce theater as a bourgeois commercial art form, and for refusing to join the French Communist Party along with the other Surrealists.

Antoine Artaud cultivated a great interest in cinema as well, writing the scenario for the 1st Surrealist film, The Seashell and the Clergyman, directed by Germaine Dulac. Antoine Artaud also acted in Abel Gance’s Napoleon in the role of Jean-Paul Marat, and in Carl Theodor Dreyer’s The Passion of Joan of Arc as the monk Massieu. Antoine Artaud’s portrayal of Marat used exaggerated movements to convey the fire of Jean-Paul Marat’s personality.

In 1926-28, Antoine Artaud ran the Alfred Jarry Theater, along with Roger Vitrac. Antoine Artaud produced and directed original works by Roger Vitrac, as well as pieces by Claudel and Strindberg. The theatre advertised that they would produce Artaud’s play Jet de sang in their 1926-1927 season, but it was never mounted and was not premiered until 40 years later. The Theater was extremely short-lived, but was attended by an enormous range of European artists, including Andre Gide, Arthur Adamov, and Paul Valery.

The 1930s saw the publication of The Theatre and Its Double, his most well-known work. This book contained the 2 manifestos of the Theater of Cruelty, essential texts in understanding his artistic project. In 1935, Antoine Artaud’s production of his adaptation of Shelley’s The Cenci premiered. The Cenci was a commercial failure, although it employed innovative sound effects and had a set designed by Balthus.

After the production failed, Antoine Artaud received a grant to travel to Mexico where he gave lectures on the decadence of Western civilisation. Antoine Artaud also studied the Tarahumaran people and experimented with peyote, recording his experiences which were later released in a volume called Voyage to the Land of the Tarahumara. The content of this work closely resembles the poems of his later days, concerned primarily with the supernatural. Antoine Artaud also recorded his horrific withdrawal from heroin upon entering the land of the Tarahumaras; having deserted his last supply of the drug at a mountainside, he literally had to be hoisted onto his horse, and soon resembled, in his words, “a giant, inflamed gum”. Having beaten his addiction, however, Antoine Artaud would return to opiates later in life.

In 1937, Antoine Artaud returned to France where he obtained a walking stick of knotted wood that he believed belonged to St. Patrick, but also Lucifer and Jesus Christ. Antoine Artaud traveled to Ireland in an effort to return the staff, though he spoke very little English and was unable to make himself understood. The majority of his trip was spent in a hotel room that he was unable to pay for. On his return trip, Antoine Artaud believed he was being attacked by 2 crew members and retaliated; he was arrested and put in a straitjacket.

The return from Ireland brought about the beginning of the final phase of Antoine Artaud’s life, which was spent in different asylums. When France was occupied by the Nazis, friends of Antoine Artaud had him transferred to the Psychiatric hospital in Rodez, well inside Vichy territory, where he was put under the charge of Dr. Gaston Ferdière. Dr Gaston Ferdière began administering electroshock treatments to eliminate Antoine Artaud’s symptoms, which included various delusions and odd physical tics. The doctor believed that Antoine Artaud’s habits of crafting magic spells, creating astrology charts, and drawing disturbing images, were symptoms of mental illness. The electro-shock treatments have created much controversy, although it was during these treatments — in conjunction with Dr Gaston Ferdière’s art therapy — that Antoine Artaud began writing and drawing again, after a long dormant period. In 1946, Dr Gaston Ferdière released Antoine Artaud to his friends, who placed him in the psychiatric clinic at Ivry-sur-Seine. Current psychiatric literature describes Antoine Artaud as having schizophrenia, with a clear psychotic break late in life and schizotypal symptoms throughout life.

Antoine Artaud was encouraged to write by his friends, and interest in his work was rekindled. Antoine Artaud visited an exhibition of works by Vincent van Gogh which resulted in a study Van Gogh le suicidé de la société (Van Gogh, The Man Suicided by Society), published by K éditeur, Paris, 1947 which won a critics´ prize. Antoine Artaud recorded Pour en Finir avec le Jugement de dieu (To Have Done With the Judgment of god) between 22 November and 29 November, 1947. This work was shelved by Wladimir Porché, the director of the French Radio, the day before its scheduled airing on 2 February, 1948. The performance was prohibited partially as a result of its scatological, anti-American, and anti-religious references and pronouncements, but also because of its general randomness, with a cacophony of xylophonic sounds mixed with various percussive elements. While remaining true to his Theater of Cruelty and reducing powerful emotions and expressions into audible sounds, Antoine Artaud had utilized various, somewhat alarming cries, screams, grunts, onomatopoeia, and glossolalia.

As a result, Fernand Pouey, the director of dramatic and literary broadcasts for French radio, assembled a panel to consider the broadcast of Pour en Finir avec le Jugement de Dieu. Among the approximately 50 artists, writers, musicians, and journalists present for a private listening on 5 February, 1948 were Jean Cocteau, Paul Eluard, Raymond Queneau, Jean-Louis Barrault, René Clair, Jean Paulhan, Maurice Nadeau, Georges Auric, Claude Mauriac and René Char. Although the panel felt almost unanimously in favour of Antoine Artaud’s work, Porché refused to allow the broadcast. Fernand Pouey left his job and the show was not heard again until 23 February, 1948 at a private performance at the Théâtre Washington.

In January 1948, Antoine Artaud was diagnosed with intestinal cancer. Antoine Artaud died shortly afterwards on 4 March, 1948. Antoine Artaud died alone in his pavilion, seated at the foot of his bed, allegedly holding his shoe. It was suspected that he died from a lethal dose of the drug chloral, although whether or not he was aware of its lethality is unknown. 30 years later, French radio finally broadcast the performance of Pour en Finir avec le Jugement de Dieu.

Antoine Artaud believed that the Theatre should affect the audience as much as possible, therefore he used a mixture of strange and disturbing forms of lighting, sound and performance. In one production that he did about the plague he used sounds so realistic that some members of the audience were sick in the middle of the performance.

In his book The Theatre and Its Double, which was made up of a 1st and 2nd manifesto, Antoine Artaud expressed his admiration for Eastern forms of theatre, particularly the Balinese. Antoine Artaud admired Eastern theatre because of the codified, highly ritualised and precise physicality of Balinese dance performance, and advocated what he called a “Theatre of Cruelty”. By cruelty, he meant not exclusively sadism or causing pain, but just as often a violent, physical determination to shatter the false reality. Antoine Artaud believed that text had been a tyrant over meaning, and advocated, instead, for a theatre made up of a unique language, halfway between thought and gesture. Antoine Artaud described the spiritual in physical terms, and believed that all theatre is physical expression in space.

The Theatre of Cruelty has been created in order to restore to the theatre a passionate and convulsive conception of life, and it is in this sense of violent rigour and extreme condensation of scenic elements that the cruelty on which it is based must be understood. This cruelty, which will be bloody when necessary but not systematically so, can thus be identified with a kind of severe moral purity which is not afraid to pay life the price it must be paid.

Evidently, Antoine Artaud’s various uses of the term cruelty must be examined to fully understand his ideas. Lee Jamieson has identified 4 ways in which Antoine Artaud used the term cruelty. Firstly, it is employed metaphorically to describe the essence of human existence. Antoine Artaud believed that theatre should reflect his nihilistic view of the universe, creating an uncanny connection between his own thinking and Nietzsche’s:

[Nietzsche’s] definition of cruelty informs Antoine Artaud’s own, declaring that all art embodies and intensifies the underlying brutalities of life to recreate the thrill of experience … Although Antoine Artaud did not formally cite Nietzsche, [their writing] contains a familiar persuasive authority, a similar exuberant phraseology, and motifs in extremis …

Antoine Artaud’s 2nd use of the term (according to Jamieson), is as a form of discipline. Although Antoine Artaud wanted to “reject form and incite chaos”, he also promoted strict discipline and rigor in his performance techniques. A 3rd use of the term was ‘cruelty as theatrical presentation’. The Theatre of Cruelty aimed to hurl the spectator into the centre of the action, forcing them to engage with the performance on an instinctive level. For Antoine Artaud, this was a cruel, yet necessary act upon the spectator designed to shock them out of their complacency:

Antoine Artaud sought to remove aesthetic distance, bringing the audience into direct contact with the dangers of life. By turning theatre into a place where the spectator is exposed rather than protected, Antoine Artaud was committing an act of cruelty upon them.

Antoine Artaud put the audience in the middle of the ‘spectacle’ (his term for the play), so they would be ‘engulfed and physically affected by it’. Antoine Artaud often referred to this layout as like a ‘vortex’ – a constantly shifting shape – ‘to be trapped and powerless’.

Finally, Antoine Artaud used the term to describe his philosophical views, which will be outlined in the following section.

Imagination, to Antoine Artaud, is reality; dreams, thoughts and delusions are no less real than the “outside” world. Reality appears to be a consensus, the same consensus the audience accepts when they enter a theatre to see a play and, for a time, pretend that what they are seeing is real.

Antoine Artaud’s later work presents his rejection of the idea of the spirit as separate from the body. Antoine Artaud’s poems imagistically revel in flesh and excretion, but sex was always a horror for him. Civilisation was so pernicious that Europe was pulling once proud tribal nations like Mexico down with it into decadence and death. The inevitable end result would be self-destruction and mental slavery. These were 2 evils Antoine Artaud opposed in his own life at great pain and imprisonment, as they could only be opposed personally and not on behalf of a collective or movement. Antoine Artaud thus rejected politics and Marxism wholeheartedly, a stance which led to his expulsion by the Surrealists who had begun to embrace it.

Antoine Artaud saw suffering as essential to existence, and thus rejected all utopias as inevitable dystopia.

Antoine Artaud was heavily influenced by seeing a Colonial Exposition of Balinese Theatre in Marseille. Antoine Artaud read eclectically, inspired by authors and artists such as Seneca, Shakespeare, Poe, Lautréamont, Alfred Jarry, André Masson, etc.

Antoine Artaud’s theories in Theatre and Its Double influenced rock musician Jim Morrison. Mötley Crüe named the Theatre of Pain album after reading his proposal for a Theater of Cruelty, much like Christian Death had with their album Only Theatre of Pain. The band Bauhaus included a song about the playwright, called “Antonin Artaud”, on their album Burning from the Inside. Charles Bukowski also claimed him as a major influence on his work. Influential Argentinean folk-rock songwriter Luis Alberto Spinetta named his album Artaud and wrote most of the songs on that album based on his writings. Composer John Zorn has 3 records, “Astronome,” “Moonchild,” and “6 Litanies for Heliogabalus,” dedicated to Antoine Artaud.

Theatrical practitioner Peter Brook took inspiration from Antoine Artaud’s “Theatre of cruelty” in a series of workshops that lead up to his well-known production of Marat/Sade. The Living Theatre was also heavily influenced by him, as was much English-language experimental theater and performance art; Karen Finley, Spalding Gray, Liz LeCompte, Richard Foreman, Charles Marowitz, Sam Shepard, Joseph Chaikin, and more all named Artaud as one of their influences.

Antoine Artaud also had a profound influence on the philosophers Gilles Deleuze and Félix Guattari, who borrowed Antoine Artaud’s phrase “the body without organs” to describe their conception of the virtual dimension of the body and, ultimately, the basic substratum of reality.

The survival horror video game Silent Hill: Origins contains a segment in which the protagonist must solve puzzles within the “Artaud Theatre”, which is in the town of Silent Hill.

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Club Feet or Foot Series-Disabled Legend Gary Burghoff

Gary Richard Burghoff was born on 24 May 1943. Gary Burghoff is an American actor, best known for playing the character Corporal Walter Eugene “Radar” O’Reilly in the M*A*S*H series and Charlie Brown in the 1967 off-Broadway musical You’re a Good Man, Charlie Brown.

Gary Burghoff was born in Bristol, Connecticut and got his start in both acting and drumming during his high school years in Delavan, Wisconsin.

Episode 24 Season 1 of the M*A*S*H television series titled “Showtime” features Radar playing a solo on the drums. It is a misconception that the sound was dubbed in; it is actually Gary Burghoff’s performance.

Gary Burghoff left M*A*S*H after season 7 because of burnout and a desire to spend more time with his family, though he returned in season 8 to film a special 2-part farewell episode, “Goodbye Radar”. Castmate Mike Farrell tried to convince Gary Burghoff to stay on the show, citing the lackluster careers of former M*A*S*H regulars Larry Linville and McLean Stevenson after their departures.

Although several actors from the original MASH film made guest appearances in the television series, Gary Burghoff was the only actor cast as a regular.

Gary Burghoff also frequently appeared on the game show Match Game in the 1970s, both as a stand-in for regular Charles Nelson Reilly and also as the “special male guest” occupying seat 1. Gary Burghoff sat in for Reilly from 1974 until Match Game episode 471 when Nelson Reilly returned in 1975 from Broadway. Gary Burghoff appeared in 248 episodes of Match Game through its daytime run, syndicated run, and the nighttime version of the show. 215 episodes daytime, 18 episodes on Match Game PM (nighttime), and 15 episodes during the syndicated version.

Gary Burghoff occupying the Charles Nelson Reilly seat in Charles’ absence.

Gary Burghoff also appeared on an episode of The Love Boat. Gary Burghoff appeared regularly on TV, making appearances on other game shows as well like Tattletales and Showoffs. Gary Burghoff also appeared in a comedy from 1971, P.S. I Love You. Gary Burghoff’s M*A*S*H character Radar O’Reilly was spun off into an unsold TV show called W*A*L*T*E*R.

For years he appeared in commercials for the Gulf Petroleum Company (now British Petroleum) as the “Gulf Guy” In addition to acting, Gary Burghoff also works as a professional jazz drummer, heading the trio The We Three, and as a wildlife painter. Gary Burghoff’s other activities include outdoorsmanship and rifle shooting. Gary Burghoff is also the inventor of the “Chum Magic”, a fishing tackle invention that attracts fish to your boat.

Gary Burghoff is a philatelist and was the star of a United States Postal Service video for beginning stamp collectors. In 2000, Gary Burghoff was also a spokesperson for dot-com era auction aggregation site PriceRadar.com.

Gary Burghoff’s left hand is withered and misshapen with the fingers being very short—no cause is known about it though it is presumed to be a birth defect. In M*A*S*H, he is often seen carrying a clipboard or other object to conceal the defect.

Gary Burghoff was married to Janet Gayle, from 1971 to 1979; they had 1 child before the marriage ended in divorce. In 1985, he married Elisabeth Bostrom; they have 2 children together. Gary Burghoff currently resides in Paradise, California and appears in TV ads for local doctors.

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Club Feet or Foot Series-Disabled Legend Dudley Moore

Dudley Stuart John Moore, CBE was born on 19 April, 1935 in Dagenham, Essex, England, UK and died on 27 March, 2002 aged 66, as a result of pneumonia, secondary to immobility caused by the palsy, in Plainfield, New Jersey, USA. Rena Fruchter was holding his hand when he died, and she reported his final words were “I can hear the music all around me”. Dudley Moore was interred in Hillside Cemetery in Scotch Plains, New Jersey. Rena Fruchter later wrote a memoir of their relationship (Dudley Moore, Ebury Press, 2004).

Dudley Moore was an English Golden Globe-winning actor, comedian and musician.

Dudley Moore first came to prominence as 1 of the 4 writer-performers in Beyond the Fringe in the early 1960s and became famous as half of the hugely popular television double-act he formed with Peter Cook. Dudley Moore’s fame as a comedic actor was later heightened by his success in Hollywood movies such as 10 with Bo Derek and Arthur in the late 1970s and early 1980s, respectively. Dudley Moore was often known as “Cuddly Dudley” or “The Sex Thimble”, a reference to his short stature and popularity with women.

Dudley Moore was born the son of a railway electrician in Dagenham, Essex, England. Dudley Moore’s working-class parents showed little affection to their offspring (as his older sister publicly revealed). Dudley Moore was notably short: 5′ 2½” (1.59 m) and was born with a club foot that required extensive hospital treatment and which, coupled with his diminutive stature, made him the butt of jokes from other children. Seeking refuge from his problems he became a choirboy at the age of 6 and took up piano and violin. Dudley Moore rapidly developed into a very talented pianist and organist and was playing the pipe organ at church weddings by the age of 14. Dudley Moore attended Dagenham County High School where he received musical tuition from a dedicated teacher, Peter Cork. Peter Cork became a friend and confidant to Dudley Moore, corresponding with him until 1994.

Dudley Moore’s musical talent won him a scholarship to Magdalen College, Oxford and whilst studying music and composition there, he performed with Alan Bennett in the Oxford Revue. Alan Bennett then recommended him to the producer putting together Beyond the Fringe, a comedy revue, where he was to first meet Peter Cook. Beyond the Fringe was at the forefront of the 1960s satire boom and after enormous success in Britain, it transferred to the USA where it was also a major hit.

During his university years, Dudley Moore took a great interest in jazz and soon became an accomplished jazz pianist and composer, as well as working with such leading musicians as John Dankworth and Cleo Laine. In 1960, he left Dankworth’s band to work on Beyond the Fringe. During the 1960s he formed the acclaimed “Dudley Moore Trio” (with drummer Chris Karan and bassists Pete McGurk and later Peter Morgan). Dudley Moore’s admitted principal musical influences were Oscar Peterson and Errol Garner. In a later interview he recalled the day he finally mastered Errol Garner’s unique left hand strum, and he was so excited he walked around for several days with his left hand constantly playing that extraordinary cadence. Dudley Moore’s early recordings included “My Blue Heaven”, “Lysie Does It”, “Poova Nova”, “Take Your Time”, “Indiana”, “Sooz Blooz”, “Bauble, Bangles and Beads”, “Sad One for George” and “Autumn Leaves”. The trio performed regularly on British television, made numerous recordings and had a long-running residency at Peter Cook’s club, The Establishment.

Dudley Moore composed the soundtracks for the films Bedazzled, Inadmissible Evidence, Staircase, and 6 Weeks, among others.

In the early 1970s, he had a brief relationship with British singer-songwriter Lynsey De Paul, whom he met at a party.

After following the Establishment to New York City, Dudley Moore returned to the UK and was offered his own series on the BBC. Not Only… But Also (1965) was commissioned as a vehicle for Dudley Moore, but when he invited Peter Cook on as a guest, their comedy partnership was so notable that it became a fixture of the series. Peter Cook and Dudley Moore are most remembered for their sketches as 2 working-class men, Pete and Dud, in macs and cloth caps, commenting on politics and the arts, but they fashioned a series of character one-offs, usually with Dudley Moore in the role of interviewer to one of Peter Cook’s upper-class eccentrics. The pair developed an unorthodox method for scripting the material by using a tape recorder to tape an adlibbed routine that they would then have transcribed and edited. This would not leave enough time to fully rehearse the script so they often had a set of cue cards. Dudley Moore was famous for “corpsing”—the programmes often went on live, and Peter Cook would deliberately make him laugh in order to get an even bigger reaction from the studio audience. Regrettably, many of the videotapes and film reels of these seminal TV shows were later erased by the BBC (an affliction which wiped out large portions of other British television productions as well, such as Doctor Who), although some of the soundtracks (which were issued on record) have survived. Dudley Moore and Peter Cook co-starred in the film Bedazzled (1967) with Eleanor Bron, and also had tours called Behind the Fridge and Good Evening.

Their 3 albums of the late 1970s as Derek and Clive, were widely condemned for their use of obscene language and shocking, ad-libbed content. Shortly following the last of these, Ad Nauseam, Dudley Moore made a break with Peter Cook, whose alcoholism was affecting his work, to concentrate on his film career. When Dudley Moore began to manifest the symptoms of a disease that eventually killed him (progressive supranuclear palsy), it was at first suspected that he too had a drinking problem. 2 of Moore’s early starring roles, were the titular drunken playboy Arthur, and to a lesser extent the heavy drinker George Webber in 10.

In the late 1970s, Dudley Moore moved to Hollywood, where he appeared in Foul Play (1978) with Goldie Hawn and Chevy Chase. The following year saw his breakout role in Blake Edwards’s 10, which he followed up with the movie Wholly Moses. Soon thereafter Arthur (film), an even bigger hit than 10, which also starred Liza Minnelli and Sir John Gielgud (who won an Oscar for his role as Arthur’s stern but loving man servant) and Geraldine Fitzgerald.

Dudley Moore was nominated for a Best Actor Academy Award but lost to Henry Fonda (for On Golden Pond). Dudley Moore did, however, win a Golden Globe award for Best Actor in a Musical/Comedy. In 1984, Dudley Moore had another hit, starring in the Blake Edwards directed Micki + Maude, co-starring Amy Irving. This won him another Golden Globe for Best Actor in a Musical/Comedy.

Dudley Moore’s subsequent films, including an Arthur sequel and an animated adaptation of King Kong, were inconsistent in terms of both critical and commercial reception. In later years Peter Cook would wind-up Dudley Moore by claiming he preferred Arthur 2: On the Rocks to Arthur.

In addition to acting, Dudley Moore continued to work as a composer and pianist, writing scores for a number of films and giving piano concerts, which were highlighted by his popular parodies of classical favourites. In addition, Dudley Moore collaborated with the conductor Sir Georg Solti to create a 1991 television series, Orchestra!, which was designed to introduce audiences to the symphony orchestra. Dudley Moore later worked with the American conductor Michael Tilson Thomas on a similar television series from 1993, Concerto!, likewise designed to introduce audiences to classical music concertos.

In 1987, he was interviewed for the New York Times by the music critic Rena Fruchter, herself an accomplished pianist. They became close friends. At that time Dudley Moore’s film career was already on the wane. Dudley Moore was having trouble remembering his lines, a problem he had never previously encountered. Dudley Moore opted to concentrate on the piano, and enlisted Rena Fruchter as an artistic partner. They performed as a duo in the U.S. and Australia. However, his disease soon started to make itself apparent there as well, as his fingers would not always do what he wanted them to do. Symptoms such as slurred speech and loss of balance were interpreted by the public and the media as a sign of drunkenness. Dudley Moore himself was at a loss to explain this. Dudley Moore moved into Rena Fruchter’s family home in New Jersey and stayed there for 5 years, but this, however, placed a great strain on both her marriage and her friendship with Dudley Moore, and she later set him up in the house next door.

Dudley Moore was deeply affected by the untimely death of Peter Cook in 1995, and for weeks would regularly telephone Peter Cook’s home in London just to get the answerphone and hear his friend’s voice. Dudley Moore attended Peter Cook’s memorial service in London and at the time many people who knew him noted that Dudley Moore was behaving strangely and attributed it to grief or drinking. In November 199, Dudley Moore teamed up with friend and humorist Martin Lewis in organising a 2 day salute to Peter Cook in Los Angeles which Dudley Moore co-hosted with Martin Lewis.

Dudley Moore was married and divorced 4 times: to actresses Suzy Kendall and Tuesday Weld (by whom he had a son, Patrick, in 1976); Brogan Lane and Nicole Rothschild (1 son, Nicholas, born in 1995).

Dudley Moore maintained good relationships with Suzy Kendall particularly, and also Tuesday Weld and Brogan Lane. However, he expressly forbade Nicole Rothschild to attend his funeral. At the time his illness became apparent, he was going through a difficult divorce from Nicole Rothschild, despite sharing a household in Los Angeles with not only her but also her previous husband.

Dudley Moore dated and was a favorite of some of Hollywood’s most attractive women, including the statuesque Susan Anton.

In June 1998, Nicole Rothschild was reported to have told an American television show that Dudley Moore was “waiting to die” due to a serious illness, but these reports were denied by Suzy Kendall.

On 30 September 1999, Dudley Moore announced that he was suffering from the terminal degenerative brain disorder Progressive Supranuclear Palsy, and the illness had been diagnosed earlier in the year.

In December 2004, the UK’s Channel 4 television network broadcast Not Only But Always, a television movie dramatising the relationship between Dudley Moore and Peter Cook, although the focus of the production was on Peter Cook. Around the same time, the relationship between the 2 was also the subject of a stage play called Pete and Dud: Come Again.

Honours and awards

In June 2001, Dudley Moore was appointed a Commander of the Order of The British Empire (CBE). Despite his deteriorating condition, he attended the ceremony, mute and wheelchair-bound, at Buckingham Palace to collect his honour.

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Club Feet or Foot Series-Disabled Legend Eric Richard

Eric Richard was born on 27 June 1940. Eric Richard is an English actor.

Eric Richard’s theatre work includes plays at the Royal Court Theatre and the Theatre Royal, Stratford East, as well as seasons with the Royal Exchange, Manchester, Birmingham Repertory Theatre, Sheffield Crucible Theatre and Paines Plough. In 2001 he appeared as Ebeneezer Scrooge in a production of Charles Dickens’ ‘A Christmas Carol’ at the UCL Bloomsbury Theatre, London.

Eric Richard is perhaps best known for his role as Sergeant Bob Cryer in the long running ITV drama The Bill although his television work has also included Home Sweet Home, Made in Britain, Open All Hours, Games Without Frontiers, P’Tang Yang Kipperbang, Shoestring, and Holby City.

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